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many ways a grievance to laymen ; especially after they began to impose fines. Accordingly many communities endeavoured

1 According to the Sachsenspiegel Bk. 1. art. 1 the men in high office were to plead in the Bishop's Synod (cf. Engelberti Archiep. Colon. statuta in Conc. Colon. ann 1266 c. 14. in Mansi xxiii. 1141: nobiles—ad nostram Synodum noscuntur specialiter pertinere), the holders of office, who had property of their own, in that of the cathedral-provost, i. e. the Archdeacon, the occupiers of land, who had no property of their own, in that of the Archpresbyter. In the district of Mayence, the Archpriests held their Synod annually in their own circuit, the Archdeacon every leap year in his archidiaconate. The archiepiscopal synod was changed in the 13th century into a standing tribunal under the name of the Judge of the Holy See at Mayence. See Bodmann s. 851. 854. 857.

2 On the costly maintenance of the synods see Bodmann s. 856.— Soester Stadtrecht aus dem 12. Jahrh. (in Emminghaus memorab. Susat, docum. P. ii. num. 2. p. 121): Synodus vero sine cavillatione et captiositate est tenenda. Quemcunque Scabinum, quod Eytswere (Synodal-witnesses, Synodal-judges) dicitur teutonice, burgenses statuerint, ipsum Praepositus acceptabit.

3 So early as 1149 Henry, Archbishop of Mayence, determined, de justitia s. Martini in Södel (in Gudenus cod. dipl. i. 193): Archipresbyter Synodum celebraturus secum duos adducet clericos.—Questum vero synodalium judiciorum in tres partietur portiones, unam sibi, duas Fratribus. Alexander III. ad Cantuar. Archiep. in the year 1180 (Decr. Greg. lib. v. tit. 37. c. 3) censured the fines in money: Accepimus quod Archidiaconi Conventrensis episcopatus pro corrigendis excessibus, et criminibus puniendis, a clericis et laicis poenam pecuniariam exigunt.—Mandamus, quatenus—hoc districtius interdicas Innocentius III. lib. i. ep. 420, allowed them, and thus arose in Germany the persuasion exprest in the Sachsenspiegel Bk. iii. art. 63. in the Schwabenspiegel cap 2, that Constantine granted to Pope Silvester the power of inflicting fines to the amount of 60 shillings. In the case of those trades, in which certain irregularities, for instance working on Sundays and festivals, were commonly practised, this fine degenerated into an annual present to the members of the Synod. Compare the agreement between the archpriest of Mayence, who held the Synod in the city, and the magistrate there, in the year 1300, in Würdtwein dioecesis Mogunt. in Archidiaconatus distincta i. 20: Institores et eorum collegae pro eo quod in festis Sanctorun, quorum vigiliae non jejunantur, ipsorum mercimonia licite exponunt, Archipresbytero singulis annis quatuor solidos denariorum Moguntinorum in festo b. Thomae Apostoli-dare et solvere tenebuntur. The corduanarii, cerdones, sive Wizgerwer et Rintwarcer, each paid in festo b. Andreae unum denarium Moguntinensem : si vero dicti calcifices et cerdones in festis Sanctorum, quorum vigiliae jejunantur, exposuerint res venales, dicto domino Archipresbytero singuli quilibet hospes unum obulum Pingwensem dabunt, quotiens exposuerint res suas ad vendendum.Caeterum nec Archipresbyter, neque sui nuncii vel scriptores, dictorum

to fetter their jurisdiction by the help of secular power, 4 or else to set themselves altogether free.5

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Planck's Gesch. d. Kirchl. Gesellschaftsverf. Bd. 4. Abschn. 2, s. 272 ff.

Raumer's Gesch. d. Hohenstaufen. Bd. 6. S. 209 ff.

