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"manner'." I allow the ground of this argument to be perfectly juft, that the living martyrs are opposed to the "reft of the dead," and must be taken in the fame fenfe, whether literal or figurative. But whereas Daubuze, Newton and others, take the phrase, "reft of the dead" in a literal fenfe, I think these are forcible reasons for taking it in a figurative sense.
First, The reft ( os) of the dead, refer to chap. xix 21. "the remnant (or two) who were "flain with the fword of him who fat upon "the horse, which fword proceeded out of his "mouth." The remnant there can be no other than persons having the spirit of Antichrist, who were not destroyed either by the battle of Armageddon, or the wars confequently upon it, but were worn out by the prevailing power of the gofpel, and fo remained during the thoufand years dead; i. e. the fpirit was extinct, and incapable of making any oppofition to the truth; but at the end of the thoufand years, as Satan was loofed, fo the fpirit of Antichrift formerly extinguished, then revived, ftirring up new troubles in opposition to the truth.
Secondly, That "the reft of the dead," cannot apply, as Newton and others contend, to all mankind, except the martyrs raised at the general refurrection, is evident from this, that the general
(1) Differt. on Prophecy, p. 333.
general refurrection does not take place immediately after the thousand years are finished. "A "little feafon," intervenes, Rev. xx. 3. It may be called little, in comparison with the period immediately preceding, in which the martyrs reigned, and fo may include fome centuries: at any rate, the events which take place during that season, as the going forth of Satan to de ceive the nations,-his gathering of them from the four corners of the earth,-the preparation for and invasion of the church by Gog and his followers, together with their destruction, neceffarily require a confiderable period of time for their accomplishment. If, therefore, you take "the rest of the dead" in a literal fenfe, it is not true, that they lived immediately after the thoufand years were finished. But if you take the phrase in a figurative sense, it is strictly true, that those who were flain by the fword of him that fat on the horse, revived immediately after the thousand years were finished, in persons of a fimilar temper and difpofition; fuch are Gog and his followers.
The fecond objection of the Millenarians, is taken from these words: "This is the first refur"rection," Rev. xx. 5. on which Daubuze argues. "It is by all allowed, that the fecond "refurrection is of bodies; and if fo, why not "alfo the firft, fince both are expreffed in the 3 G
"like terms." "We fhould be cautious and "tender (fays Newton) of making the firft refur. "rection an allegory, left others should reduce "the fecond into an allegory too." "In answer I would obferve, that the fcriptures frequently mention the fecond or new birth. The firft birth is of the body. Is it neceffary that the fecond fhould be fo too? Will any man acquainted with the fcriptures, put the question now which Nicodemus formerly propofed to our Lord? How can a man be born when he is "old? Can he enter the fecond time into his "mother's womb, and be born," John iii. 4. The second birth is doubtless an allegory. But does it follow, that the first birth is an allegory too? The fcriptures mention the fecond death: now the firft death is that of the body. But is it neceffary that we understand the fecond death of the body only? Does it affect the body in the fame manner, by putting it in a state of infenfibility and putrefaction?-The terms firft and fecond, are used in scripture to distinguish subjects, which are in fome respects fimilar, but in others are very different, left we should mistake the one for the other; and fo the term "firft refurrection" is used here, to fhew that this part of the prophecy does not describe such a change as fhall
(1) Daubuze on the Rev. p. 568.
fhall take place at the general refurrection. Again, it may fignify, that as the first death is to wicked men an earneft of and a preparatory ftep to the fecond death; fo the firft refurrection is to good men an earnest of and a preparatory step to the general refurrection. And from the whole tenor of facred writ, it appears, that a figurative, not aliteral refurrection, even a renovation of nature, qualifies men for happiness at the second refurrection: "If Chrift be in you, the spirit is life "because of righteousness, (this is the first re"furrection); but if the Spirit of him that rai"fed up Jefus from the dead dwell in you, the "Spirit fhall alfo quicken your mortal bodies; "(this is the fecond refurrection,)" Rome. viii. IÓ, II.
Now, what a renovation of nature is to every individual member of the church, the Millennial ftate is to the whole church, an earneft of and preparation for the glory of a future state, by a powerful, vital, univerfal influence, of the Spirit of God.
Characters of the Millennial Church.
When the Millennium is viewed by the light of fcripture, without the colouring of Jewish fables, the dreams of enthufiafts, or the fuppofitions
fitions of ingenious men, the happiness of that period appears to confift in the following particulars :
1. An extenfive propagation of the gospel. So that Christianity fhall be the established religion of all the world, or (making fome allowance for the highly figurative language of the prophets) at least of the far greater part of it. The Jews fhall be previously converted, as we have already feen: and as the rejection of them, was followed by an extenfive propagation of the gofpel among the Gentiles; fo the receiving them again to be members of the church, fhall be accompanied with a much greater enlargement of the kingdom of Chrift. "If the fall "of them be the riches of the world, and the "diminishing of them the riches of the Gen"tiles, how much more their fulness? If the "cafting away of them be the reconciling of "the world, what shall the receiving of them "be but life from the dead?" Rom. xi. 12. 15.
Many are the promises which intimate, that the Meffiah's kingdom fhall extend over all the earth, and these promises point to this particular period. "Afk of me, and I shall give thee the "heathen for thine inheritance, and the utter"moft parts of the earth for thy poffeffion," Pfal. ii. 8. "All the ends of the world shall re"member, and turn unto the Lord: and all the "kindreds