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sian, and by Origen, who appears to quote from the liturgy, and his quotations are accordant in meaning and substance with the prayers in the Egyptian liturgies".

The deacon's proclamation to “ arise” is probably alluded to by Cyril. The part of the preface or thanksgiving which speaks of "ten thousand thousand angels,” &c. is perhaps referred to by Origen"; at least, the idea was familiar to him in connection

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* Πολλάκις ἐν ταῖς εὐχαῖς λέγομεν, Θεὲ παντόκρατορ, τὴν με ρίδα ἡμῖν μετὰ τῶν προφητῶν δός. τὴν μερίδα ἡμῖν μετὰ τῶν ἀποστόλων τοῦ Χριστοῦ σοῦ δὸς, ἵνα εὑρεθῶμεν καὶ μετ ̓ αὐτοῦ τοῦ Χριστοῦ. He immediately afterwards amends the expression thus, δός μοι μερίδα μετὰ τῶν προφητῶνδός μοι μερίδα μετὰ τῶν ἀποστόλων. Orig. Hom. xiv. in Jeremiam, (olim xi.) p. 217, 218; tom. iii. ed. Benedict. In the liturgy of Mark we find, Κύριε Θεὲ πάτερ παντόκρατορ, p. 144; and having spoken of πατριαρχῶν, προφητῶν, ἀποστόλων, &c. the liturgy

proceeds thus, δὸς ἡμῖν μερίδα καὶ κλῆρον ἐχεῖν μετὰ πάντων τῶν ἁγίων σου, p. 150. Renaudot. See nearly the same in the liturgy of Cyril, p. 40— 42, probably a little altered and added to after the time of Augustine, who first objected to the primitive custom of praying for the martyrs and saints. Another petition is found in the Alexandrian liturgy, which agrees in sense with Origen's quotation at p. 6 of Basil's Coptic liturgy. See Renaudot,

tom. i.

* ἢ οὐκ αὐτοὶ προστάττουσι διακεκραγότες ἐν ἐκκλησίαις διανιστᾶσιν εἰς προσευχάς ; Cyril. Alex. de Ador. in Spir. et Verit. lib. xiii. p. 454, tom.i.

y Having spoken of the oblations made to the true God and not to dæmons, he adds, εἰ δὲ καὶ πλῆθος ποθοῦμεν ὧν φιλανθρώπων τυγχάνειν θέλομεν, μανθάνομεν ὅτι χίλιαι χιλιάδες παρειστήκεισαν αὐτῷ, καὶ μυρίαι μυριάδες ἐλειτούργουν αὐτῷ· αἵτινες, ὡς συγγενεῖς καὶ φίλους τοὺς μιμουμένους τὴν εἰς Θεὸν αὐτῶν εὐσέβειαν ὁρῶντες, &c. See the whole context. Orig. adv. Celsum, lib. viii. p. 766, tom. i. et Benedict.

with this part of the liturgy. The part of the thanksgiving which speaks of the cherubim covering their faces with their wings on account of the nature of God, is perhaps alluded to by Cyril Alexandrinus", and this mystical explanation is given by other Egyptian Fathers. The deacon's proclamation to "sing" the hymn Tersanctus seems peculiar to the Egyptian liturgy, and we find an allusion to it in the writings of Cyril; in the same place he seems to notice the hymn Tersanctus, which is also alluded to by Origen". The oblation is spoken of by Cyril, Athanasius, and Origen. Theophilus of Alexandria, Isidore of Pelusium, and perhaps

Σύμβολον δὲ τὸ, ταῖς πτέ ρυξι κατακαλύπτειν τὰ Σεραφεὶμ τό τε πρόσωπον καὶ τοὺς πόδας, πέτασθαι δὲ ταῖς δυσὶν, τοῦ μὴ δύνασθαί τινας ἢ ἀρχὴν ἢ τέλος ὁρᾷν ἐννοιῶν ἢ λόγων τῶν περὶ Θεοῦ. Cyril. Alex. Com. in Esaiam, lib. i. orat. 4, p. 103, tom. ii.

* The deacon's office he says is to proclaim ποτὲ μὲν, ὑμνολογεῖν ὅτι προσήκει λαοῖς. De Ador. in Spir. et Ver. p. 454, tom. i. This seems to refer to

the forms προσχῶμεν οι "Respondete.” Renaudot, tom. i. p. 65. 29. 101. 516. The hymn alluded to by Cyril was probably the hymn Tersanctus.

Probably alluded to in the words τοὺς μιμουμένους, cited above, from lib. viii. adv. CelFor Christians imitated the angels in singing the hymn Tersanctus.


