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Gregory. The Milan liturgy is therefore more ancient than the time of Gregory the Great.

Another difference between the liturgy of Milan and the Roman, seems to carry back the former to a period of much greater antiquity. In the ancient canon of Milan it appears that the second oblation of the elements, which occurs in the Roman canon after the words of institution, is wanting. Two MSS. of the ninth or tenth century, the oldest monuments of the Milan rite now existing, concur in excluding the second oblation from the canon. This seems to me a proof that the Milan liturgy has been distinct from the Roman, at least since the fifth century, as it appears that this oblation is extant in the sacramentary of Gelasius; and Leo is said to have added some words to it. With these two exceptions, we shall find that the liturgy of Milan was essentially the same as the Roman in the time of Gregory the Great.

On examination, the liturgy of Milan is found to consist of the following parts, omitting those which have been introduced into it since the time of Gregory.

The anthem called "Ingressa ""-"Kyrie eleëson -"Gloria in excelsis"--the Collect-the Prophet

f Muratori, Liturg. Rom. vet. p. 133, tom. i.

g See sect. vi. note P, p. 118.

h Missale Ambros. A.D. 1522, fol. 127. Pamelii Liturg. tom. i. p. 293. Bona, p. 66. All the preceding matter in the Ambrosian liturgy is modern.

i "Kyrie eleëson" is only repeated in this place during

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Lent. See Miss. Ambros. fol. 60. 66; Bona, p. 67.

j"Audistis filii librum Job hodie legi qui solemni munere est decursus et tempore." Ambros. Epist. xx. ad Marcellinam. Hæc de prophetica lectione libata sint: Evangelii quoque lectio quid habeat consideremus." Epist. xlii. ad Marcellin.

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-the Psalm - Epistle - Alleluia - Gospel and Sermon "-Prayer "Super sindonem"-oblations of the people "-Prayer "Super oblata"-Preface and Canon, which agrees in almost every respect with the Roman canon of the fifth century, except in omitting the second oblation °-breaking of bread— Lord's Prayer-kiss of peace-communion-Prayer "Post communionem.”

k "Quantum laboratur in ecclesia ut fiat silentium cum lectiones leguntur. Si unus loquatur, obstrepunt universi: cum psalmus legitur ipse sibi est effector silentii. Omnes loquuntur, et nullus obstrepit." Ambros. Præfat. in Psal. i. p. 741, tom. i. ed. Benedict.

1 "Factum est ut illâ Dominicâ, propheticâ lectione jam lectâ, ante altarium staret qui lectionem B. Pauli proferret." Greg. Turon. de Mir. S. Martini, lib. i. c. 5.


"Post lectiones atque tractatum dimissis catechumenis," &c. Ambr. Ep. xx. ad Marcell.

n "Cum autem tempus advenisset quo dona sacræ mensæ erant offerenda," &c. Theod. lib. v. c. xvii.

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used in the consecration of the
elements. "Si tantum valuit
humana benedictio, ut natu-
ram converteret, quid dicimus
de ipsa consecratione divina,
ubi verba ipsa Domini Salva-
toris operantur? nam sacra-
mentum istud quod accipis
Christi sermone conficitur-
ipse clamat Dominus Jesus,
Hoc est corpus meum. Ante
benedictionem verborum cœles-
tium alia species nominatur,
post consecrationem corpus
Christi significatur." Lib. de
Myster. cap. 9.
"Hunc pa-
nem dedit (Christus) Apostolis
ut dividerent populo creden-
tium, hodieque dat nobis eum,
quem ipse quotidie sacerdos
consecrat suis verbis." De
Benedict. Patriarch. cap. ix.
Although Ambrose and Gau-
dentius of Brescia repeatedly
speak of the figurative, mys-
tical, and commemorative sacri-
fice, I do not see that they refer
to any express or verbal obla-
tion in the liturgy. The second
oblation mentioned in the text
occurs in the recent editions of
the Milan liturgy, but this and
other things have been gra-
dually introduced from the
Roman rite.

