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positively thus: "John the Evangelist first chanted the Gallican course," (i. e. offices or liturgy, which, as Mabillon observes, this author seems to confound together,) "then afterwards the blessed Polycarp,
disciple of St. John; then afterwards, thirdly, Ire"næus, who was bishop of Lyons in Gaul, chanted "the same course in Gaul"." This author distinguishes the Gallican course from the Roman, St. Mark's, the Irish and British, the Oriental, the Ambrosian, and that of Benedict the abbot. In the next section it will be seen that there are reasons for thinking that the Spanish liturgy must have been originally derived from the Gallican in the third century; and combining this proof of the antiquity of the Gallican liturgy with the tradition of the ancient British and Irish churches above noticed; remembering the testimony of Hilduinus Abbas, that the same liturgy had prevailed from the first introduction of Christianity into Gaul; and reflecting that Lyons, the first church in Gaul, derived her liturgy from the churches ruled by St. John, that there is no trace or tradition of any other liturgy having prevailed in Gaul in primitive times, that this ancient liturgy differed from the Roman, the Alexandrian, and the oriental; it appears altogether probable that the Gallican liturgy was derived originally from the instructions given by St. John to the churches of Asia and Phrygia, and therefore that we may invest it with the dignity of an apostolical liturgy. In treating of the liturgy of Ephesus in the fifth section of this Dissertation, I have remarked, that although the great oriental liturgy has long been used in the churches of Asia Spelman, Concilia, tom. i. p. 176.
and Phrygia, yet there are reasons for thinking that up to the fourth century a different form was used there; and on consulting the remains of the Gallican liturgy, I have shewn that it is very likely that the council of Laodicea, held in Phrygia in the fourth century, introduced the great oriental liturgy in place of another which resembled the ancient Gallican. If this be so, we may feel almost certain that the Gallican liturgy was derived from a period of apostolical antiquity.
Having examined the origin and history of the Gallican liturgy, I may now proceed to state its order and substance, according to the monuments which still remain. As to the very words of this liturgy during the primitive ages, or indeed at any time, we need not attempt to seek for them. The Gallican missals admitted of more variety in the method of performing divine service than any other. The number and order of the lessons and prayers, the main substance and tendency of some of them, the words commemorating our Redeemer's deeds and words at the institution, the hymn Tersanctus, the Lord's Prayer, and a few minor particulars, seem to have been all that was fixed.
Germanus informs us, that the liturgy began with an anthem followed by Gloria Patri", after which the deacon proclaimed silence, and a mutual saluta
" Germanus de Missa, Martene, Thesaur. Anecdotorum, tom. v. p. 91. "Dum sanctam ingrederentur basilicam, hane antiphonam ex improviso primicerius qui erat imposuit," &c. Gregor. Turon. Hist. lib. ii. c. 37. "Et ecce chorus psallentium qui ingressus basilicam, postquam dicta gloria Trinitati,
psallentii modulatio conquievit," Greg. Turon. Gloria Martyrum, lib. i. c. 34. See Le Brun, tom. iii. p. 250. Le Brun has given the best and fullest exposition of the Gallican liturgy that I have seen. He has corrected several slight errors into which Mabillon and others have fallen.
tion having passed between the priest and people, the hymn Trisagios, in imitation of the Greek rite, was sung, and was followed by Kyrie eleeson, and the song of Zacharias the prophet beginning Benedictus, after which the priest read a collect, entitled Post prophetiam in the Gallican missals. The office so far, though ancient, cannot be traced to the most primitive ages of the Gallican church, as doubtless the liturgy originally began with the lessons from holy Scripture, which I now proceed to consider.
A lesson from the prophets or Old Testament was first read, then one from the Epistles', which was succeeded by the hymn of the three children, Benedicite, and the holy Gospel. In latter times. the book of the Gospels was carried in procession to the pulpit by the deacon, who was accompanied by seven men bearing lighted tapers, and the choir
° Germanus, p. 91. Concil. ii. Vasens. can. 3.
P Germanus, p. 92. "Fratres vero consacerdotesque qui aderant, locum Palladio episcopo ad agenda festa præbuerunt, quo incipiente Prophetiam," &c. Gregor. Turon. lib. viii. c. 7.
9 Germanus, p. 92. "Hæc ergo mensa unde cibus vitæ spiritalis accipitur cum vel præscripta legis vel prophetarum voces ab Ecclesiæ viris ad revelationem divini consilii tractantur." Hilarius Pictav. Tractat. in lxvii. Ps. p. 225. edit. Benedict. "Est et mensa lectionum Dominicarum in qua spiritalis doctrinæ cibo alimur." Idem, p. 428.
r Germanus, p. 92.
s Germanus, p. 92. "Jubet Rex ut Diaconum nostrum, qui ante diem ad missas psalmum responsorium dixerat, canere juberem." Greg. Turon. lib. viii. c. 3.
t Germanus, p. 93. Gregor. Turon. lib. viii. cap. 4. Cæsarius, Hom. 80, numbered 281, in the Appendix of the Sermons of Augustine, tom. v. p. 468.
