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tinued in the form called "post sanctus," which terminated with the commemoration of our Saviour's deed and words at the institution of this sacrament". Afterwards the priest recited a collect entitled "post mysterium," or "post secreta," probably because the above commemoration was not committed to writing, on account of its being esteemed to have great efficacy in the consecration. The collect, "post mysterium," often contained a verbal oblation of the bread and wine, and an invocation of God to send his Holy Spirit to sanctify them into the sacraments of Christ's body and blood". After this the bread was broken, and the Lord's Prayer repeated by the priest and people, being introduced and concluded with appropriate prayers, made by the priest alone". The priest or bishop

in laudem Domini proclamavit," &c. Gregor. Turon. lib. ii. de Mirac. S. Mart. c. 14. "In omnibus missis-semper Sanctus S. S. eo ordine quo ad missas publicas dicitur dici debeat." Concil. ii. Vasens.can.3. "Consistens quis extra ecclesiam-spectet celebres hymnorum sonitus." Hilar. Pictav. p. 174. edit. Benedict. Cæsarii Hom. 80. Append. S. August. tom. v. p. 469.

1 Miss. Gothicum, Mabillon, de Liturgia Gallicani, p. 189, &c.

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Martyrum, c. 87. It appears that the bread was broken before the Lord's Prayer was said, for the prayer generally called "post secreta," is sometimes in the Gothic missal termed "collectio ad panis fractionem." Mabillon, p. 251.

P Miss. Goth. Mabillon, p. 189, &c. Germanus, p. 96. "Quadam die Dominica cum reliquo populo stabat. Factum est autem cum Dominica oratio diceretur, hæc aperto ore cœpit sanctam orationem cum reliquis decantare." Gregor. Turon. de Mirac. S. Mart. lib. ii.

c. 30. "Audiat orantis populi consistens quis extra ecclesiam vocem." Hilar. Pictav. Tract. in lxv. Ps. p. 174. edit. Bened. Cæsarii Hom. 80. in Append. August. Oper. tom. v. p. 469. edit. Bened. Hom. 81, pag. 471.

then blessed the people, to which they answered, Amen. Communion afterwards took place, during which a psalm or anthem was sung. The priest repeated a collect of thanksgiving, and the service terminated.

It is obvious that this liturgy was an independent rite, and that it cannot be said to have been derived from the oriental, the Alexandrian, or the Roman forms. However, it came nearer to the oriental form than to either of the others. The chief difference between the Gallican and oriental liturgies consisted in this, that the prayers for the living and departed members of the church, occurred after the thanksgiving and consecration in the oriental liturgy; while in the Gallican they preceded the salutation of peace and thanksgiving. There is another difference which has been already noticed, namely, that the Gallican had not the three prayers of the faithful, which seem to have been introduced into the oriental liturgy about the early part of the fourth century.

With regard to the form of consecration, some difficulty occurs. The more sacred part of this form, which contains our Lord's words, is not written in any of the Gallican missals: however, we may not unreasonably suppose that it accorded with the corresponding portion of the Spanish or Mos

a Germanus, p. 96. Miss. Gothic. 189, &c. Cæsarii Hom. 80, 81. tom. v. Append. Oper. S. August. p. 469, 470.

Aureliani Regula in fine. The response of the communicants, Amen, is probably referred to by Hilary of Poictiers: "Inter divinorum quoque sa

cramentorum officia, responsionem devotæ confessionis accipiat," p. 174. edit. Bened. Though he may allude in this place to the general response made at the end of the benediction.

s Miss. Goth. Mabillon, p. 190. 193, &c.

arabic liturgy. But a greater difficulty occurs with regard to the portion of the Gallican liturgy which immediately followed our Saviour's words. The collect called "post secreta" sometimes contains, like the oriental rite, a verbal oblation of the gifts to God, and an invocation of God to send his holy Spirit, and make the elements the mystical body and blood of Christ. In other missæ, however, one or both of these forms are wanting. That the more solemn part of the liturgy in the Gallican church contained some such invocation, in addition to the thanksgiving and words of institution, is, I think, to be derived from the words of Irenæus: "The "bread which is of the earth, having received the "invocation of God, is no longer common bread, but "the eucharist." This invocation seems to imply more than a thanksgiving, it is such a "calling upon" God as is supposed to be "received" by the bread. What can we more naturally understand by this expression, than the invocation which is found in all the oriental and Alexandrian liturgies, “that "God will send his holy Spirit to consecrate the bread "and wine?" This form has always been called the "invocation" by the oriental churches, as Grabe shews from the writings of Cyril of Jerusalem, and Basil"; and many of the oriental liturgies give it the same appellation. It seems also, that the Spanish or Mosarabic liturgy, which was the same as the Gallican, contained some invocation of this

† Ὡς γὰρ ἀπὸ γῆς ἄρτος προσλαμβανόμενος τὴν ἐπίκλησιν τοῦ Θεοῦ, οὐκέτι κοινὸς ἄρτος Eorìv, àλX' εvxapioría. Iren. ἐστὶν, ἀλλ ̓ εὐχαριστία. adv. Hæres. lib. iv. c. 18. al. 34.

" See Irenæi Oper. a Grabe, p. 400, not. 1.


Renaudot, Liturg. Orient. tom. i. Lit. Basil. p. 16. Cyril. 48, p. 238, &c.; tom. ii. p. 33. 88, &c.

kind; for Isidore Hispalensis says, that the "sixth prayer" of the liturgy, which corresponded with the Gallican "post secreta," "was the confirmation of "the sacrament, that the oblation which is offered to "God, being sanctified by the Holy Spirit, may be "confirmed as the sacrament of the body and blood "." I think, therefore, that there are reasons enough to warrant us in holding the opinion, that the liturgy of the Gallican church originally contained always some invocation or prayer to God for the sanctification of the elements; an invocation which we actually find in several of the ancient Gallican "missæ."

W "Porro sexta exhinc succedit confirmatio sacramenti; ut oblatio quæ Deo offertur, sanctificata per Spiritum Sanc

tum, corporis et sanguinis (sacramentum) confirmetur." Isidori Hispal. de Eccl. Officiis lib. i. c. 15.



As the abolition of the ancient Gallican liturgy, and the substitution of the Roman in its place, was effected by the emperor Charlemagne; so likewise, in about three centuries afterwards, the churches of Spain were obliged by the authority of the Spanish monarchs, who were influenced by the Roman patriarch, to relinquish their ancient liturgy, and receive in its place the Roman. The Spanish liturgy was abolished in Arragon about A.D. 1060, in the reign of Ramiro the First; but it was not for some time after relinquished in Navarre, Castille, and Leon. Gregory the Seventh of Rome wrote to Alphonso the Sixth, king of Castille and Leon, and to Sancho the Fourth, king of Navarre, A.D. 1074", and made the greatest exertions to have the ancient liturgy abolished in Spain; giving as his reason, that it contained certain things contrary to the catholic faith. This charge was most erroneous, and

a Pinii Tract. de Lit. Mosarab. tom. i. Oper. Thomasii, a Bianchinio, c. 6, § 1. No. 220,

221, § 2. No. 230. 232, 233.
b Pinius, ibid. p. xlvi.
c Ibid. p. xlvii.

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