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advanced with an army into Italy, the Pope agreed to a compact (Febr. 1111), by the terms of which the Emperor was to concede the investiture and the bishops the oath of fealty. But as the German bishops refused their sanction to this compact,15 the Popele was reduced to yield to a new agreement, which granted the investiture to the Emperor (April 1111.)” On the other side the Gregorian party were now roused to action : the Pope was soon

laici manibus gladio sanguinolentis obligando supponant, ordini suo et sacrae unctioni derogare. (This last, compared with note 5, is certainly startling). When the cervicosi legati heard this, Teutonico impetu frendentes tumultuabant, et si tuto auderent, convitia eructarent, injurias inferrent. Non hic, inquiunt, sed Romae gladiis determinabitur querela.

15 Compare the entire transactions of this Coronatio Romana in Pertz iv. 65. With the help of these transactions, the chron. Casin. lib. iv., c. 35 ss., relates at length the foregoing events. (Muratori iv., 513), Ekkehardus ad ann. 1111 (in Pertz vùi., 244) more shortly. At any rate we are not forced, with Mascov, comm. de rebus imperii Rom, sub Henrico iv. et v. Lips. 1748. 4. p. 153, to assume that the Pontiff did not in real earnest intend this concesion. For it follows necessarily from the principle before laid down by Urban II., in the Concil. Melfitan. ann. 1090 can. 11. (see above, § 48, note 12), see Schmidt's Kirchengesch. vi. 116. On the whole question, see Raumer i. 263 ; Stenzel i. 632.

16 Ekkehardus I. c. : Pater apostolicus ab Episcopis et aliis fidelibus Regis est custoditus usque ad pacatam et ecclesiasticam consecrationein Imperatoris, in exemplum Patriarchae Jacob dicentis ad Angelum : Non dimitiam te, nisi benedixeris mihi (Gen. xxxii. 26.)

17 Chron. Casin. iv. c. 40. The oath of the Pope is found in Pertz iv. 71: Domnus Papa Paschalis non inquietabit domnum Regem Henricum, neque ejus regnum de injuria sibi inlata, -de investitura episcopatuum aut abbatiarum,et penitus in persona Regis nunquam anathema ponet. Nec remanebit in domno Papa, quin coronet eum, sicut in Ordine continetur etc. Privilegium Paschalis P. Henrico concessum p. 72 :-Illam igitur dignitatis praerogativam, quam praedecessores nostri vestris praedecessoribus, catholicis Imperatoribus, concesserunt, et privilegiorum paginis confirmaverunt, nos quoque Dilectioni tuae concedimus, et praesentis privilegii pagina confirmamus, ut regni tui Episcopis vel Abbatibus libere praeter violentiam et simoniam electis investituram annuli et virgae conferas. Post investitionem vero canonicam consecrationem accipiant ab Episcopo, ad quem pertinuerint. Si quis autem a clero et populo praeter assensum tuum electus fuerit, nisi a te investiatur, a nemine consecretur. At the coronation the Pope and the Emperor communicated together (chron. Cas. I. c.) cumque ad hostiae confractionem venisset, partem ipse (Papa) accipiens, partem Imperatori contradens, dixit: Sicut pars ista vivifici corporis divisa est, ita divissus sit a regno Christi et Dei, quicumque pactum istud dirumpere tentaverit.

after obliged to annul that grant,18 and a Lateran-Council (1112) condemed it.19

The Pope, indeed, because of his oath pledged to the Emperor, did not excommunicate him in person ; but this was done by his Legates in Burgundy and France, and Paschal sanctioned their proceeding.20 Thus, at any rate, the discontent which had been

18 Chron. Casin. iv. c. 42. Particularly Bruno Episc. Signensis in epist. ad Paschal. P. in Baron. ann. 1111 no. 30. Goffridi Abb. Vindocinensis lib. i. ep. 7 ad Paschalem. Placidi (Prior of Nonantola) lib. de. honore Ecclesiæ (in Pezij thes. anecdot. II. ii. 75). There was even some talk of deposing him, Udalrici cod. no. 258.—Then Paschalis epist. 23, ad Joan. Tusculanum et Leonem Vercellensem Episcc. et Cardinales and epist. 24, ad Guidonem Viennensem Episc. (Mansi xx., 1008.) Ivo Carnot. epist 233, and epist. 236 (both found in Baronius 1. c. no. 34 ss.) and Hildebertus Episc. Cenomanensis lib. ii. epist. 22 (in Mansi xxi. 44), pleaded for the Pope. Stenzel i. 646.