"Lectiones sive Propheticas, sive Apostolicas, sive Evangelicas etiam in domibus vestris, aut ipsi legere, aut alios legentes audire potestis: consecrationem vero corporis vel sanguinis Domini non alibi nisi in domo Dei," &c. See also Concil. iii. Lugd. tom. iv. p. 1585.
sung anthems before and after the Gospel". After the Gospel was ended, the priest or bishop preachedˇ, and the deacon made prayers for the people ", (probably in imitation of the Greek liturgies, where a litany of the kind occurs after the Gospel,) and the priest recited a collect, Post precem. Then the deacon proclaimed to the catechumens to depart2, but whether any previous prayers were made for them seems doubtful. Germanus speaks of its being an ancient custom of the church to pray for catechumens in this place, but his words do not absolutely prove that there were particular prayers for them in the Gallican church, and no other author refers to the custom, as far as I am aware. The catechumens, and those under penitential discipline, having been dismissed, silence was again enjoined, and an address to the people on the subject of the day, and entitled Præfatio, was recited by the priest, who then repeated another prayer. The oblations of the people were next received, while the choir sang an offertory anthem, termed sonum by Germanus. The elements were placed on the holy table, and covered with a large and close veil
Germanus, p. 93. Greg. Tur. lib. viii. c. 4.
▾ Germanus, p. 93, 94. Hilarius Pictav. Tract. in lxvii. Ps. cited above. Andoeni vita S. Eligii, c. 22. Cypriani vita S. Cæsarii Arelat. c. ii. 19.
Germanus, p. 94.
* Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 69. y Germanus, p. 94. "Usque ad orationem plebis quæ post Evangelia legeretur." Concil. iii. Lugd. Conc. tom. iv. p.
1585. See Le Brun, tom. iii. p. 249. 254.
Germanus, p. 94.
a Germanus, p. 94. Gregor. Turon. Vitæ Pat. c. 17. b Le Brun, tom. iii. p. 255. c Le Brun, ibid. This prayer was sometimes entitled, "Collectio ante Nomina.”
d Germanus, p. 94. Concil. Matisconens. ii. can. 4. A.D. 585.
or pall, and in latter times the priest here invoked the blessing of God on the gifts. Then the tablets called diptychs, containing the names of the living and departed saints, were recited, and the priest made a collect "post nomina." Then followed the salutation and kiss of peace; after which the priest read the collect, "ad pacem The mystical liturgy now commenced, corresponding to the Eastern "prosphora," or "anaphora," and the Roman preface and canon. It began with the form "Sursum corda," &c. and then followed the preface or thanksgiving, called "contestatio," or immolatio," in which God's benefits to the human race were variously commemorated; and at the proper place the people all joined in singing the hymn Tersanctus *. The thanksgiving then con
* Gregor. Turon. Historia Franc. lib. vii. c. 22. Germanus, p. 95.
f Le Brun, tom. iii. p. 257. Germanus, p. 95. Miss. Gothic. ap. Mabillon, de Liturg. Gall. p. 188. 191, &c. Le Brun, tom. iii. p. 257, 258. Innocentius of Rome, in the fifth century, in his Epistle to Decentius of Eugubium, reproved this position of the prayers.
Germanus, p. 95. Goth. p. 188. 191, &c.
i "Sursum corda ideo sacerdos habere admonet, ut nulla cogitatio terrena maneat in pectoribus nostris in hora sacræ oblationis," &c. Germanus, p. 96. " Cum enim maxima pars populi-recitatis lectionibus exeunt de ecclesia, cui dicturus est sacerdos Sursum corda?" Cæsarii Hom. 80.
August. Oper. tom. v. Append. p. 469.
J Miss. Gothic. ap. Mabillon, Liturg. Gall. p. 188. 191, &c. "Cum nos rite sacrosancta solemnia celebrando, Contestationem de sancti Domini virtutibus narraremus." Gregor. Turon. lib. ii. de Mirac. S. Mart. c. 14. Hilary of Poictiers seems nearly to transcribe a portion of the thanksgiving. Hilar. Pictav. lib. iii. de Trinitate, p. 811. edit. Benedict. "Hanc oblationem Ecclesia sola puram offert Fabricatori, offerens ei cum gratiarum actione ex creatura ejus-quomodo autem constabit eis eum panem in quo gratiæ actæ sint,” &c. Irenæus adv. Hæres. lib.
iv. c. 18. al. 34.
k Miss. Goth. Mabillon, 189, &c. "At ubi expedita contestatione omnis populus sanctus