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church : and in this point of view, we must assign a very great antiquity to the Gallican and Spanish liturgy, since it could scarcely have been brought from Gaul to Spain later than the beginning of the third century. Of course, in saying this, I would not be understood to affirm, that we can ascertain the words of the Spanish or Gallican liturgy at such a remote period. It has happened, in fact, from the custom of these churches, in varying almost every part of the liturgy for each feast, that we can scarcely do more than determine the general substance and order of that liturgy at any time.

The Spanish or Mosarabic liturgy was minutely described by Isidore Hispalensis in the sixth century; and his description coincides perfectly with those monuments of it which still remain. During the middle ages, and in the time of cardinal Ximenes, the Mosarabic liturgy received an addition of several rites, which are now used in it; but others are plainly derived from the church of Constantinople, which is another proof of the independence of the Spanish liturgy both of the Roman and Gallican; and affords an additional confirmation of the ancient existence of this rite, which was already so long established, before the contentions of the eastern and western churches, in the ninth and preceding centuries, as to have borrowed from the former several improvements. The Mosarabic missal published by cardinal Ximenes, A.D. 1500, is now very scarce. It was republished by Lesleus at Rome A.D. 1755, with learned annotations, which amply

9 Lesleus, Præfat. Missalis turgy and missal were added Mosarab. sect. vii. shews what in the time of Ximenes, and portions of the Mosarabic lic during the middle ages.

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merit a perusal. Martene, in his valuable work,

De Antiquis Ecclesiæ Ritibus,” lib. i. c. 4. No. 12, has printed so much of the Mosarabic missal as is sufficient to give a satisfactory view of its nature. Isidore of Seville, Leander, and other Spanish bishops, are said to have composed this missal, which is probably a very correct statement, since we may very well attribute to them many, or even all, of the distinct “missæ," which make up that vo

” lume. But the original model and substance of the liturgy, as I have said, was apparently derived from the Gallican church, by which it had been probably received from the churches of Asia and Phrygia.

The Mosarabic liturgy began with an anthem and responsory', and a collect°, which were succeeded by a lesson from the Prophets or Old Testament*; another anthem", or, on certain days, the Song of the Three Children'; the Epistle", Gospel, and Alleluia chanted with a verse*. Of course the

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I Martene, tom. i. p. 457. Martene, p. 457. This is probably alluded to by ' Idem, p. 458. Concil. ToIsidore, de Eccl. Off., who let. iv. can. 14. Hymnum speaks of anthems and respon- quoque trium puerorum--hoc sories in lib. i. c. 7 and 8, just sanctum concilium instituit, before he alludes to collects ut per omnes ecclesias Hispaand lessons.

niæ vel Galliæ (Narbonensis) s Martene, p. 457. Observe in omnium missarum solemnithat the termination of most tate-decantetur.” prayers in the Mosarabic li- Martene, p. 458. turgy is separated from the * Idem, Concil. Toletan. body of the prayer, and seems (anno 633.) iv. can. 12. " In altogether formed like those quibusdam Hispaniarum ecof the Greek rite. See Goar, clesiis Laudes post Apostolum Rit. Græc. Liturg. Chrysost. decantantur, priusquam Evanet Basil. Isidore probably re- gelium prædicetur; dum cafers to the collect in cap. 9, nones præcipiunt, post Apostolib. i.

lum non Laudes sed Evange+ Martene, p. 457. Isidor. lium annuntiari,” &c. Bona lib. i. c. 10.

shews that the “ Laudes" here

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sermon occurred anciently in this place. Then the catechumens being dismissed, the oblations of the faithful were received, and in the meantime the choir sung an offertory anthem. The elements being placed on the table, the preface, resembling the address to the people at the beginning of the Gallican liturgy, was read? Then followed a prayer commending the prayers and oblations to the acceptance of God“; the names of the living and departed were read, and prayer made for them"; a collect was recited before the kiss of peace. Then began the more solemn part of the office with the form “Sursum corda,” &c.; which was succeeded by the thanksgiving called illatio®; the hymn Tersanctus'; a continuation of thanksgiving; a petition for the sanctification of the elements; the words of institutions; a prayer for the confirmation of the oblation, by means of the Holy Ghost, as the sacrament of Christ's body and blood"; the Constantinopolitan Creed'; the breaking of bread'; and Lord's Prayer". The priest blessed the people, who answered, Amen', and communion took place, while the choir sang Gustate et videte, O taste and see how gracious "," &c. Then the priest recited