From the time of Gregory VII. in the unbroken continuous warfare of the priesthood against secular power, Ban and

calcificum vel cerdonum hospitia pro factis seu laboribus inquirendis, quos in domibus exercent, ullatenus destinabit. — Item superiores macellarii sive carnifices, ac inferiores, domini Archipresbyteri synodum minime frequentabunt, et pro eo praedicti superiores macellarii ipsi domino Archipresbytero quatuor solidos,-inferiores--quatuor solidos-solvent. Besides this each of them was to pay annually unum Rintschenkel aut frustrum carnis aequivalens, et pro eo in festis quibuscunque mactare pecora seu pecudes bene possunt.-Insuper pro carnibus rancidis aut alias vitiosis-ipse Archipresbyter praedictos carnifices im petere per sententiam aliquam non valebit, sed magister forensis, qui Markmeyster vulgariter dicitur, eosdem carnifices impetere poterit super eo ac etiain judicare. Deinde superiores carnifices ipsi Archipresbytero unum solidum Moguntinensem et duas scapulas, nec non inferiores macellarii quatuor scapulas cum quatuor solidis Mogunt. in septimana Parasceues solvere tenebuntur, et pro eo ipsis carnificibus omnibus et mulieribus quibuscunque sepum (Fat), lardum et sanguinem vendentibus haec gratia est indulta, et jure consuetudinario et a tempore cujus non extat memoria legitime appro. bata, quod praedictas mulieres seu carnifices per sententias aliquas non impetet vel contrariabit. Similar regulations follow with regard to the fishermen, whetters, bakers, weavers, gardeners, &c.

4 The city of Ghent claimed the privilege of being compelled to allow the Synod once only in every four years, and then that it might punish only adulteros, incestuosos et usurarios publicos, and only upon an accusation by the Sherifts. In like manner other towns, also in Flanders, endeavoured to fetter the Synod, Warnkönig's flandr. Staatsu. Rechtsgesch. i. 436.

5 For instance in Mayence several trades, see note 3. Thus Otto Duke of Brunswick, in the statutes of the town of Minden ann. 1246 (see Kuchenbeckers's Abhandl. v. den hess. Erbhofamtern Beil, s. 9) declared this town to be free from Synodal jurisdiction : likewise Henry I. Landgrave of Hesse, with regard to the towns of Grünberg (1272) and Frankenberg (1294) see Kopp. i. 174.

interdict were so common, and so often employed for causes insufficient or positively unjust, that for this reason alone ecclesiastical punishments fell into contempt. Whilst the priest

i Beside the wars of the Popes, the extension of ecclesiastical jurisdiction also gave occasion to this, see above $ 63. note 24 ff. Afterwards the Excommunicationes latae sententiae introduced by the right of Decretals (du Pin de antiqua Eccl. discipl. p. 269.)

2 Thus Ludolph, Bishop of Minden, in 1302, decreed (Hartzheiin Conc. Germ. iv. 591), quod quicunque censuales sibi-censum proventuum suoruin statuto termino non solverint, et moniti infra xv. dies de hoc non satisfecerint competenter, incurrant excommunicationis sententiam ipso facto. Other instances may be found in Hurter, Innocenz III. iii. 115. Bonifacii P. viii, constitutio v. 31. May 1302 (in Haeberlin analecta medii aevi p. 337): Provide attendentes, quod, ut frequentius,-interdicti sententiae proferuntur, quodque sunt nonnulli judices nimis prompti ad proferendas easdem, etiam in negotiis sive causis, quae interdum plus cupiditatis, quam ex caritatis radice perspicuis judiciis procedere arguuntur ;—praesentis constitutionis providemus edicto, ut nulla civitas, castrum, villa, locus, territorium vel districtus --supponatur ecclesiastico interdicto pro pecuniario debito etc.