19 Compare Ekkehardus ad h. a. and vita Paschalis ex Card. Aragon. (Muratori 1. c. p. 363.) According to the last the Pope declares : Quamvis conditio juramentis praeposita ab ipso et suis minus observata sit;-ego tamen eum nunquam anathematizabo, et nunquam de investituris inquietabo.-Habet judicem Deum. Porro scriptum illud-prave factum cognosco, prave factum confiteor, et omnino corrigi Domino praestante desidero. Cujus correctionis modum fratrum, qui convenerunt, consilio judicioque constituo, ne forte per inposterum detrimentum aliquod Ecclesia, animae meae judicium relinquatur. The acts of the Synod (Mansi xxi. 49, and published, according to other MSS., by the same hand, p. 68, and by Baluzius in de Marcâ de conc. sac. et Imp. under lib. viii. c. 20) contain a confession of faith by the Pope, and the following decree of the Council : Privilegium illud, quod non est privilegium, sed vere debet dici pravilegium, pro liberatione captivorum et Ecclesiae a domino P. Paschali per violentiam Henrici Regis extortum, nos omnes in hoc s. concilio cum eodem Domno Papa congregati, canonica censura et ecclesiastica auctoritate, judicio s. Spiritus damnamus, et irritum esse judicamus atque omnino cassamus, et ne quid auctoritatis et efficacitatis habeat, penitus excommunicamus. Quod ideo damnatum est, quod in eo privilegio continetur, quod electus canonice a clero et populo a nemine consccretur, nisi prius a Rege investiatur, quod est contra Spiritum s. et canonicam institutionem.

20 Yet Guido, Archbishop of Vienne, held, in Sept. 1112 the Concil. Vienn. (Mansi xxi. 73), in which first lay investiture and this privilege were condemned: Then Henricum Teutonicorum Regem, qui domnum Papam—velut alter Judas-tradidit, cepit, et ab eo nefandissimum et detestabile scriptum violenter extorsit, excommunicamus, anathematizamus, et a gremio s. matris Ecclesiae sequestramus, donec, his omnibus abrenuntiatis, plenam satisfactionem Ecclesiae exhibeat. From the letter of the Synod to the Pope, it is evident that he would gladly confirm both decisions. Adfuerunt legati Regis, literas

provoked by the Imperial outrages in Saxony, and had broken out into open rebellion, was kept alive. 21 It could not, however,

bullatas, quasi de parte vestra ad eum missas, audacter praetendentes, in quibus erga eum vester bonus affectus pacis et concordiae et perfectae amicitiae significabatur. Quas nimirum post concilium, quod in praeterita quadragesima Romae celebrastis, se recepisse, et sibi missas, idem Rex testabatur. Thus the parting address : Illud etiam cum debita reverentia vestrae suggerimus pietati, quod, si nobiscum in his steteritis, si hoc, sicut rogamus, confirmaveritis, -unanimiter nos, sicut decet, habebitis filios et fideles. Si vero, quod minime credimus, aliam viam aggredi coeperitis, et nostrae paternitatis assertiones praedictas roborare nolueritis : propitius sit nobis Deus, quia nos a vestra subjectione et obedientia repelletis. The Pope does not contradict that statement of the Imperial ambassadors in his answer (1. c.) but writes humbly : Dum alicujus morbi detentione caput afficitur, membris omnibus communiter ac summopere laborandum est, ut ab eo penitus expellatur.—Unde Deo gratias referimus, et quae statuta sunt ibi, rata suscipimus et confirmamus, etc. In the same way Henry was excommunicated by Cardinal Conon, papal legate in France, at the Conc. Bellovacense ann. 1114, Rhemense, Suessionense, Catalaunense, and Coloniense ann. 1115. At the Conc. Lateranense ann. 1116 (about which see especially Ekkehardus on this year), the Pope was strongly urged by these Legates, himself to pronounce sentence of excommuni. cation upon the Emperor; however, this did not take place. The Abbot of Farsa, faithful to the Emperor, thus writes to him about the Pope's conduct (in Udalrici cod. no. 259. in Eccard. ii. 267): Apostolici intentio, ut certius nobis videtur, ad hoc viget et molitur, ut irrecuperabile vobis detrimentum operari valeat : et tum demum irrevocabilem contra vos proferet sententiam. Interim callide agit clandestinis machinationibus, quatenus incautos vos et minus sollicitos reddat. Nam verba, quae vobis literis suis blanda et placatissima mandavit, quamvis nobis ignota sunt, fraude tamen plena pro certo existimamus; et ut adventus vester in Italiam differatur, eum ad vos transmisisse arbitramur, licet fortasse eisdem apicibus adventum vestrum se desiderare ostendat.