means the “ Alleluia,” &c. after admonitionis est erga poputhe Gospel. Rer. Lit. lib. ii. lum, ut excitentur ad exoranc. 6, No. 4. Isidore speaks of dum Deum." the "Laudes," or "Alleluia," in a This we take on the authis place; and after remark- thority of Isidore, c. 15 : “Seing, that in Africa it was only cunda invocationis ad Deum sung on Sundays, and between est, ut elementa suscipiat, preEaster and Pentecost, adds ces fidelium, oblationemque these words: “Verum apud eorum.” The prayer in Marnos, secundum antiquam Hi- tene, p. 460, does not partispaniarum traditioneni, præter cularly allude to the above dies jejuniorum vel quadrage- subjects, but in the time of simæ, omni tempore canitur Isidore it seems generally to Alleluia,” c. 13.

have done so. It is preceded y The offertory anthem is by a sort of hymn, Trisagios, called “Sacrificium.” Martene, and a short bidding prayer, p. 459. Isidore, Hispal. c. 14, which seem plainly to be formspeaks of it. The oblation at ed after the Greek model p. 458, of Martene is modern. Þ Martene, p. 460. Isidor. The confession or apology, p. c. 15. “ Tertia autem effundi459, beginning “ Accedam ad tur pro offerentibus, sive pro te,” is probably ancient. defunctis fidelibus, ut per idem 2 Martene, p. 459.

This sacrificium veniam consequanpreface is peculiar to the Gal- tur.” lican and Spanish liturgies. c Martene, p. 460. Isidor. What may be the antiquity of

“ Quarta post hæc inthe preface it is impossible to fertur pro osculo pacis, ut chaconjecture, but I do not think ritate omnes reconciliati inviit so ancient as many other cem, digni sacramento corpoparts of the liturgy. Isidore ris et sanguinis Christi consomentions it, c. 15. “ Prima cientur,”' &c. earumdem orationum) oratio

c. 15.

& a prayer of thanksgiving, and the assembly was dismissed



d Martene, p. 461.

cramentum) confirmetur." Isi° Idem, p. 461, 462. Isi- dor. c. 15. See Martene, p. dor. c. 15. “ Quinta infertur 462. Cardinal Bona attests illatio in sanctificatione obla- the fact, that the Mosarabic tionis, in qua etiam ad Dei missal still contains this involaudem terrestrium creatura, cation: “Ritus enim Mosaravirtutumque cælestium univer- bicus post consecrationem sitas provocatur, et Osanna brevem ponit orationem quæ in excelsis' cantatur—,” The post pridie, sive post secreta illatio seems to be considered inscribitur: et in ea sacerdos by Isidore as including the precatur, ut descendat Spiriwords of institution, from his tus Sanctus, et dona benedicat connecting the sanctification atque sanctificet.” Rer. Lit. with it.

lib. ii. c. 13. No. 5. f Martene, p. 462. Isidore, Martene, p. 464. Isidor. quoted in last note.


Concil. Toletan. iii. & Martene, p. 462, proba- can. 2. bly referred to by Isidore as j Martene, p. 464. before.

k Idem, Isidor. c. 15. Conh" Porro sexta exhinc suc- cil. Tolet. iv. can. 9. cedit confirmatio sacramenti, | Martene, p. 465. Isidor. ut oblatio quæ Deo offertur,

c. 17. sanctificata per Spiritum Sanc- m Martene, p. 465. tum, corporis et sanguinis (sa- n Idem, p. 466.

c. 16.



The early history of the British church is obscure; and although we learn from Tertullian and Origen, that Christianity had extended thither by the third century, it is not easy to fix the period at which regular churches were formed. Leaving the discussion of this and similar topics in the hands of those learned persons who have already considered the subject, we are at least certain, that the British church in the fourth century was ruled by bishops, who attended the councils of Arles, Sardica, and Ariminum. Could we hold any decided opinion as to the quarter whence these prelates or their predecessors originally derived their orders, we might form some conjecture on the nature of the primitive British liturgy; but it were much to be wished, that we might be relieved from the necessity of doing this, by the discovery of some MS. containing British rites. It is by no means impossible that some such monument may yet be discovered, as the British churches did not for a long time submit to the authority of the Saxon archbishops.

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