3 Even Bernoldus Const, chron. ad ann. 1100 (Pertz monum. vii. 467) complains : Jam multum paene ubique sententia excommunicationis coepit tepescere. Chron. Erphordiense (in Böhmer's fontes rerum Germ. ii. 401): at the Council held at Mayence in the year 1239 the Bishop of Eichstadt represented, quomodo sui ministeriales ac cives Eistatenses jam fere per annum pertinaciter in excommunicatione inanentes, diabolica atque haeretica praesumptione ac perversione ipsum Episcopum cum clero sibi favente crudeliter expellendo abjecissent, et laicas personas in Episcopum ac Praepositum et Decanuin elegissent, ac ejusdem matricis Ecclesiae sacristiam infringendo spoliaverint; quomodo etiam ipsorum errorem magnates et potentes quidam de terra foventes perniciose in malitia confortaverint, ac qualiter suos fautores, si decesserint, cum musicis instrumentis ad sepulturam conducentes, laetanter sepeliant. The account of a contemporary writer in Memoriale potestatum Regiensium ad ann. 1282 (in Muratorii scriptt. rer. Ital. viii. 1151) shows to what extent this prevailed in the 13th century, particularly in Italy. Eodem anno Perusini praeparaverurt se, ut irent ad devastandum Fulignum. Et misit Papa dicendo, quod nullo modo irent: alioquin excommunicaret eos. Erat enim Fulignum ex horto s. Petri. Et non dimiserunt Perusini propter hoc, quin irent. Iverunt igitur, et destruxerunt totum episcopatum illius civitatis usque ad foveas. Excommunicati fuerunt; sed indignati ex hoc, fecerunt Papain et Cardinales de paleis, et traxerunt eos per totam civitatem opprobriose, et traxerunt eos ad quemdam montem, et in cacumine montis combusserunt Papam indutum de Rubeo et Cardinales combuis. serunt similiter, dicendo: Iste est talis Cardinalis, et iste talis.Nicolaus Ep. Botrontinensis, who has described as an eye-witness the

hood was thus compelled on the one side to mitigate the operation of these penalties in the Church ;4 every method was tried on the other side to aggravate their disadvantageous political conse

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iter italicum of Henry VII., records (Muratori ix. 903) that even in the King's Council it was determined (in the year 1311) to ask the Cardinal. Legate who accompanied him, si ipse posset virtute suae auctoritatis ponere sententiain excoinmunicationis contra illos, qui nollent obedire, quod requireretur. Ego missus ad dominum Legatum. Copiam suae literae mihi dedit, quae plenissima ad omnia ista facienda erat. Ipse mihi dixit secrete, et voluit quod domino Regi dicerem, quomodo parum Italici curant de excommunicationibus alicubi. Et posuit exemplum de Florentinis, qui sententias domini Ostiensis parum curaverunt. Item de Bononiensibus, qui sententias domini Napoleonis vilipenderunt. Item domini de Peregrue sententias Mediolanenses non curaverunt. Unde nisi gladius materialis eos ducat ratione timoris ad obedientiam, gladius spiritualis non.

* In the case of the Ban for instance: Gregory VII. in Conc. Rom. ann. 1078 (Mansi xx. 506. in Gratian. P. ii. caus. xi. qu. 3. c. 103): Quoniam multos-pro causa excommunicationis perire quotidie cernimus, partim ignorantia, partim nimia simplicitate, partim timore, partim etiam necessitate; devicti misericordia, anathematis sententiam ad tempus, prout possumus, opportune temperamus. Apostolica itaque auctoritate ab anathematis vinculo hos subtrabimus ; videlicet uxores, liberos, servos, ancillas, seu mancipia, necnon rusticos servientes, et omnes alios, qui non adeo curiales sunt, ut eorum consilio scelera perpetrentur, et eos, qui ignoranter excommunicatis communicant, sive illos, qui communicant cum eis, qui excommunicatis communicant. Quicunque autem orator, sive peregrinus, aut viator in terram excommunicatorum devenerit, ubi non possit emere, vel non habeat unde emat, ab excommunicatis accipiendi licentiam darnus. Et si quis excommunicatis non in sustentationem superbiae, sed humanitatis causa dare aliquid voluerit, non prohibemus. In case of Interdict : Besides the privileges granted to certain corporations (see Raumer vi. 216) Alexander Ill. appointed (Decret. Greg. lib. iv. tit. 1. cap. 11) baptismum parvulorun et poenitentias morientium in the time of an interdict. Innocent III. (ibid. lib. v. tit. 39 c. 43) charged the Bishop of Ferrara baptizatos pueros in frontibus consignare: Gregory IX. (ibid. c. 57): semel in hebdomada, non pulsatis campanis, voce submissa, januis clausis, excommunicatis et interdictis exclusis, Missarum solemnia celebrare, causa conficiendi corpus Domini, quod decedentibus in poenitentia non negatur. Lastly Boniface VIII. (Sexti Decretal. lib. v. tit. 11. c. 24): A nostris dudum fuit praedecessoribus constitutum, ut in terris seu locis, ecclesiastico suppositis interdicto, nulla (certis casibus et sacramentis exceptis) divina celebrentur officia, vel ministrentur ecclesiastica sacramenta. Quia vero ex districtione hujusmodi statutorum excrescit indevotio populi, pullulant haereses, et infinita pericula animarum insurgunt, ac Ecclesiis sine culpa earum debita obsequia subtrahuntur,-concedimus, quod tempore interdicti --- non

