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Their chief, Peter Johu Olivi († 1297),12 and his commentary on

sit considerare praecipuum proprietatem, possessionem, usumfructun, jus utendi, et simplicem facti usum ; et ultimo tamquam necessario egeat, licet primis carere possit, vita mortalium : nulla prorsus potest esse professio, quae a se usum necessariae sustentationis excludat. Verum condecens fuit ei professioni, quae sponte devovit Christum pauperem in tanta paupertate sectari, omnium abdicare dominium, et rerum sibi concessarum necessario usu fore contentam. Nec per hoc, quod proprietatem usus, et rei cujusque dominium a se abdicasse videtur, simplici usu omnis rei renunciasse convincitur, qui, inquam, usus, non juris sed facti tantummodo nomen habens, quod facti est tantum, in utendo praebet utentibus nihil juris : quinimmo necessariarum rerum -- moderatus usus — concessus est Fratribus --- durante concedentis licentia -Ad haec cum Fratres ipsi nihil sibi in speciali alquirere, vel eorum Ordini possint etiam in communi ;-omnium utensilium et librorum, ac eorum nobilium praesentium et futurorum, quae et quoruin usumfructum scilicet Ordinibus vel Fratribus ipsis licet habere, proprietatem et dominium (quod et fel. record. Innocentius P. iv. praedecessor noster fecisse dignoscitur) in nos et Romanam Ecclesiam plene et libere pertinere bac praeseriti constitutione, in perpetuum valitura, sancimus. Among the other explanations compare also, Licet autem contineatur in Regula, quod Fratres habeant unam tunicam cum caputio, et aliam, sine caputio : - declaramus, quod possint Fratres de licentia ministrorum et custodum conjunctim et divisim in administrationibus sibi commissis, cum eis videbitur,-uti pluribus, nec per hoc videantur a Regula deviare : cum etiam in ipsa dicatur expresse, quod ministri et custodes de infirmorum necessitatibus, et Fratribus induendis sollicitam curam gerant, secundum loca et tempora et frigidas regiones.

12 Concerning him see Oudinus de scriptt. eccles. iii. 584. Olivi was indeed several times examined by the officers of his order because he censured the mitigation of the rule (see Wadding ann. 1282 no. 2. 1283 no. 1. 1285 no. 5. 1290 no. 11. 1292 no. 13); and his defence on his first examination in the year 1283 is still extant (in d'Argentré collectio judicioruin i. 226), in which he disclaims one by one the errors charged upon him. Here, however, his apocalyptic dreams are nowhere brought forward. His postilla in Apocalypsin was first mentioned in the apology for him by Ubertinus de Casali about the year 1297; and so it appears to have been written by him late in life. He has left behind him his opinion on the porerty prescribed by the rule, in a Profession composed on his deathbed (in Wadding ann. 1297 no. 33. and Bulaei hist. Univ. Paris. iii. 535): Dico abdicationem omnis jurisdictionis temporalis, et pauperem rerum usum esse de substantia vitae nostrae evangelicae. Pauperem vero usum hunc ita explico, ut omnibus consideratis censeatur potius pauper quam dives, seu declinet potius ad paupertatem, quam ad opulentiam. Dico etiam, quod defendere pertinaciter transgressiones paupertatis, et imperfectiones Regulae contrarias tamquam bonas, vel cogere ad eas Fratres, persequendo illos, qui Regulae puritatem observant, peccatum est mortale, a quo non

the Apocalypse, in which, along with the above mentioned fanatical expectations, the most biting censure against the Popes found utterance, 13 met with many adherents in the order, and excusat crassa vel affectata ignorantia Dico 3, quod eo gravius est introducere hujusmodi relaxationes in universum corpus religionis, quam peculiares quosdam ad easdem allicere etc. Dico 4, notabiles excessus in aedificiis , pro quibus construendis multiplices et importuni fiunt quaestus, periculosos esse. Dico 5, litigare vel causas movere coram judicibus circa funeralia, aut legata pia nobis relicta, impuritas est maxima contra Regulam: neque obstat, quod per saeculares seu Fratrum amicos haec fiant ; si tamen Fratres eos ad hoc excitaverint, sumptus aut scripturas ministraverint. — Idemque censenduin est de iis, qui procurant suis monasteriis annuos reditus, et deterininatas vel statutas sub singulis annis provisioncs, praevenientes nimia solicitudine omnes necessitates etc.

