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positively thus: “John the Evangelist first chanted the Gallican course,” (i. e. offices or liturgy, which, as Mabillon observes, this author seems to confound together,) " then afterwards the blessed Polycarp,

disciple of St. John; then afterwards, thirdly, Ire“næus, who was bishop of Lyons in Gaul, chanted “ the same course in Gaulm” This author distinguishes the Gallican course from the Roman, St. Mark's, the Irish and British, the Oriental, the Ambrosian, and that of Benedict the abbot. In the next section it will be seen that there are reasons for thinking that the Spanish liturgy must have been originally derived from the Gallican in the third century; and combining this proof of the antiquity of the Gallican liturgy with the tradition of the ancient British and Irish churches above noticed ; remembering the testimony of Hilduinus Abbas, that the same liturgy had prevailed from the first introduction of Christianity into Gaul; and reflecting that Lyons, the first church in Gaul, derived her liturgy from the churches ruled by St. John, that there is no trace or tradition of any other liturgy having prevailed in Gaul in primitive times, that this ancient liturgy differed from the Roman, the Alexandrian, and the oriental; it

it appears

altogether probable that the Gallican liturgy was derived originally from the instructions given by St. John to the churches of Asia and Phrygia, and therefore that we may invest it with the dignity of an apostolical liturgy. In treating of the liturgy of Ephesus in the fifth section of this Dissertation, I have remarked, that although the great oriental liturgy has long been used in the churches of Asia and Phrygia, yet there are reasons for thinking that up to the fourth century a different form was used there; and on consulting the remains of the Gallican liturgy, I have shewn that it is very likely that the council of Laodicea, held in Phrygia in the fourth century, introduced the great oriental liturgy in place of another which resembled the ancient Gallican. If this be so, we may feel almost certain that the Gallican liturgy was derived from a period of apostolical antiquity.

m Spelman, Concilia, tom. i. p. 176.

Having examined the origin and history of the Gallican liturgy, I may now proceed to state its order and substance, according to the monuments which still remain. As to the very words of this liturgy during the primitive ages, or indeed at any time, we need not attempt to seek for them. The Gallican missals admitted of more variety in the method of performing divine service than any other. The number and order of the lessons and prayers, the main substance and tendency of some of them, the words commemorating our Redeemer's deeds and words at the institution, the hymn Tersanctus, the Lord's Prayer, and a few minor particulars, seem to have been all that was fixed.

Germanus informs us, that the liturgy began with an anthem followed by Gloria Patri", after which the deacon proclaimed silence, and a mutual salutation having passed between the priest and people, the hymn Trisagios, in imitation of the Greek rite, was sung, and was followed by Kyrie eleëson', and the song of Zacharias the prophet beginning Benedictus”, after which the priest read a collect, entitled Post prophetiam in the Gallican missals. The office so far, though ancient, cannot be traced to the most primitive ages of the Gallican church, as doubtless the liturgy originally began with the lessons from holy Scripture, which I now proceed to consider.

n Germanus de Missa, Mar- psallentii modulatio conquietene, Thesaur. Anecdotorum, vit," Greg. Turon. Gloria Martom. v. p. 91. “Dum sanctam tyrum, lib. i. c. 34. See Le ingrederentur basilicam, hanc Brun, tom. iii. p. 250. Le antiphonam ex improviso pri- Brun has given the best and micerius qui erat imposuit,” &c. fullest exposition of the GalGregor. Turon. Hist. lib. ii. c. lican liturgy that I have seen. 37. “Et ecce chorus psallen- He has corrected several slight tium qui ingressus basilicam, errors into which Mabillon and postquam dicta gloria Trinitati, others have fallen.

A lesson from the prophets or Old Testament was first read", then one from the Epistles", which was succeeded by the hymn of the three children, Benedicite, and the holy Gospel. In latter times the book of the Gospels was carried in procession to the pulpit by the deacon, who was accompanied by seven men bearing lighted tapers, and the choir

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c. 7.

° Germanus, p. 91. Concil. r Germanus, p. 92. ii. Vasens. can. 3.

s Germanus, p. 92. “Jubet P Germanus, p. 92. “Fratres Rex ut Diaconum nostrum, qui vero consacerdotesque qui ad- ante diem ad missas psalmum erant, locum Palladio episcopo responsorium dixerat, canere ad agenda festa præbuerunt, juberem." Greg. Turon. lib. quo incipiente Prophetiam," viii. c. 3. &c. Gregor. Turon. lib. viii. t Germanus, p. 93. Gregor.