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quences. In Germany it seemed after long resistance to reach its end in view during the quarrels in the early part of the 13th century.? In France, however, it could not find an entrance for

tantummodo morientes, sed etiam viventes, tam sani etiam quam infirmi, ad poenitentiam-licite admittantur, dum tamen excommunicati non fuerint. --Adjicimus praeterea, quod singulis diebus in Ecclesiis et monasteriis Missae celebrentur, et alia dicantur divina ofiicia sicut prius, submissa tamen voce et januis clausis, excommunicatis ac interdictis exclusis, et campanis etiam non pulsatis.-In festivitatibus vero natalis Domini, Paschae, ac Pentecostes, et adsumtionis Virginis gloriosae, campanae pulsentur, et januis apertis alta voce divina officia solemniter celebrentur, excommunicatis prorsus exclusis, sed interdictis admissis.

5 The ecclesiastical Ban was to be immediately followed by secular outlawry: Urbanus ii. in Gratianus P. ii. caus. xxiii. qu. 5. c. 47 : Non etiam eos homicidas arbitramur, quos adversus excommunicatos zelo catholicae matris ardentes, aliquos eorum trucidasse contigerit.

6 Eugenius P. iii. epist. ad Wibaldum Abb. ann. 1152 (in Martene ampliss. collect. ii, 553) complains on this head, quod in curia Ulmae habita malitiose in Ecclesiarum destructionem noviter est a laicis introductum,- quod qui pro rapinis et incendiis ecclesiasticis bonis illatis excommunicationi subduntur, novo judicio excommunicatos dedicant (i. e. negent), nisi prius in laicorum judicio damnationis sententia feriantur. (From this passage Harenberg drew his materials for the year 1152 in the forged continuation of the Corveger Annalen in his Monumentis historicis adhuc ineditis, Brunsvig. 1762, i. 72. On this forgery in general see the critical examination of the Chron. Corbejense by Hirsch and Waits, Berlin 1839. s. 98. 106. Pertz monum. Germ. vii. 2). Probably these agitations in the imperial court were the result of the Arnoldiau maxims prevalent in Rome at that time, which were often enough brought forward by the Romans in their negotiations with the Emperor. (See above $ 51 note 10 and 20). Nevertheless the following passage is to be found in Sachsenspiegel Buch 3. Art. 63: Bann schadet der seile, und nemet doch neymande syn liiff, und krenket neymande to lantrechte, dar en volge des Koninges achte na, see above $. 55. not. 13.

? Philip of Swabia had offered so early as 1203, generalem legem statuam, -ut quicunque excommunicatus fuerit a domino Apostolico, in banno statim sit imperiali (see above §. 54. not 16.) Frederick II. granted to the German Bishops in the Confoederatio of 1220 (see above § 55. not. 1) the rule (in Pertz iv. 236): Excommunicatio non eximat eos a respondendo impetentibus, sed sine Advocatis ; perimat autem in eis jus et potestatein ferendi sententias, testimonia, et alios impetendi. Et quia gladius materialis constitutus est in subsidium gladii spiritualis ; excommunicationem, si excommunicatos in ea ultra sex septimanas perstitisse-constiterit, nostra proscriptio subsequetur ; non revocanda, nisi prius excommunicatio revocetur. This rule (between the years 1270 and 1285) was also adopted into the Schwabenspiegel cap. 3.

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