Obrazy na stronie

Gregory. The Milan liturgy is therefore more ancient than the time of Gregory the Great.

Another difference between the liturgy of Milan and the Roman, seems to carry back the former to a period of much greater antiquity. In the ancient canon of Milan it appears that the second oblation of the elements, which occurs in the Roman canon after the words of institution, is wanting. Two MSS. of the ninth or tenth century, the oldest monuments of the Milan rite now existing, concur in excluding the second oblation from the canon.

This seems to me a proof that the Milan liturgy has been distinct from the Roman, at least since the fifth century, as it appears that this oblation is extant in the sacramentary of Gelasius; and Leo is said to have added some words to it. With these two exceptions, we shall find that the liturgy of Milan was essentially the same as the Roman in the time of Gregory the Great.

On examination, the liturgy of Milan is found to consist of the following parts, omitting those which have been introduced into it since the time of Gregory

The anthem called “Ingressah”—“Kyrie eleësoni” —“Gloria in excelsis”--the Collect—the Propheti

f Muratori, Liturg. Rom. vet. Lent. See Miss. Ambros. fol. p. 133, tom.i.

60. 66; Bona, p. 67. g See sect. vi. note P, p. j“ Audistis filii librum Job 118.

hodie legi qui solemni munere h Missale Ambros. A.D. 1522, est decursus et tempore." Amfol. 127. Pamelii Liturg. tom. bros. Epist. xx. ad Marcellii. p. 293. Bona, p. 66. All * Hæc de prophetica the preceding matter in the lectione libata sint: Evangelii Ambrosian liturgy is modern. quoque lectio quid habeat con

Kyrie eleëson” is only sideremus." Epist. xlii. ad repeated in this place during Marcellin.





-the Psalm Epistle' - Alleluia — Gospel and Sermon "-Prayer “Super sindonem”—oblations of

” the people ”—Prayer “Super oblata”—Preface and Canon, which agrees in almost every respect with the Roman canon of the fifth century, except in omitting the second oblation-breaking of bread Lord's Prayer-kiss of peace-communion-Prayer “ Post communionem."




66 Hunc pa

" Quantum laboratur in used in the consecration of the ecclesia ut fiat silentium cum elements. "Si tantum valuit lectiones leguntur. Si unus

humana benedictio, ut natuloquatur, obstrepunt universi : ram converteret, quid dicimus cum psalmus legitur ipse sibi de ipsa consecratione divina, est effector silentii. Omnes lo- ubi verba ipsa Domini Salvaquuntur, et nullus obstrepit.” toris operantur ? nam Ambros. Præfat. in Psal. i. mentum istud quod accipis p. 741, tom. i. ed. Benedict. Christi sermone conficitur

1“ Factum est ut illâ Do- ipse clamat Dominus Jesus, minicâ, propheticâ lectione jam Hoc est corpus meum. Ante lectâ, ante altarium staret qui benedictionem verborum coeleslectionem B. Pauli proferret.” tium alia species nominatur, Greg. Turon. de Mir. S. Mar- post consecrationem corpus tini, lib. i. c. 5.

Christi significatur." Lib. de “ Post lectiones atque Myster. cap. 9. tractatum dimissis catechume- nem dedit (Christus) Apostolis nis,” &c. Ambr. Ep. xx. ad ut dividerent populo credenMarcell.

tium, hodieque dat nobis eum, n “ Cum autem tempus ad- quem ipse quotidie sacerdos venisset


dona sacræ mensæ consecrat suis verbis." De erant offerenda,” &c. Theod. Benedict. Patriarch.


ix. lib. v. c. xvii.

Although Ambrose and Gau• The prayer for kings is dentius of Brescia repeatedly thus referred to by Ambrose : speak of the figurative, mys

Itaque peto ut patienter ser- tical, and commemorative sacrimonem meum audias. Nam si fice, I do not see that they refer indignus sum, qui a te audiar, to any express or verbal oblaindignus sum, qui pro te offe- tion in the liturgy. The second ram, cui tua vota, cui tuas oblation mentioned in the text committas preces."

