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sian", and by Origen, who appears to quote from the liturgy, and his quotations are accordant in meaning and substance with the prayers in the Egyptian liturgies *.

The deacon's proclamation to “arise” is probably alluded to by Cyril *. The part of the preface or thanksgiving which speaks of “ten thousand thousand angels,” &c. is perhaps referred to by Origen'; at least, the idea was familiar to him in connection

p. 333.


transitum ad celos habentium proceeds thus, δος ημίν μερίδα episcoporum vocabula continen- και κληρον έχείν μετά πάντων tur, quæ tempore sanctorum των αγίων σου, p. 150. Remysteriorum secundum sanctas naudot. See nearly the same regulas religuntur, posuit et in the liturgy of Cyril, p. 40Dioscori nomen.

Epist. Æ- 42, probably a little altered and gypt. Episcop. ad Anatol. Con- added to after the time of Austant. cited in Cassian's Works, gustine, who first objected to

the primitive custom of praying V“Quamobrem—vix a pres- for the martyrs and saints. bytero abbati Paphnutio potuit Another petition is found in obtineri ut non inter Biotha- the Alexandrian liturgy, which natos (i. e. suicidos) reputatus, agrees in sense with Origen's etiam memoria et oblatione quotation at p. 6 of Basil's pausantium judicaretur indig- Coptic liturgy. See Renaudot,

Cass. Collat. 2. c. 2, tom. i. p. 332. Oper. Atrebat. 1628. και η ουκ αυτοι προστάττουσι

* Πολλάκις εν ταις ευχαίς λέ- διακεκραγάτες εν εκκλησίαιςγομεν,

θεε παντόκρατορ, την με- διανιστάσιν εις προσευχάς ; ρίδα ημίν μετά των προφητών Cyril. Αlex. de Ador. in Spir. δός. την μερίδα ημίν μετά των et Verit. lib. xiii. p. 454, tom.i. αποστόλων του Χριστού σου δος, y Having spoken of the obίνα ευρεθώμεν και μετ' αυτού του lations made to the true God Χριστού. He immediately after- and not to demons, he adds, wards amends the expression ει δε και πλήθος ποθούμεν ών thus, δός μοι μερίδα μετά των φιλανθρώπων τυγχάνειν θέλοπροφητών-δός μοι μερίδα μετά μεν, μανθάνομεν ότι χίλιαι χιτων αποστόλων. Orig. Ηom. λιάδες παρειστήκεισαν αυτή, και xiv. in Jeremiam, (olim xi.) p. μυρίαι μυριάδες έλειτούργουν 217, 218; tom. iii. ed. Bene- αυτό αίτινες, ως συγγενείς και dict. In the liturgy of Mark φίλους τους μιμουμένους την εις we find, Κύριε θεέ πάτερ παν- θεόν αυτών ευσέβειαν ορώντες, τοκρατορ, p. 144; and having &c. See the whole context. spoken of πατριαρχών, προφη- Orig. adν. Celsum, lib. viii. των, αποστόλων, &c. the liturgy p. 766, tom. i. et Benedict.

with this part of the liturgy. The part of the thanksgiving which speaks of the cherubim covering their faces with their wings on account of the nature of God, is perhaps alluded to by Cyril Alexandrinus’, and this mystical explanation is given by other Egyptian Fathers. The deacon’s proclamation to “sing” the hymn Tersanctus seems peculiar to the Egyptian liturgy, and we find an allusion to it in the writings of Cyrilo; in the same place he seems to notice the hymn Tersanctus, which is also alluded to by Origen". The oblation is spoken of by Cyril, Athanasius", and Origen". Theophilus of Alexandria', Isidore of Pelusium®, and perhaps

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2 Σύμβολον δε το, ταϊς πτέ- d ή πώς οιον τε ήν προσφοράς ρυξι κατακαλύπτειν τα Σεραφείμ προκείσθαι, ένδον όντων των καττο τε πρόσωπον και τους πόδας, ηχουμένων, ει γάρ ένδον ήσαν πέτασθαι δε ταϊς δυσίν, του μη οι κατηχούμενοι, ούπω ήν ο καιδύνασθαί τινας ή αρχήν ή τέλος ρος της προσφοράς. Athanas. όραν εννοιών ή λόγων των περί Apol. cont. Arian. p. 148, tom. θεού. Cyril. Αlex. Com. in i. ed. Benedict. Esaiam, lib. i. orat. 4, p. 103, και τους μετ' ευχαριστίας tom. ii.

και ευχής της επί τοίς δοθείσι a The deacon's office he says npooayouévous éprous éoliquev, is to proclaim ποτέ μεν, υμνο- σώμα γενομένους διά την ευχήν λογείν ότι προσήκει λαοίς. De άγιόν τι και αγιάζουν τους μετά Ador. in Spir. et Ver. p. 454, υγιούς προθέσεως αυτό χρωμέtom. i. This seems to refer to Adv. Celsum, lib. viii. the forms προσχώμεν or « Re- p. 766, tom. 1.

