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the order (ordo fratrum minorum) was at the time of Francis’ death († 4 Oct. 1226) already increased to many thousands.?

Nec oportet eos verecundari, quia Dominus pro nobis se fecit pauperem in hoc mundo. Haec est illa celsitudo altissimae paupertatis, quae vos carissimos Fratres meos haeredes et reges regni caelorum instituit, pauperes rebus fecit, virtutibus autem sublimavit. Haec sit portio vestra, quae perducit in terram viventium. Cap. 9: Fratres non praedicent in Episcopatu alicujus Episcopi, cum ab eo illis fuerit contradictum.-From the will of St Francis (see Wadding ad ann. 1226 no. 36. Acta ss. I. c. p. 663) the following remarkable passage is taken :--Praecipio firmiter per obedientiam fratribus universis, quod, ubicumque sunt, non audeant petere aliquam literam in curia Romana per se, nec per interpositam personam, nec pro ecclesia, nec pro alio loco, neque sub specie praedicationis, neque pro persecutione suoruin corporum : sed ubicunque non fuerint recepti, fugiant ad aliam terrain, ad facienduin poenitentiam, cum benedictione Dei.- Et omnibus fratribus meis, clericis et laicis, praecipio firmiter per obedientiam, ut non mittant glossas in regula, nec in istis verbis [i. e. in testamento] dicendo : Ita voluit intelligi. Sed sicut dedit mihi Dominus pure et simpliciter dicere, et scribere regulam et ista verba, ita simpliciter et pure sine glossa intelligatis, et cum sancta operatione usque in finem observetis.—The superiors of the order were called Ministri, namely, Custodes (wardens), Ministri provinciales, Minister generalis. Every three years there was a Capitulum generale.

About this time writes Jacobus de Vitriaco histor. occident. c. 32 : Praedictis tribus, Ereinitarum, Monachorum et Canonicorum religionibus, ut regulariter viventium quadratura fundamenti in soliditate sua firma subsisteret, addidit Dominus in diebus istis quartam religionis institutionem, Ordinis decorem et Regulae sanctitatem. Si tamen Ecclesiae primitivae statum et ordinem diligenter attendamus, non tam novam addidit regulam, quam veterem renovavit, relevavit jacentem, et paene mortuam suscitavit religionem in vespere mundi tendentis ad occasum, imminente tempore filii perditionis, ut contra Antichristi periculosa tempora novos athletas praepararet, et Ecclesiam praemuniendo fulciret. Haec est religio vere pauperum Crucifixi, et Ordo Praedicatorum, quos fratres Minores appellamus, vere Minores, et omnibus hujus temporis Regularibus in habitu et nuditate et mundi contemptu humi. liores.— Regulam autem ipsorum dominus Papa confirmavit, et eis auctoritatem praedicandi, ad quascunque veniunt ecclesias, concessit ; Praelatorum tamen loci ob reverentiam requisito consensu. Mittuntur autein bini ad praedicandum, tanquam ante faciem Domini, et ante secundum ejus adventum. Ipsi autem Christi pauperes neque sacculum in via portant, neque peram, neque panem, -neque calciamenta in pedibus suis habentes: nulli enim hujus Ordinis fratri licet aliquid possidere. Non habent monasteria vel ecclesias, non agros vel vineas vel animalia, non domos vel alias possessiones, neque ubi caput reclinent. Non utuntur pellibus, neque lineis, sed tantummodo tunicis laneis caputiatis ; non cappis, vel pallüs, vel cucullis, neque aliis prorsus

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Along with this from the year 1212, there grew up the female order of the Clarissines (Ordo s. Clarae), which in 1224 received its rule from Francis. But the Tertius Ordo de poenitentia (Tertiarii or Fratres conversi)o instituted by Francis in 1221 for secular persons, was of the greatest importance in promoting the efficacy of the Franciscans.