18 Of his Postilla super Apocalypsi there are only those sixty articles remaining, on which eight doctors of theology gave in their judgment to Pope John XXII., in Baluzii miscellan. i. 213, in particular p. 214: Quantum ergo ad primum, qui scilicet sint septem status Ecclesiae in his visionibus descripti, sciendum, quod primus est fundationis Ecclesiae primitivae in Judaismo sub A postolis factae. Secundus fuit probationis et confirmationis ejusdem per martyria.---Tertius fuit doctrinalis expositionis fidei rationabiliter confutantis et convincentis insurgentes haereses. Quartus fuit anachoreticae vitae.- Quintus fuit vitae communis, partiin zeli severi, partim condescensivi sub Monachis et Clericis temporales possessiones habentibus. Sextus est renovationis evangelicae vitae, et expugnationis antichristianae, et finalis conversionis Judaeorum et gentium, seu iteratae reaedificationis Ecclesiae simul primae. Septimus vero, prout spectat ad vitam istam, est quaedam quieta et mira participatio futurae gloriae, ac si caelestis Jerusalem videatur descendisse in terram : prout tamen spectat ad aliam vitam, est status generalis resurrectionis, et glorificationis Sanctorum, et finalis consummationis, omniuin.-Sextus vero [status aliqualiter coepit a tempore b. viri Patris nostri Francisci. Plenius tamen debet incipere a damnatione Babylonis meretricis magnae, quando praefatus angelus Christi signo signabit per suos futuram malitiam [leg. militiam cf. Apoc. 7,3] Christi. Septimus autem uno modo inchoat ab interfectione illius Antichristi, qui dicet se Deum et Messiam Judaeorum. Alio modo inchoat ab initio extremi judicii omnium reproborum et electorum.-p. 221 : Sicut etiam in sexta aetate rejecto carnali Judaismo et vetustate prioris saeculi venit novus homo Christus cum nora lege, vita et cruce : sic in sexto statu rejecta carnali Ecclesia et vetustate prioris saeculi renovabitur Christi lex, et vita, et crux. Propter quod in ejus primo initio Franciscus apparuit, Christi plagis characterizatus, et Christo totus concrucifixus et configuratus.-p. 228 on Apoc. 6, 12: patet Franciscum vere esse angelum apertionis sexti signaculi.-p. 229 : Est adhuc notandum, a quo tempore debeat sumi initium hujus sextao apertionis. Videtur enim quibusdam, quod ab initio Ordinis et Regulae s. Patris praefati; alii vero, quod a solemni revelatione tertii status generalis, continentis sextum et septimum statum Ecclesiae, facta after his death with an ardent defender in his likeminded pupil Ubertinus de Casali.14 Abbati Joachim et forte quibusdam aliis sibi contemporaneis; alii vero, quod ab exterminio Babylonis et Ecclesiae carnalis per decem cornua bestiae i. e, per decem Reges fiendo; alii vero, quod a suscitatione spiritus seu quorundam ad spiritum Christi et Francisci, tempore quo ejus Regula est a pluribus nequiter et sophistice impugnanda et condemnanda ab Ecclesia carnalium et superboruin, sicut Christus condemnatus fuit a Synagoga reproba Judaeorum. Hoc enim oportet praeire temporale exterminium Ecclesiae, sicut illud praeivit exterminium Synagogae.—p. 235 on Apoc. 6, 12 : Tunc enim totus status Ecclesiae in Praelatis et plebibus et religiosis funditus subvertetur, praeter id quod in paucis electis (namely the Minorites) remanebit occulte. – Est enim tunc nova Babylon sic judicanda, sicut fuit carnalis Hierusalem, quia Christum non recepit, immo reprobavit et crucifixit. On Apoc. 7, 2: Hic ergo angelus est Franciscus, evangelicae vitae et Regulae sexto et septimo tempore propagandae et magnificandae renovator, et summus post Christum et ejus matrem observator.-p. 236 : Audivi etiam a viro spiritali valde fide digno,-quod b. Franciscus in illa pressura tentationis Babylonicae, in qua ejus status et Regula quasi instar Christi crucifigetur, resurget gloriosus; ut sicut in vita et in crucis stigmatibus est Christo singulariter assimilatus, sic et in resurrectione Christo assimiletur, necessaria tunc suis discipulis confirmandis, et informandis, sicut Christi resurrectio fuit Apostolis confirmandis necessaria. - p. 248: Sicut enim— Apostoli-senserunt, non se ita prosperaturos seu prospere piscaturos in terra Judaeorum, sicut in mari paganorum, sic et iste angelus sentiet, non se ita prosperari in carnali Ecclesia Latinorum, sicut in Graecis et Sarracenis et Tartaris et tandem in Judaeis.--p. 257 on Apoc. 16, 10: Sicut post quatuor animalia, quatuor primos status Sanctorum designantia, sublirnata est generalis sedes Romanae Ecclesiae, caeteris patriarchalibus s. orientalibus Ecclesiis a Christo et ab ejus vera fide resectis, sic in eodem quinto tempore post quatuor bestias a Daniele visas, quatuor primis Sanctorum ordinibus contrarias, sublimata est sedes bestiae i. e. bestialis catervae, ita ut numero et potestate praevaleat et fere absorbeat sedem Christi, cui localiter et nominaliter est commixta. Unde et sic appel. latur Ecclesia fidelium, sicut et illa, quae vere est per gratiam sedes et Ecclesia Christi.---Per hanc autem sedem bestiae principaliter desig. natur carnalis clerus in hoc quinto tempore regnans et toti Ecclesiae praesidens, in quo quidem bestialis vita praecellenter et singulariter regnat et sedet sicut in sua principali sede, et longe plus quam in laicis et plebibus sibi subjectis.-p. 260 : Unde et quidam putant, quod tam Antichristus mysticus quam proprius et magnus erit PseudoPapa caput Pseudo-prophetarum etc.--p. 261 on Apoc. 17, 1: Nota quod haec mulier stat hic pro Romana gente et imperio, tam prout fuit quondam in statu paganismi, quam prout postmodum fuit in fide Christi, multis tamen criminibus cum hoc mundo fornicata. Vocatur ergo meretrix magna, quia a fideli cultu et a sincero amore et deliciis Dei Christi, sponsi sui, recedens adhaeret huic saeculo, et divitiis, et deliciis ejus, et diabolo propter ista etc.

