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tle of Armageddon immediately before the Millennium, and the battle of Gog and Magog immediately after it; therefore, the Gog and Magog of Ezekiel, muft refer to one or other of these. But there are other circumstances in the relation, which effectually prevent the application of it to the battle of Armageddon; and therefore the Gog and Magog of Ezekiel, and of St. John, must be the fame.

Firft, The prophet represents the Jews in poffeffion of their land previous to the invasion of Gog; but they only take poffeffion by the battle *of Armageddon, and were not in poffeffion before it was fought.

Secondly, He reprefents them as dwelling at eafe, not dreading an enemy, nor prepared for an attack; "And thou fhalt fay, I will go up "to the land of unwalled villages; I will go to " them that are at reft, that dwell safely, all of "them dwelling without walls, and having neither bars nor gates," Ezek. xxxviii. 11. This can by no means apply to Armageddon, for at that time they are reprefented as being aware of the preparation of their enemies; yea, as being trained up and employed as the inftruments in God's hand, to fubdue them.

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Thirdly, He represents them as wealthy, poffeffed of cattle and goods in abundance. "turn their hand upon the people which have

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gotten cattle and goods, that dwell in the "midst of the land, haft thou gathered thy company to take a prey? to carry away filver and "gold, to take away cattle and goods, to take "a great spoil, Ezek. xxxviii. 12, 13. All this fupposes them to have been long in poffeffion of their own land. Both the facred and the prephane hiftorians fhew, that wealth is not the attainment of an infant state; it is a bleffing acquired by a course of years. This representa tion, therefore, cannot apply to the battle of Armageddon.

Fourthly, The prophet reprefents the Jews on the defence in the invafion of Gog, and their enemies on the offenfive. This is obvious from the whole ftrain of the narrative; but in the battle of Armageddon, the enemies of the church are on the defence, (see vial 6.) and the Jews on the offenfive, (fee Rev. xix. 11.); therefore, the Gog of Ezekiel, and the battle of Armaged don cannot relate to the fame event.


But all these circumftances fitly apply to the Gog and Magog of St. John. The time of their invasion is at the end of the Millennium, when the Jews have been a thousand years in poffeffion of their native land. During all that period, univerfal peace prevails, and therefore they dread no enemy;—outward prosperity abounds, and therefore they have cattle and goods; love and communion fubfift betwixt them and the 3 M


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Gentile church, and therefore they are not difpofed to make any hoftile attack.

Bishop Newton allows, that the prophecy of Ezekiel and this of St. John, remain yet to be accomplished, and cannot be abfolutely certain, that they may not both relate to the fame event, but thinks it more probable that they relate to different events'. I fhall just glance at his reafons, "The one is expected to take effect be"fore, but the other will not take effect till af"ter the Millennium." To this a fufficient anfwer has been given in the observations already made, on the time of Gog's appearance. "Gog and Magog are faid exprefsly to come "from the north quarters and the north parts; "but in St. John, they come from the four quar"ters, or corners of the earth. Gog and Magog, in Ezekiel, bend their forces against the "Jews refettled in their native land; but in St.


John, they march up againft the faints, and "church of God in general."


These circumftances do not contradict but illuftrate each other. Some of those which the Prophet had omitted, the Apostle mentions; and others which the Prophet had mentioned, the Apostle omits May we not fuppofe, that the leader of this vaft army comes from the north

quarters, and yet that multitudes of a similar spi


(1) Newton's Diff. on Prophecies.

rit join his ftandard from the four corners of the earth? In fact, the countries from which his followers come, according to the Prophet, are fituate with respect to Judea to the four quarters of the earth. Is it not reasonable to expect, that fo immenfe an army fhall lay waste an extensive territory, and of course harrafs the church in many places, and yet their chief defign may be againft, and their final overthrow may take place in the land of Judea? So far is the Apoftle from contradicting the relation of the Prophet in this respect, that he exprefsly mentions their compaffing about the beloved city, that is, the Jewish church. The learned prelate proceeds: Gog and Magog, in Ezekiel, are with very good reason supposed to be the Turks, but the "Turks are the authors of the fecond woe, and "the fecond woe is paffed before the third woe, " and the third woe long precedes the time here "treated of." This argument is certainly conclufive against the existence of the Ottoman empire, at the period in which St. John reprefents Gog and Magog compaffing about the beloved city. But the very good reasons which induce him to suppose Gog and Magog in Ezekiel, to represent the Turks, I fee not.


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The thirty-third chapter of Ifaiah throughout, refers to this invafion of Gog. My reafons for this opinion are the following, of which the


reader may judge: 1. It cannot apply to Sennacherib's invafion in a ftrict and literal fenfe; because, verses 5, 6. contain expreffions too lofty to fuit Hezekiah's government, but they are ftrictly true of Chrift's. Again, in verfes 21, -22, 23, 24. we have the language in which the Prophets uniformly defcribe the happiness of the latter times; but what connection can be traced betwixt the deftruction of Sennacherib's army, and the glory of the Millennium? Whereas the deftruction of Gog's army and the Millennium, are closely connected.-2. The connection of this with the preceding chapter, lead me to apply it to Gog. The former chapter concluded with an account of the Millennium; this defcribes an invasion of Judea pofterior to it, precifely agreeing to the account in the Apocalypfe, that when the thousand years are expired, Gog leads his army against the beloved city.-3. All the circumftances agree to Gog's invafion. This is a fudden attack with the fword, verfes 1. and 8. compared with Ezek. xxxviii. 9.15, 16. and Rev.xx.8. The invasion is undertaken to gather fpoil from the peaceable habitations of the church. Compare ver. 1. with Ezek. xxxviii. 11, 12. Yet the attempt fhall end in making the invaders a spoil to the people of God, ver. 1.4. with Ezek. xxxix. 10. God's hand is visible in their deftruction, and their punishment is partly by fire, ver. 3. 10, 11, 12. Ezek. xxxviii. 22. and Rev. xx.




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