. spondete." Renaudot, tom. i. .

. 1. Speaking of Origen he acp. 65. 29. 101. 516. The cuses him thus: “Non recogihymn alluded to by Cyril was tat panem Dominicum quo Salprobably the hymn Tersanctus. vatoris corpus ostenditur, et

• Probably alluded to in the quem frangimus in sanctificatiowords τους μιμουμένους, cited nem nostri, et sacrum calicem, above, from lib. viii. adv. Cel- quæ in mensa ecclesiæ, et uti

For Christians imitated que in anima sunt, per invocathe angels in singing the hymn tionem et adventum Sancti Tersanctus.

Spiritus sanctificari." Theoph. • ο κατηχούμενος θυσίας Αlex. Liber Paschal. Ι. είργεται της επί Χριστώ. See και μη ύβριζε την θείαν λειτουρnote ?, page 100.

γίαν, μη ατίμαζε την των καρ

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Origen", refer to the invocation of the Holy Ghost. The concluding Amen of the people is mentioned by Athanasius', and Dionysius of Alexandria, as the breaking of the bread is by Theophilus Alexandrinusk and others.

I have not the slightest doubt that a more minute examination of the Egyptian Fathers than I have been able to make, would discover many additional proofs and coincidences. What has been done will perhaps shew, that there is a sufficient confirmation of the general order of the Egyptian liturgy already described, from the writings of the Egyptian Fathers. I have myself observed some other things, which might give confirmation to what has been said. But as they arise chiefly from a conformity of expression and idea on many topics between the Egyptian Fathers and liturgies, the discussion would be too long

I have, then, shewn that a certain form of liturgy prevailed throughout the patriarchate of Alexandria in the fifth century, from a comparison of the liturgies used by two bodies of nien who have held no communion since that time. I have compared the liturgy thus ascertained with the writings of the Egyptian Fathers of the fifth, fourth, and third centuries; and so far as I can discover from thence, the same order appears to have prevailed from the ear

πών ευλογίαν-αλλά μεμνημέ- ελθόντων μία γένηται φωνή, νος ως αίμα Χριστού την τούτου λεγόντων τω θεώ το 'Αμήν ; ånapxiv oεiovépyá Setul Apolog. ad Imper. Constant. πνεύμα, ούτως αυτο κέχρησο. c. 16, p. 305, tom. i.

, . . , . i. Lib. i. Epist. 313.

j In the passage quoted in h When he says, oua yɛvo

note , p. 101. μένους διά την ευχήν. Lib. . * In the passage quoted viii. adv. Cels. cited above. above in note , p. 103, from

1 τι εαν τοσούτων λαών συν- the Lib. Pasch, I.

liest period. I have also remarked, that the Ethiopians have probably had the same liturgy, as to order, since the fourth century, when they derived it from Alexandria ; and I find that order agreeing with the Alexandrian of the fifth century, already ascertained. In conclusion, then, we can ascertain with considerable certainty the words and expressions of the Alexandrian liturgy before the council of Chalcedon, A.D. 451; and we can trace back its substance and order to a period of far greater antiquity. In fact, there is nothing unreasonable in supposing that the main order and substance of the Alexandrian liturgy, as used in the fifth century, may have been as old as the apostolic age, and derived originally from the instructions and appointment of the blessed Evangelist Mark.

The liturgies of Cyril and Mark are found at p. 38 and 131 of the first volume of Renaudot's Collection of Oriental Liturgies. The reader, however, should remember, that he must prefix the Introduction, which extends from page 1 to page 12 of the same volume, in order to complete Cyril's liturgy. The notes of Renaudot on Cyril's and Mark's liturgies are useful. But the chief explanations of Egyptian rites (chiefly those of the Monophysites in latter times) are found in his notes on Basil's liturgy in the same volume. The Ethiopian liturgy with notes is found at the end of the volume.



The ancient exarchate or patriarchate of Ephesus extended over the provinces of Hellespontus, Phrygia, Asia, Lycaonia, Pamphylia, and the maritime territory included within that line. The exarch of Ephesus, who had been previously an independent patriarch, became subject to the jurisdiction of the patriarch of Constantinople about the time of Chrysostom; and the fourth general council, held at Chalcedon, A. D. 451, confirmed this arrangement. However, the bishop of Ephesus, as well as the bishop of Cæsarea, (who was in the same circumstances,) retained the name and some of the authority of an exarch in succeeding ages; and in general councils they have always sat and subscribed immediately after the patriarchs.

The whole exarchate of Ephesus has for a length of time received the Constantinopolitan liturgies of Basil and Chrysostom; but I think there is some reason to affirm that the order which is represented by these liturgies, has not always prevailed in that exarchate. A celebrated council held at Laodicea in Phrygia some time in the fourth century, was


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