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Speaking of Origen he accuses him thus : “ Non recogitat panem Dominicum quo Salvatoris corpus ostenditur, et quem frangimus in sanctificationem nostri, et sacrum calicem, quæ in mensa ecclesia, et utique in anima sunt, per invocationem et adventum Sancti Spiritus sanctificari.” Theoph. Alex. Liber Paschal. I.

5 μὴ ὕβριζε τὴν θείαν λειτουργίαν, μὴ ἀτίμαζε τὴν τῶν καρ

Origen", refer to the invocation of the Holy Ghost. The concluding Amen of the people is mentioned by Athanasius', and Dionysius of Alexandria', as the breaking of the bread is by Theophilus Alexandrinus and others.


I have not the slightest doubt that a more minute examination of the Egyptian Fathers than I have been able to make, would discover many additional proofs and coincidences. What has been done will perhaps shew, that there is a sufficient confirmation of the general order of the Egyptian liturgy already described, from the writings of the Egyptian Fathers. I have myself observed some other things, which might give confirmation to what has been said. But as they arise chiefly from a conformity of expression and idea on many topics between the Egyptian Fathers and liturgies, the discussion would be too long.

I have, then, shewn that a certain form of liturgy prevailed throughout the patriarchate of Alexandria in the fifth century, from a comparison of the liturgies used by two bodies of men who have held no communion since that time. I have compared the liturgy thus ascertained with the writings of the Egyptian Fathers of the fifth, fourth, and third centuries; and so far as I can discover from thence, the same order appears to have prevailed from the ear

πῶν εὐλογίαν—ἀλλὰ μεμνημένος ὡς αἷμα Χριστοῦ τὴν τούτου ἀπαρχὴν τὸ θεῖον ἐργάζεται πνεῦμα, οὕτως αὐτῷ κέχρησο. Lib. i. Epist. 313.

hWhen he says, σῶμα γενομένους διὰ τὴν εὐχήν. Lib. viii. adv. Cels. cited above.

1 τί ἐὰν τοσούτων λαῶν συν

ελθόντων μία γένηται φωνὴ, λεγόντων τῷ Θεῷ τὸ ̓Αμήν ; Apolog. ad Imper. Constant. c. 16, p. 305, tom. i.

In the passage quoted in note, p. 101.

k In the passage quoted above in note, p. 103, from the Lib. Pasch. I.

liest period. I have also remarked, that the Ethiopians have probably had the same liturgy, as to order, since the fourth century, when they derived it from Alexandria; and I find that order agreeing with the Alexandrian of the fifth century, already ascertained. In conclusion, then, we can ascertain with considerable certainty the words and expressions of the Alexandrian liturgy before the council of Chalcedon, A.D. 451; and we can trace back its substance and order to a period of far greater antiquity. In fact, there is nothing unreasonable in supposing that the main order and substance of the Alexandrian liturgy, as used in the fifth century, may have been as old as the apostolic age, and derived originally from the instructions and appointment of the blessed Evangelist Mark.

The liturgies of Cyril and Mark are found at p. 38 and 131 of the first volume of Renaudot's Collection of Oriental Liturgies. The reader, however, should remember, that he must prefix the Introduction, which extends from page 1 to page 12 of the same volume, in order to complete Cyril's liturgy. The notes of Renaudot on Cyril's and Mark's liturgies are useful. But the chief explanations of Egyptian rites (chiefly those of the Monophysites in latter times) are found in his notes on Basil's liturgy in the same volume. The Ethiopian liturgy with notes is found at the end of the volume.



THE ancient exarchate or patriarchate of Ephesus extended over the provinces of Hellespontus, Phrygia, Asia, Lycaonia, Pamphylia, and the maritime territory included within that line. The exarch of Ephesus, who had been previously an independent patriarch, became subject to the jurisdiction of the patriarch of Constantinople about the time of Chrysostom; and the fourth general council, held at Chalcedon, A. D. 451, confirmed this arrangement. However, the bishop of Ephesus, as well as the bishop of Cæsarea, (who was in the same circumstances,) retained the name and some of the authority of an exarch in succeeding ages; and in general councils they have always sat and subscribed immediately after the patriarchs.

The whole exarchate of Ephesus has for a length of time received the Constantinopolitan liturgies of Basil and Chrysostom; but I think there is some reason to affirm that the order which is represented by these liturgies, has not always prevailed in that exarchate. A celebrated council held at Laodicea in Phrygia some time in the fourth century, was

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