At the same time with Francis, Dominick,10 a canon of Osma, engaged since 1205 in the conversion of the Albigenses, founded a monastic brotherhood for this purpose at Toulouse. To this he

induuntur vestimentis. Si quis eos ad prandium vocaverit, manducant et bibunt, quae apud illos sunt. Si quis eis aliquid misericorditer contulerit, non reservant in posterum.—Non solum autem praedicatione, sed et exemplo vitae sanctae et conversationis perfectae multos, non solum inferioris ordinis homines, sed generosus et nobiles ad mundi contemptum invitant: qui, relictis oppidis et casalibus et amplissimis possessionibus, temporales divitias et spirituales felici commercio commutantes, habitum fratrum Minoruin, i. e. tunicam vilis pretii, qua induuntur, et funem, quo accinguntur, assumpserunt. Tempore enim modico adeo multiplicati sunt, quod non est aliqua Christianorum provincia, in qua aliquos de fratribus suis non habeant ;—praesertim cuin nulli ad religionem suain transeunti gremium claudant, nisi forte matrimonio vel aliqua religione fuerit obligatus.--Alios autem omnes in amplitudine religionis suae tanto confidentius-suscipiunt, quanto divinae munificentiae et providentiae sese committentes, unde eos Dominus sustentare debeat, non formidant. Ipsi enim funiculum cum tunica venientibus ad se largientes, quod reliquum est, supernae procurationi relinquunt.

8 See this in Holstenius-Broçkie iii. 34. Pragm. Gesch. iii. 261.

9 Bonaventura in vita Franc. c 4: Nam praedicationis ipsius fervore succensi quam plurimi utriusque sexus in conjugali pudicitia Domino famulantes secundum formam a Dei viro acceptam, novis se poenitentiae legibus vinciebant, quorum vivendi modum idem Christi famulus Ordi. nem Fratrum de poenitentia nominari decrevit. Nimiruin sicut in caelum tendentibus poenitentiae viam omnibus constat esse communem, sic et hic status clericos et laicos, virgines et conjugatos in utroque sexu admittens, quanti sit apud Deum meriti, ex pluribus per aliquos ipsorum patratis miraculis innotescit. The rule is in Holstenius-Brockie iii. 39. Pragm. Gesch. iii. 287. Afterwards there grew up monasteries for Tertiaries (Tert. regulares) who adopted more severe rules. The first that is known rose in 1287 at Toulouse, l'ragm. Gesch. iii. 299.

10 Among the many lives of Dominick, the oldest is by Jordanus, the successor of the saint in the generalship of the order (in the Act. ss. August. i. 545. ad d. 4. Aug.), then there is that in use in the order, written about 1254 by Humbertus de Romanis, fifth general of the order. Pragm. Gesch. viii. 1. Hurter iv. 282.-Annales Ordinis Praedicatorum (hy Th. M. Mamachius, &c.) Romae vol. i. 1746. fol.

gave, beside the Regula s. Augustini, which was assigned to him by Innocent III. peculiar ordinances of his own." By means of the Papal sanction obtained from Honorius III. in 1216, he raised it to a separate order (fratres Prædicatores):12 and at length adopted for it, in the first general-chapter held at Bologna in 1220 Francis' fundamental maxim of evangelical poverty.13.

Next to these first two mendicant orders came afterwards (1245) the Carmelite order, transplanted to Europe in 1238,14

i The Constitutiones fratrum ord. Prædicatoruin (in Holstenius Brockie iv. 10) are collected from the decrees of several general-chapters by Raymundus de Pennaforti the third general of the order. There in the prolog. c. 3: Ordo noster specialiter ob praedicationem et animarum salutem ab initio noscitur institutus fuisse, et studium nostrum ad hoc debet principaliter intendere, ut proximorum animabus possimus utiles esse. The chiefs of the order are called priors, part Priores conventuales, part provinciales : The general of the order was called Magister Ordinis. Every three years was a capitulum generale.

