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ing and diligence should have made such a mistake; but a simple inspection is enough to refute him. The order is perfectly different. Renaudot indeed remarks elsewhere, that these Anaphoræ of Basil and Mark do not agree", from whence he infers, that St. Mark's was not the common canon of the old Alexandrian rite, but belonged to some particular church. And the proof which he brings for Basil's liturgy having been the canon of the Alexandrian church (at least after the conquest of Egypt by the Mahommedans) is, that it accords with the Ethiopic general canon, which is nothing but “a liberal version of Basil's Coptic liturgy"."

It is scarcely necessary to refute this, because all that it attempts to prove is, that Basil's liturgy was chiefly used by the Copts after the Mahommedan invasion. But the important question is, what liturgy was used during the time of the Christian emperors; which question is not touched by the result of Renaudots argument. However, the proof which he brings,

p. xciv.


sed in omnibus antiquis aliis ligimus, sed singularem," &c. cujuscumque linguæ, idemordo, p. xcvi. orationes in eandem senten- r“Fieri enim facile potuit tiam convenientes, ritus simi- ut ex magno illo ecclesiarum les, sed insignis ex verborum numero quæ Alexandrino pavarietate diversitas.” Tom. i. triarchæ suberant, nonnullæ

eâdem (Marci) frequentius uteq “ Secunda pars

rentur, quamvis major earum est eadem, neque convenit nisi pars Basilianâ--uti soleret, eâ quam diximus generali con- saltem à captâ à Mahumedanis formitate rituum et sententia- Ægypto. Ita enim rem se harum, cum prima et præcipua bere demonstrat ÆthiopumCoptica, quæ est Basilii. Ex -disciplina. Canon enim geeâ igitur ratione illam (Marci) neralis Æthiopum, qui commuqualis Græcè edita est, non nem liturgiæ formam continet, esse canonem, ut uno verbo Basilianæ Liturgiæ Copticæ vocare possumus, communem quædam liberior versio est," veteris Alexandrini ritus intel- p. xcvi. VOL. I.


that Basil's liturgy was chiefly used by the Copts after the Mahommedan invasion, is invalid. For the Ethiopic general canon is not (as he says) a liberal version of Basil's liturgy, but accords with Cyril's and Mark's, as any one may see by an actual comparison.

Let us, then, proceed to examine the chief features of the ancient Alexandrian rite, as depicted in the liturgies of Mark and Cyril, supported by the Ethiopic general canon; omitting, however, any notice of that part of the introduction which preceded the dismissal of the catechumens, because in the most primitive times there was little else contained in it besides the reading of lessons and the sermon.

After the dismissal of the catechumens and some prayers of the faithful', the priest and people saluted each other thus, “Peace be with you;” “And with thy spirit*.” Then followed the apostolical kiss of peace. The deacon proclaimed orWuev kalūs", and the form of “Sursum corda,” &c. followed'. Then began the eucharistia or thanksgiving, in which the great peculiarity of the Egyptian rite becomes immediately visible. All the solemn prayers for men and things, the commemorations of the living and the dead, are inserted in this place", after the form, “Sursum corda." Then the thanksgiving being resumed again, as it proceeds, the deacon successively commands those who are sitting, to “ arise,” and “look towards the easty.” The thanks

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s Renaudot, tom. i. p. 1012. 139, 140. 511-513.

t P. 12. 60. 141.
u P. 64. 98.
v P. 40. 144.

W P. 41-45. 146-153 514-516.

* P. 45. 153. 516.
y P. 46. 153. 516.

giving continues, and the priest mentions the “ten “ thousand thousand angels and archangels who “stand ministering to God?," and the two seraphim with six wings, with two of which they veil their faces, on account of the divinity of God invisible and incomprehensible by the minda.” With these beings the people praise God, saying the hymn Tersanctus". The priest implores God to bless with the Holy Spirit the sacrifice and gifts of bread and wine placed before himo. Then follow the commemoration of our Lord's deeds and words at the last supper, a verbal commemoration of his death, resurrection, &c. the offering of the gifts which God has given us', a prayer of humble deprecation", and the invocation or prayer to God to send the Holy Ghost, and make the bread and cup the body and blood of Christ, that they may be efficacious for obtaining spiritual benefits for those who are to partake of them". Then follow the breaking of the bread', the Lord's Prayer', a benediction", and the form τα άγια τοις αγίοις. Then the com

. munion of clergy and laity, which is succeeded by a thanksgiving

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z P. 46. 154. 516.

h P. 49. 158. 517. R P. 46.

i P: 49.518. Mark's liturgy b P. 46. 154. 516.

defers the breaking of bread P. 46. 155. It is not found till after the Lord's Prayer, in in the Æthiopic, and perhaps imitation of the Greek rite. did not originally occur in this Compare Goar, Rit. Græc. p. part of the Alexandrian liturgy. 80, 81. d P. 46, 47. 155. 517.,

j P. 50. 159. e P. 47. 156. 517.

k P. 22. 519. In the liturgy f P. 47. 157. 517.

of St. Mark it is omitted, to 8 P. 47, 48. This does not suit the Greek rite ; and anoccur in St. Mark's or the other benediction more like Æthiopic liturgy, and is there- the Greek is introduced. fore of doubtful antiquity.