Ambro- occurs in the recent editions of sius, Epistola ad Imp. Theo- the Milan liturgy, but this and dosium xv. p. 946, tom. ii. He other things have been graalso speaks in several places dually introduced from the of the words of our Redeemer Roman rite.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Let us now compare this with the Roman liturgy about the time of Gregory the Great. The “Ingressa” is the same as the Roman “Introitus,” introduced before the time of Gregory. The “Kyrie eleëson” was used with a litany, as it formerly was in the Roman and other western churches, up to the ninth century, according to Goar and Bona'. The “Gloria in excelsis,” and the collect, had been used in the Roman liturgy before the time of Gregory. The Prophet and Psalm were only more frequently used at Milan than Rome. The Epistle, Alleluia, and Gospel, all occurred in the Roman rite. The prayer, “Super sindonem” is the chief difficulty to be explained': but in fact there was anciently such a prayer in the Roman liturgy. Here occurred the Apology, or Confession of the priest, which he repeated in silence, while the people also prayed in secret; and then the offertory anthem was sung, while the oblations of the people were received. And of this a vestige still remains in the Roman rite; for the Gospel (or Creed when it is said) being ended, the priest says, Oremus, “ Let us pray,” which was mentioned by Amalarius in the ninth century; but no prayer, whether in secret or aloud, follows this exhortation, which is immediately succeeded by the offertory anthem". This custom of secret prayer became obsolete at Rome from no form being appointed for the purpose. In Milan, however, the ancient prayers at this part of the liturgy have survived, having been embodied in regular collects, which were inserted in every missa.

p Bona, Rer. Liturg. p. 337. r See this subject noticed in

9 Pamel. tom. i. p. 297. the latter part of the preceding Bona, lib. i. c. x. § 2, p. 66. section, note*, p. 122. VOL. I.


The form of oblation which occurs in the Ambrosian missal after the reception of the people's oblations is probably a recent thing; the ancient oblation took place in the canon, where it still remains. The prayer “Super oblata” corresponds to the "secreta” of the Roman liturgy in the fifth century. The preface and canon I have already noticed. The ablution of the priest's hands occurs nearly about the middle of the Milan canon; in the Roman liturgy it occurs before the beginning of the preface: but this ceremony was probably introduced into the western churches after the time of Gregory, since it is not mentioned by Isidore Hispalensis, nor, I believe, by any western writer before the ninth century, when Amalarius and Fortunatus alluded to it. When introduced, it was used in different parts of the Roman and Ambrosian liturgies. I have already remarked on the position of the breaking of bread, and the Lord's Prayer, as proving the antiquity of this rite. The kiss of peace occurred in the same place as it did in the ancient Roman and African liturgies, which differed in this respect from all the other liturgies of the east and west.

It appears, then, that the Milan liturgy agreed substantially with the Roman up to the time of Gregory the Great, so as to afford unequivocal signs of a common original. There are several minor differences between the Milan liturgy and the Roman of later times; such as the repetition in the former of “ Kyrie eleëson” in various places, the sing

[ocr errors]

s Miss. Ambros. fol. 127. Marcelli Ep. Parisiensis ap. Pamel. p. 297.

Surium cal. Novembr. See t Amalar. lib. i. c. 19, p. Gerbert. Liturg, Aleman. tom.i. 416. Fortunatus in vita S. p. 330.

ing of an anthem before and after the Gospel, &c.; but these things, though they render the Milan rite different from the Roman, are of no great consequence, and they must be attributed to the archbishops of Milan. Considering the evident signs of a common origin exhibited by the liturgies of Rome and Milan, and the independence of the early bishops of Milan, who had patriarchal authority over the Italic diocese", it is not improbable that the order and main substance of the liturgy of Milan were derived from Rome, when the Christian church was first planted in the north of Italy.

It seems that the church of Milan adopted most of the improvements and additions gradually made in the Roman liturgy up to the time of Gregory. During the same period several peculiarities of small moment were probably introduced by the bishops of Milan also. In the time of Gregory, the church of

. Milan did not adopt the chief alteration made by him, which alteration in fact we know was objected to by other churches, as, for instance, by the Sicilians. From that time (if not previously) the liturgy of Milan began to be considered a peculiar rite; and as the Romans gave their sacramentary the names of Gelasius and Gregory, so the Milanese gave theirs the name of Ambrose ; who, in fact, may have composed some parts of it. After the time of Gregory, the Milan liturgy doubtless received several additions, such as the oblation after the offertory, the

u This is satisfactorily proved of the Italic civil diocese, and by Basnage, Histoire de l'E- that the bishops of Milan were glise, livre vii. chap. i. ; who not ordained by the bishops of shews that Ambrose had, and Rome, nor under their jurisexercised, patriarchal jurisdic- diction. tion over the seven provinces

« PoprzedniaDalej »