Let us now compare this with the Roman liturgy about the time of Gregory the Great. The "Ingressa" is the same as the Roman "Introitus," introduced before the time of Gregory. The "Kyrie eleëson" was used with a litany, as it formerly was in the Roman and other western churches, up to the ninth century, according to Goar and Bona". The "Gloria in excelsis," and the collect, had been used in the Roman liturgy before the time of Gregory. The Prophet and Psalm were only more frequently used at Milan than Rome. The Epistle, Alleluia, and Gospel, all occurred in the Roman rite. The prayer, "Super sindonem" is the chief difficulty to be explained: but in fact there was anciently such a prayer in the Roman liturgy. Here occurred the Apology, or Confession of the priest, which he repeated in silence, while the people also prayed in secret; and then the offertory anthem was sung, while the oblations of the people were received. And of this a vestige still remains in the Roman rite; for the Gospel (or Creed when it is said) being ended, the priest says, Oremus, "Let us pray," which was mentioned by Amalarius in the ninth century; but no prayer, whether in secret or aloud, follows this exhortation, which is immediately succeeded by the offertory anthem'. This custom of secret prayer became obsolete at Rome from no form being appointed for the purpose. In Milan, however, the ancient prayers at this part of the liturgy have survived, having been embodied in regular collects, which were inserted in every missa.

P Bona, Rer. Liturg. p. 337. a Pamel. tom. i. p. 297. Bona, lib. i. c. x. § 2, p. 66.


See this subject noticed in the latter part of the preceding section, note 3, p. 122.


The form of oblation which occurs in the Ambrosian missal after the reception of the people's oblations is probably a recent thing; the ancient oblation took place in the canon, where it still remains. The prayer "Super oblata" corresponds to the "secreta" of the Roman liturgy in the fifth century. The preface and canon I have already noticed. The ablution of the priest's hands occurs nearly about the middle of the Milan canon; in the Roman liturgy it occurs before the beginning of the preface: but this ceremony was probably introduced into the western churches after the time of Gregory, since it is not mentioned by Isidore Hispalensis, nor, I believe, by any western writer before the ninth century, when Amalarius and Fortunatus alluded to it. When introduced, it was used in different parts of the Roman and Ambrosian liturgies. I have already remarked on the position of the breaking of bread, and the Lord's Prayer, as proving the antiquity of this rite. The kiss of peace occurred in the same place as it did in the ancient Roman and African liturgies, which differed in this respect from all the other liturgies of the east and west.

It appears, then, that the Milan liturgy agreed substantially with the Roman up to the time of Gregory the Great, so as to afford unequivocal signs of a common original. There are several minor differences between the Milan liturgy and the Roman of later times; such as the repetition in the former of "Kyrie eleëson" in various places, the sing

s Miss. Ambros. fol. 127. Pamel. p. 297.

t Amalar. lib. i. c. 19, p. 416. Fortunatus in vita S.

Marcelli Ep. Parisiensis ap.
Surium cal. Novembr. See
Gerbert. Liturg. Aleman. tom.i.
p. 330.

ing of an anthem before and after the Gospel, &c.; but these things, though they render the Milan rite different from the Roman, are of no great consequence, and they must be attributed to the archbishops of Milan. Considering the evident signs of a common origin exhibited by the liturgies of Rome and Milan, and the independence of the early bishops of Milan, who had patriarchal authority over the Italic diocese", it is not improbable that the order and main substance of the liturgy of Milan were derived from Rome, when the Christian church was first planted in the north of Italy.

It seems that the church of Milan adopted most of the improvements and additions gradually made in the Roman liturgy up to the time of Gregory. During the same period several peculiarities of small moment were probably introduced by the bishops of Milan also. In the time of Gregory, the church of Milan did not adopt the chief alteration made by him, which alteration in fact we know was objected to by other churches, as, for instance, by the Sicilians. From that time (if not previously) the liturgy of Milan began to be considered a peculiar rite; and as the Romans gave their sacramentary the names of Gelasius and Gregory, so the Milanese gave theirs the name of Ambrose; who, in fact, may have composed some parts of it. After the time of Gregory, the Milan liturgy doubtless received several additions, such as the oblation after the offertory, the

"This is satisfactorily proved by Basnage, Histoire de l'Eglise, livre vii. chap. i.; who shews that Ambrose had, and exercised, patriarchal jurisdiction over the seven provinces

of the Italic civil diocese, and that the bishops of Milan were not ordained by the bishops of Rome, nor under their jurisdiction.

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