It will be observed, that the difference between this liturgy and the great oriental liturgy of Antioch, Cæsarea, and Constantinople, already described, is in the order of the parts. The general and solemn prayers for men and things occurred in the middle of the Egyptian eucharistia or thanksgiving, and before the hymn Tersanctus. In the oriental liturgy the general prayers are deferred till after the end of the benediction of the gifts. Another peculiarity in this rite was the directions of the deacon to the people during the course of the thanksgiving, to “arise,” “ look towards the east," and "attend,” or “sing” the hymn Ter

sanctus. Of this there is nothing to be found in any other rite.

Let us now compare this liturgy with the writings of the Fathers of the Alexandrian patriarchate, amongst whom the law of secrecy was so carefully attended to, that we have very few memorials of the Egyptian rites amongst them. The dismissal of catechumens is mentioned by Cyril of Alexandria', and is alluded to by almost every Egyptian father. Cyril also quotes a passage in the prayer of the faithfulm. He also refers to the salutation of “ Peace

1 Ο κατηχούμενος--και τοίς larum. In the Greek text of τελείοις συναναθείς την αίνεσιν, the Alexandrian prayer of the TôvěTL UvotiKwTépwv åropoutậ, faithful we find these words, και θυσίας είργεται της επί Βασιλεύς της ειρήνης την σην Χριστώ. Cyril. Αlex. de Adorat. ειρήνην δος ημίν, πάντα γάρ . . .

, in Spir. et Veritat. lib. xii. p. árbowkaciquis. Renaudot, tom. 445, tom. i. Paris, 1638. i. p. 59. In the Coptic we find

m Aedidáyueba kai Néyelv the same, “O Rex pacis, da εν προσευχαϊς: Κύριε ο Θεός nobis pacem tuam, qui omnia ημών, ειρήνην δος ημίν, πάντα dedisti nobis,” p. 10. In the , ,

,p yàp anéiwkas ņiv. Cyril. Æthiopic the same words oc

απέδωκας ημίν Alex. Epist. ad Joan. Antioch.

cur, p. 511. tom. vi pårs ï. p. 105. Episto


ναι ;

be with you,” and the reply, and the kiss of peace“, which are likewise mentioned by Isidore of Pelusium, and OrigenP. The form of στώμεν καλώς

', is apparently referred to by Cyril Alexandrinus?. The eucharistia or thanksgiving is mentioned by Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria" and Origen'. Athanasius speaks of the prayer for the emperor'. The commemoration of the departed is mentioned by the Egyptian bishops in their epistle to Anatolius, bishop of Constantinople", by John Cas

n Speaking of our Saviour's 9 Speaking of the deacon's saying, ειρήνη υμίν, he says, office, he says, ή ουκ αυτοι τοιγάρ τοι και εν ταις αγίαις προστάττουσι διακεκραγότες εν μάλιστα συνόδοις, ήτοι συνάξεσι, εκκλησίαις-έν κόσμο μεν εστάπαρ' αυτάς του μυστηρίου τας Ador. in Spir. et Verit. αρχάς, τούτο δε ημείς αλλήλοις p. 454, tom. 1. lib. xiii. φαμέν. Cyril. Αlex. Com. in I Dionysius objected to reJoh. c. 20, lib. xii. tom. iv. p. baptizing a certain man thus, 1093. Paris, 1638.

ευχαριστίας γάρ επακούσαντα, ο «Pacem Sacerdos ex cathe- και συνεπιφθεγξάμενον το 'Αμήν, dre fastigio ecclesiae pronun- και τραπέζη παραστάντα, και ciat, Dominum scilicet imitans χείρας εις υποδοχής της αγίας cathedram assumentem, cum τροφής προτείναντα και ταύτην pacem suam discipulis relin- καταδεξάμενον, και του σώματος queret et daret.

Illud autem και του αίματος του Κυρίου ημών quod a plebe responditur, Εε Ιησού Χριστού μετασχόντα ικανή cum spiritu tuo, hanc habet χρόνο, ουκ αν εξ υπαρχής αναsententiam,” &c. Isidor. Pelus. σκευάζειν έτι τολμήσαιμι. DiEpistol. lib. i. ep. 122, p. 38. onys. Alex. ad Xystum Rom.

. . i. , . . . . edit. Paris, 1638.

ap. Euseb. lib. vii. c. 9. P In Ruffinus's translation of 3 Ημείς δε τω του παντός Origen’s Commentary on the δημιουργώ ευχαριστούντες, και Epistle to the Romans, we find τους μετ' ευχαριστίας και ευχής mention made of the osculum ; της επί τοίς δοθείσι προσαγομέbut Ruffinus has evidently used νους άρτους έσθίομεν. Origen. post instead of ante, in order to adv. Cels. lib. viii. tom. i. p. suit the liturgy of Italy. “Ex 766. hoc sermone (“ salutate invi- * Συ δε θεοφιλέστατε βασιλεύ, cem in osculo sancto’) aliisque που τους λαούς αν ήθελες εκτείnonnullis similibus, mos eccle

χείρας και εύξασθαι περί siis traditus est ut post (lege, Cou; Athanas. Apol. ad Imp.

, σου; . . ante) orationes osculo se invi- Constant. cap. 16, p. 304, tom. cem suscipiant fratres.' Ori- i. ed. Paris, 1698. gen. lib. x. in Rom. xvi. 16. “ Etiam in venerabili diptom. iv. ed. Bened. p. 683. tycho, in quo piæ memoriæ

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