Under Celestine IV. indeed the internal discord of the Franciscans seemed to be removed, when this Pope (1294) united the spiritualists in a society of their own, called the CelestineEremites.15 But Boniface VIII. abolisht it again (1302), persecuted the spiritualists as heretics and schismatics, 16 and thus prepared the way for their complete secession from the order and the Church.17 (Fraticelli.)

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Corn. Smetius de Begginis in J. Ghesquieri et C. Smetii acta SS. Belgii selecta

T. V. (Bruxell. 1789. 4.) p. 93. J. L. a Mosheim de Beghardis et Beguinabus commentarius. ed. G. H. Martini. Lips. 1790. Dr E. Hallmann's Gesch. d. Ursprungs d. belgischen Beghinen, Berlin 1843.

From the end of the 12th century there grew up in many towns of the Netherlands societies of ladies (Beguinae Begutae),

14 See an extract from his Apology for Olivi, for which in 1317 under John XXII, he also was called to account (Baluz. miscel. i. 293), in Wadding ann. 1287, no. 36 ss. But also in the Arbor vitae crucifixae all the Apocalyptic ideas of Olivi are brought forward again: and in lib. v. c. 1 whole passages of his Postilla in Apocal. are quoted word for word. About the same time the Franciscan Jacobus de Benedictis or Jacoponus, the author of the Sequence, Stabat mater dolorosa, had to atone for his undisguised censure of Boniface VIII. by a severe imprisonment (Wadding. ann. 1298 no. 24 ss. 1306 no. 7 ss. Mohnike kirchen- u. literarhist. Studien I. ii. 335.)