12 The Bull is in the Preface to the Constitutions : Honorius-Dominico etc. Nos attendentes fratres Ordinis tui futuros pugiles fidei, et vera mundi luinina, confirmamus Ordinem tuum cum omnibus castris et possessionibus habitis et habendis, et ipsum Ordinem ejusque possessiones et jura sub nostra gubernatione et protectione suscipimns.

18 Jordanus in vita s. Dominici cap. 4: Tunc etiam ordinatum est ne possessiones vel reditus de caetero tenerent fratres nostri ; sed et iis renunciarent, quos habuerant in partibus Tholosanis. The Dominicans in Toulouse resisted this decree at the first, see act. ss. 1, c. p. 494.Constantinus Episc. Urbevetanus, who wrote between the years 1242 and 1247 a life of Dominick, records in no. 45 of the sayings of the saint on his deathbed : Illud vero qua potuit districtione probibuit, ne quis umquam in suo Ordine possessiones induceret temporales, maledictionem Dei omnipotentis et suam terribiliter imprecans ei, qui Praedicatorum Ordinem, quem praecipue paupertatis decorat professio, terenae substantiae veneno respergere laboraret. Against the later Dominicans who would have this to be a forgery, see act, ss. 1. c. p. 518.- In the constitutt. Fratr. Praedicatorum dist. ii. cap. 1. constit. 3, the following passage is to be found on this head : Mediocres domos et humiles fratres nostri habeant: nec fiant, aut permittantur fieri in domibus nostris curiositates et superfluitates notabiles in sculpturis, picturis, pavimentis et aliis similibus, quae paupertatem nostram deformant. In Ecclesiis tamen permitti poterunt. Si quis vero contra fecerit, poenae graviori culpae debitae subjacebit. Item possessiones, seu reditus nullo modo recipiantur, nec Ecclesiae, quibús animarum cura sit annexa.

14 Already in the year 1226 Honorius III. seems to have issued the Bull Ex Officii nostri (see Bullarium Carinelitanum, Romæ, 1715 ss. fol. P. i. p. 4), which afterwards had to be repeated word for word by Innocent IV. in the year 1215 (l. c. p. 5) in which the Carmelites and the Augustine-Eremites (Eremitæ s. Augustini. 1256.)"5 After the example of the Franciscans the rest of the mendicants gradually establisht Tertiaries.16 Further multiplication of these new monastic families was indeed forbidden by Gregory X. ;17 however, soon after the Servites (Servi b. Mariæ Virginis) who had grown up in Florence since the year 1233, and observed the rule of S. Augustine, must be recognised as a separate mendicant order.18

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The peculiar constitution of these new orders, made them most appropriate tools for the Popes to work upon the people in

were forbidden, ne in proprietatem eremi vestrae loca, vel possessiones, seu domos, aut reditus alios recipiatis ullo modo, vel praesumatis babere, praeter asinos masculos, et aliquod animalium seu volatilium nutrimentum. By the Bull Quae honorem in i 248 (1. c. p. 8) Innocent IV. somewhat modified Albert's rule (see above § 67 note 6.)

15 They sprung from the union of many Cænobite establishments in Italy, which Alexander IV. brought about in 1256 by the Bull Licet ecclesiae (in Bullar. Rom. no. vi. In the same Bull, $ 6: Vos universos et successores vestros a baculis vel ferulis deportandis, et quod non cogamini ad recipiendas possessiones aliquas vel habendas, decernens perpetuo liberos et exemptos.

16 The Fratres et Sorores de poenitentiâ s. Dominici took their rise from the Fratres de militiâ Jesu Christi (see above $ 72, note 17) already existing under the conduct of the Dominicans (see a proof of the date 1320 in the Istoria de Cavalieri Gaudenti di F. D. M. Federici vol. ii. Cod. diplom. p. 91 and Raymundus Capuanus, General of the Dominicans after 1380, in his vità Catharinae Senensis c. 8. Act. ss. April. iii. 871 s.), and received a rule in 1285 from Munione the Dominican General (in Federici 1. c. p. 28 ss. Comp. Act. ss. August. i. 418. Federici' l. c. ii. 108.—The Augustines first received in 1401 from Boniface IX. (Pragm. Gesch. vi. 67), the Servi in 1424 from Martin V., the Carmelites in 1476 from Sixtus IV. the confirmation of their tertiary order.