Turon. lib. viii. cap. 4. Cæsa9 Germanus, p. 92. "Hæc rius, Hom. 80, numbered 281, ergo mensa unde cibus vitæ in the Appendix of the Serspiritalis accipitur--cum vel mons of Augustine, tom. v. præscripta legis vel propheta- p. 468. “Lectiones sive Prorum voces ab Ecclesiæ viris ad pheticas, sive Apostolicas, sive revelationem divini consilii Evangelicas etiam in domibus tractantur." Hilarius Pictav. vestris, aut ipsi legere, aut alios Tractat. in lxvii. Ps. p. 225. legentes audire potestis : conseedit. Benedict. “ Est et mensa crationem vero corporis vel sanlectionum Dominicarum qua guinis Domini non alib isi in spiritalis doctrinæ cibo alimur.” domo Dei," &c. See also ConIdem, p. 428.

cil. iii. Lugd. tom. iv. p. 1585.



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sung anthems before and after the Gospel". After the Gospel was ended, the priest or bishop preached', and the deacon made prayers for the people ", (probably in imitation of the Greek liturgies, where a litany of the kind occurs after the Gospel",) and the priest recited a collect, Post precem'. Then the

2 deacon proclaimed to the catechumens to depart", but whether any previous prayers were made for them seems doubtful. Germanus speaks of its being an ancient custom of the church to pray for catechumens in this place, but his words do not absolutely prove that there were particular prayers for them in the Gallican church, and no other author refers to the custom, as far as I am aware. The catechumens, and those under penitential discipline, having been dismissed“, silence was again enjoined, and an address to the people on the subject of the day, and entitled Præfatio, was recited by the priest, who then repeated another prayer. The oblations of the people were next received", while the choir sang an offertory anthem, termed sonum by Germanus. The elements were placed on the holy table, and covered with a large and close veil

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u Germanus, p. 93. Greg. 1585. See Le Brun, tom. iii. Tur. lib. viii. c. 4.

p. 249. 254. 'Germanus, p. 93, 94. Hi- Germanus, p. 94. larius Pictav. Tract. in lxvii. a Germanus, p. 94. Gregor. Ps. cited above. Andoeni vita Turon. Vitæ Pat. c. 17. S. Eligii, c. 22. Cypriani vita b Le Brun, tom. iii. p. 255. S. Cæsarii Arelat. c. ii. 19. c Le Brun, ibid. This prayer w Germanus, p. 94.

was sometimes entitled, * Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 69. lectio ante Nomina."

Germanus, p. 94. “Usque d Germanus, p. 94. Concil. ad orationem plebis quæ post Matisconens. ii. can. 4. A.D. Evangelia legeretur." Concil. 585. iii. Lugd. Conc. tom. iv. p.

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or pallo, and in latter times the priest here invoked the blessing of God on the gifts'. Then the tablets called diptychs, containing the names of the living and departed saints, were recited, and the priest made a collect “post nomina .” Then followed

8. the salutation and kiss of peace; after which the priest read the collect, "ad pacem . tical liturgy now commenced, corresponding to the Eastern “prosphora,” or “anaphora,” and the Roman preface and canon. It began with the form “Sursum corda '," &c. and then followed the preface or thanksgiving, called “contestatio," or “immolatio),” in which God's benefits to the human race were variously commemorated; and at the proper place the people all joined in singing the hymn Tersanctus k. The thanksgiving then con

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Gregor. Turon. Historia August. Oper. tom, v. Append. Franc. lib. vii. c. 22. Germa- p. 469. nus, p. 95.

j Miss. Gothic.

ap. Mabillon, f Le Brun, tom. iii. p. 257. Liturg. Gall. p. 188. 191, &c.

& Germanus, p. 95. Miss. “ Cum nos rite sacrosancta soGothic. ap. Mabillon, de Li- lemnia celebrando, Contestatioturg. Gall. p. 188. 191, &c. nem de sancti Domini virtutiLe Brun, tom. iii. p. 257, 258. bus narraremus." Gregor. TuInnocentius of Rome, in the ron. lib. ii. de Mirac. S. Mart. fifth century, in his Epistle to

c. 14.

Hilary of Poictiers Decentius of Eugubium, re- seems nearly to transcribe a proved this position of the portion of the thanksgiving. prayers.

Hilar. Pictav, lib. iii. de Trinib Germanus, p. 95. Miss. tate, p. 811. edit. Benedict. Goth. p. 188. 191, &c.

“ Hanc oblationem Ecclesia i " Sursum corda ideo sacer- sola puram offert Fabricatori, dos habere admonet, ut nulla offerens ei cum gratiarum accogitatio terrena maneat in tione ex creatura ejus-quopectoribus nostris in hora sa- modo autem constabit eis eum cræ oblationis,” &c. Germa- panem in quo gratiæ actæ sint,nus, p. 96. “ Cum enim max- &c. Irenæus adv. Hæres. lib. ima pars populi-recitatis lec- iv. c. 18. al. 34. tionibus exeunt de ecclesia, cui k Miss. Goth. Mabillon, 189, dicturus est sacerdos Sursum &c. At ubi expedita contescorda ?Cæsarii Hom. 80. tatione omnis populus sanctus VOL. I.


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