21 Schlosser III. i. 233. Raumer i. 280. Stenzel i. 655. Henry would not rest satisfied with the mode of investiture agreed on by treaty. Conf. Frider. Archiep. Colon. epist. ad Ottonem Bamb. ann. 1115 (in Udalrici cod. no. 277): Quid de cathedris episcopalibus dicemus, quibus regales villici praesident, quas disponunt, et de domo orationis speluncam plane latronum efficiunt : de animarum lucris nulla penitus quaestio est, dum tantum terrenis lucris regalis fisci os insatiabile repleatur. The worst consequence of this to the Pope was, that other kings took up the wish to invest, cf. Anselmi Cantuar. lib. üi. epist. 152, ad Paschalem, ann. 1117 (Mansi xx. 1023): Rex Angliae conqueritur, quod sustinetis, Regem Teutonicum dare investituras Ecclesiarum, sine excommunicatione : et ideo minatur, se sine dubio resumturum suas investituras, quoniam ille suas tenet in pace. The Pope answered this from Beneventum (epist. 153, in Mansi l. c.): Ex

lead to the same results as it would have done in the reign of Henry IV., because of the notorious inconsistency of the Pope. Henry V. even made himself master of the lands of Matilda, margravine of Tuscany (f 1115), bequeathed by her to the Roman Church 22 (1116), then he advanced upon Rome (1117),23 and forced the Pope to die in banishment († 21st Jan. 1118.)

spectamus quidem, ut ferocia illius gentis edometur. Rex vero si in paternae nequitiae tramite perseveraverit, b. Petri gladium, quem jam educere coepimus, procul dubio experietur.

22 Matilda's deed of gift is to be found at the end of the Life of Matilda, written by Domnizo (in Leibnit. rer. Brunsvic. scriptt. i. 687. Muratori scriptt. rer. Ital. v. 384. Fragments of it have been lately discovered on pieces of a marble table, which perhaps contained the original, see ad Ph. L. Dionysii opus de Vaticanis cryptis appendix, auctoribus Aem. Sarti et Jos. Settele, Romae 1840, fol. p. 40): In nomine s. et individuae Trinitatis anno ab incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi MCII, XV. die Kal. Decembris, indictione X. Tempore domni Gregorii VII. Papae in Lateranensi palatio, in capella s. Crucis, - ego Mathildis, Dei gratia Comitissa, pro remedio animae meae et parentum meorum dedi et obtuli Ecclesiae s. Petri, per interventum domni Gregorii P. omnia bona mea, jure proprietario tam quae tunc habueram, quam ea, quae in antea acquisitura eram, sive jure successsionis, sive alio quocunque jure ad me pertinent, et tam ea, quae ex hac parte montium habebam, quam illa, quae in ultramontanis partibus ad me pertinere videbantur, omnia, sicut dictum est, per manum domini Gregorii VII. P. Romanae Ecclesiae dedi et tradidi, et chartulam inde fieri rogavi. Sed quia chartula nusquam apparet, et timeo, ne donatio et oblatio mea in dubium revocetur : ideo ego, quae supra, Comitissa Mathildis iterum a praesenti die dono et offero eidem Romanae Ecclesiae per manum Bernardi Cardinalis et Legati ejusdem Romanae Ecclesiae, sicut in illo tempore dedi per manum domini Gregorii omnia bona mea, and so on as above. According to J. D. Köler, diss. de donatione Mathildina, Altorf, 1715, p. 12 s., and Scheidii origg. Guelphicae i. 449, the gift referred only to the allodial land, not to the imperial fief. On the other side is Mosheim institt. hist. eccl. p. 404. Schröckh xxvi. 66. The fief could not be alienated by gift; but because the feudal relations of these lands to the Emperor were at that time much relaxed, the Pope was inclined to regard them as allodial, while the Emperor, by virtue of his ancient right, laid claim to all the provinces at least, as fiefs of the empire. Compare Raumer i. s. 289, 295, ss. V. Stichaner über die Berlassenschaft der Mathilde, in den Münchener gel. Anzeigen. Febr. 1840, s. 289.