17 Conc. Lugdun. ann. 1274 c. 23.

18 Thus by John XXI. in 1277, by Benedict XI in 1304, see A. Gianii annal. Ord. Fratrum servorum b. M. V. ed 2. opera A. M. Garbii, Lucae 1719. 3 T. fol.

masses. For this reason they were soon endowed with rich privileges, but for this reason also the original spirit quickly yielded, in many members, to the worldly policy of the Papacy. The Mendicant orders now came forward as the Popes favoured clergy, in opposition to the episcopal clergy; they drew the spiritual offices of the latter more and more to themselves, 2

i Emm. Roderici nova collectio privilegiorum apostolicorum Regularium mendicantiuin et non mendicantium. Edit. nora Antverp. 1623. fol. For instance p. 11, Gregory IX. in 1237 to all Prelates (also in Matth. Paris ann. 1246 p. 693 s.): Quoniam abundavit iniquitas, et refrixit caritas plurimorum, sacrum Ordinem dilectorum fratrum Minorum Dominus suscitavit, qui non quae sua, sed quae sunt Christi quaerentes, tam contra profugandas haereses, quam contra pestes alias mortiferas exstirpandas, se dedicaverunt evangelizationi Verbi Dei in abjectione voluntariae paupertatis. Then comes the charge, quatenus filios fratres ejusdem Ordinis memorati, pro reverentia divina et nostra, ad officium praedicandi, ad quod sunt ex professione sui Ordinis deputati, benigne recipere procuretis; ac populos vobis commissos, ut ex ore ipsorum Verbi Dei semen devote suscipiant, admonentes, etiam in suis necessitatibus personaliter assistatis ; nec impediatis, quo minus illi, qui ad praedicationem eorum accesserunt, tunc eorum sacerdotibus valeant confiteri etc. Idem 1240. p. 7, ut nullus ex Praelatis a fratribus Minoribus obedientiam manualem praesumat exigere. Innocentius IV. 1249, p. 15, to the Minorites : sepulturam ecclesiarum vestrarum liberam esse decernimus, ut eorum devotioni, et extremae voluntati, qui se illic sepeliri deliberaverint, nullus obsistat.

2 The feeling of the rest of the clergy declares itself very strongly against them in the Prophecy of St Hildegard Abbess of Bingen (7 1179) which was forged before the time of Matth. Paris (Engelhardti observatt. de prophetia in fratres Minores s. Hildegardi falso adscripta, Erlanger Osterprogr. 1833), according to the shorter record in Bzovii annal. ad ann. 1415 (there is a longer one in Flacii catal. test. ver. p. 652): Insurgent gentes, quae comedent peccata populi, tenentes ordinem mendicum, ambulantes sine rubore, invenientes nova mala, ut a sapientibus et Christifidelibus ordo perversus maledicatur. Sed Diabolus radicabit in eis quatuor vitia: scilicet adulationem, ut illis largius detur; invidiam, quando datur aliis et non sibi ; hypocrisin, ut placeant per simulationem ; et detractionem, ut seipsos commendent et alios vituperent. Propter laudes hominum et seductiones simplicium, sine devotione, sine exemplo martyrii (while the earlier orders had martyrs to point out among their numbers) praedicabunt incessanter Principibus, Ecclesiarum abstrahentes sacramenta a veris pastoribus, rapientes eleemosynas pauperum miserorum et infirmorum, trahentes se in multitudinem populi, contrahentes familiaritatem mulierum, instruentes, qualiter blande maritos et amicos decipiant, et res proprias eis furtive tribuant. Tollent enim res injustas et male acquisitas, et dicent: date nobis et nos orabimus pro vobis etc. Matthew Paris paints to the life

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