15 Pauperes Eremitae Domini Coelestini. Cf. Raynaldus ann. 1294 no. 26. Wadding ann. 1294. no. 9. The persecutions they suffered from the rest of the Franciscans may be seen ibid. 1301 no. 1.

16 Wadding ann. 1302 no. 7. 8. 1307 no. 2 ss.

17 An accusation was also brought against Ubertinus de Casali in 1317 (see note 14) Baluz. i. 305), quod fuit defensor, sectator, et fautor Fratricellorum dicentium et tenentium quod a tempore Coelestini Papae non fuit in Ecclesia Papa verus, et plures alios errores.

i On the reasons see Mosheim, p. 133. On the numerical disproportion of the two sexes caused by the crusades, and its consequences, see Sprengel's Gesch, d. Arzneikunde 3te Aufl ii. 522.—There has always been a commonly received opinion in Liege, that the Beguins were instituted there about the year 1180, by a certain priest Lambert le Bègues or le Bèghe, and called after his name. So says even Aegidius

who free from monastic vows and monastic constraint, lived a life of devotion according to a rule which establisht only neces

mon. Aureae Vallis, who wrote about the year 1230 gesta Pontificum Leodliensium, c. 52 (in J. Chapeavilli gesta Pontiff. Tungrensium, Trajectinensium et Leodinensium ii. 126): Cum hujusmodi erroribus irretita jam teneretur Legia,- suscitavit Deus spiritum sancti cujusdam sacerdotis,- qui Lambertus le Begues, quia balbus erat, de s. Christophoro dicebatur, a cujus cognomine mulieres et puellae, quae caste vivere proponunt, Beguines gallice cognominantur, quia ipse primus extitit, qui eis praemium castitatis verbis et exemplo praedicavit. Thus also says Henricus Gueldrus, Bishop of Liege, in a letter to the Beguines of Tongres in the year 1266, (in B. Fisen sancta Legia, s. hist. Eccl. Leodiensis, p. 409): Attendentes, qualiter haec sancta religiosarum puellarum et matronarum, quae Beguinae vocantur, plantatio-jam dudum in civitate et dioecesi Leodiensi prima pullulavit, et palmites suos longe lateque producens, paene per totum orbem flores protulit : gaudemus in Domino dictas nostras civitatem et dioecesin propter hoc ubique locorum magnis laudibus praeconiorum attolli. Startling indeed is the expression of Thomas Cantipratensis, who lived in Louvain and Cambray, in his bonum universale de apibus (written about 1260) lib. ii. c. 51 : Circa annum incarnationis dominicae MCCXXVI res mirabilis accidit in oppido Nivellensi. In hac urbe, ut pluribus adhuc viventibus notum est, mulierum devotarum, quae Beghinae dicuntur, nunc late diffusa per orbem religiositas inchoavit. Harum perplures, quae magis spirituales erant, igne sacro acriter sunt accensae, et hoc in membris tantum, in quibus magis peccaverant. The miraculous cures in the church of St Gertrude, are then related as the res mirabilis. However the founding of the Beguinages in Bruges, Valenciennes, Douay and Dendermonde took place before 1226, all of these could not have been unknown to Thomas. So in that passage he must be speaking of the establishment of Beguines in Nivelles, and not generally of the first institution of the order. In much later time, in consequence of the similarity of the names, there grew a popular opinion, that the Beguines were an institution of St Begga, the daughter of Pepin von Landen, and mother of Pepin Heristal. After the beginning of the 17th century many Beguinages in Brabant began to honour this canonized princess of Brabant as their foundress, whilst others, especially that of Liege, stnod firm to Lambert le Bègue, and thus was engendered a hot controversy on this head, see Hallmann S. 25 and 125. Certain documents, the earliest of the year 1065, seem to decide against Lambertus, they appear to prove the existence of a Beguinage in Vilvorde near Brussels before his time. Erycius Puteanus, Professor at Louvain, first publisht these de Begginarum apud Belgas instituto et nomine, Lovan. 1630. 4 (in Hallmann S. 47.) By the publication of these documents, others also, who refused to acknowledge St Begga as the foundress, were induced to refer the institution to an earlier date than Lambert's, and to search for another derivation of the name. In the Actis Sanct.

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