23 Chron. Casin. iv. c. 60 ss. Ekkehardus ann. 1117: Domnus Apostolicus propter securitatem, quam Regi, licet coactus, fecerit, diffitetur, illum se anathematis vinculo colligasse ; ab Ecclesiae tamen potioribus membris excommunicationem connexam, non nisi ipsorum consilio denegat se pesse dissolvere, concesso nimirum utrinque syno

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GELASIUS II. (1118_1119). CALIXTUS II. (1119–1124.)

Henry had already gained so strong a party at Rome, that he was able to cause the appointment of another Pope, Gregory VIII.," in opposition to the newly elected Gelasius II. Gelasius II., always an exile, died soon after at Cluny. He was succeeded by Guido, Archbishop of Vienne ($ 49, note 20), under the name of Calixtus II., who forthwith began to make overtures for peace. By the terms of a preliminary contract all investitures were to be abolished. But afterthoughts were less

dalis audientiae jure. Henry represents this otherwise to the Bishop of Ratisbon (Udalrici cod. no. 318, in Eccard ii. 332): Dominus Apostolicus-negavit, quod Chuononem in Coloniam vel Saxoniam miserit; irritum esse judicavit, si quid in nos maledictionis effuderit ; affirmavit, quod ipse numquam nos excommunicaverit etc. Raumer i. 300. Stenzel i, 668.

1 The story which the contemporary Landulphus junior hist. Mediolan. c. 32 (Muratori scriptt. rer. Ital. v. 502) relates is worthy of notice on this point: Magister Guarnerius (or Irnerius) de Bononia, et plures legisperiti populum Romanum ad eligendum Papam convenit et quidam expeditus lector in pulpito s. Petri per prolixam lectionem decreta Pontificum de substituendo Papa explicavit. Quibus perlectis et explicatis totus populus elegit in Papam quendam Episcopuin Hispaniae etc.

? As regards him beside Landulphus junior, bis adherent Pandulphus Pisan. in vita Gelasii II. (in Muratori iii, 1, 367), may be especially consulted. Schlosser iii. ì, 239. Raumer i. 301.

3 The negotiations may be found in Hessonis scholastici commentariolus de tractatione pacis inter Calixtum II. et Henricum V. in Seb. Tengnagel vett. monumenta pro Gregorio VII. conscripta p. 329, and borrowed thence in Mansi xxi. 244. The Bishop of Chalons, as Papal emissary, declared to the Emperor in Strasburg : Si veram pacem, domine Rex, habere desideras, investituram episcopatuum et abbatiarum omnimodis dimittere te oportet. Ut autem in hoc nullam regni tui diminutionem pro certo teneas : scito me in regno Francorum electum, nec ante consecrationem nec post consecrationem aliquid suscepisse de manu Regis : cui tamen de tributo, de militia, de telonio, et de omnibus, quae ad rempublicam pertinebant, et antiquitus scilicet a Regibus christianis Ecclesiae Dei donata sunt, ita fideliter deservio, sicut in regno tuo Episcopi tibi deserviunt, quos hucusque investiendo hanc discordiam, immo anathematis sententiam, incurristi (comp. $ 49, not. 7).—Non enim dominus Papa statum imperii aut coronam regni, sicut

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