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nobles who took the Cross, partly by compact with the opprest free commonalty, who received their own property in copyhold from them. From time to time, however, this immoderate increase of ecclesiastical wealth began already to attract attention, and receive some restrictions from secular law.

The Prelates had now to suffer more than ever from their administrators.? They sought help against their encroachments

vel alias personas fuerit factum vel facta (80 the Conc. Colon. ann. 1300): The German magistrates for a long time paid them no regard : comp. Bodmann's Rheingauische Alterthümer, Mainz 1819. 4. S. 648. The clergy on the other hand endeavoured partly by a form of execration which they appended to the will, partly by ecclesiastical penalties against the uncomplying heirs of the intestate, to create respect for it: see J. A. Kopp de testamentis Germanorum ungehabt und ungestabt Francof. ad M. 1736. 4.

4 See § 51, note 14. Planck IV. ii. 345. Raumer vi. 312. So says Eberhard, Archbishop of Salzburg, in a document of the year 1159, (Monumenta boica iii. 540): Tempore, quo expeditio Jerosolymitana fervore quodam iniro et inaudito a saeculis totum cominovit fere occidentem, coeperunt singuli, tanquam ultra non redituri, vendere possessiones suas, quas Ecclesiae secundum facultates suas suis prospicientes utilitatibus emerunt.

5 Montag's Gesch d. deutschen Staatsbürgl. Freiheit ii. 655.

6 In several cities it was forbidden by law that landed property should be left in mortmain. This was the case in Montpellier (1113. Hist. gèn. de Languedoc ii. Preuves p. 388), Erfurt (Guden Hist. Erfurt. p. 61), Lubeck (Jus Lubec. in de Westphalen monum, inedita iji. 625, 669, 687.) In Lubeck also oblations were restricted by law with the same view, the increase of masses for the dead forbidden, with other measures of the same kind, see Theol. Studien u. Krit. I. i. 116. Alphonso II., King of Portugal, in the year 1211, forbid churches and monasteries to acquire any other landed property, except what was in use for anniversaries and other duties for the dead; but this law remained without effect, see Schäfer's Gesch. v. Portugal i. 146, 330.

7 So says a Bishop of Munster in 1185 in Falke codex traditt. Corbejensium p. 229 : universitas Eeclesiarum advocatorum insolentia laborat et fere succumbit. The oppression was often made more severe by this circumstance that the bailiwicks became hereditary fiefs, and were often broken up into small offices, and granted in mesne tenure. See Hüllmann's Gesch. des Ursprungs der Stände in Deutschland 2te Ausg. (Berlin 1830) S. 257 ff. Montag ii. 450, 508. Raumer vi. 383. Hurter iv. 61. Honorius III. says in the year 1221 (in Lacom. blet's Urkundenbuch ii. 51): nonnulli -in bonis ecclesiasticis, in quibus advocationis jus obtinent, non solum prodigaliter debacchantur, verum etiam ea diripiunt ut praedones. Compare the letter of remonstrance sent by Tulcard, Abbot of Lobbes, to the Emperor Henry IV. in d'Achery spicileg. i. 747. There are other examples in Zirngibl's

partly from the Lords of the soil ;8 but partly following the example of the Cistercian order, which from its first foundation had allowed no administrators of finance, they endeavoured to shake them off by all possible means.10

Abh. über das Mundiburdium, in d. Neuen hist. Abhandl. d. baier. Akad. d. Wissensch. Bd, 5 (München 1798. 4) S. 286, 318. Riedel's diplom. Beiträge zur Gesch, d. Mark Brandenburg Th. 1 (Berlin 1833) Urk. xvi. xxxi. xxxii. The most remarkable instance of this kind is furnished by the Vicedominus Ludovicus against Godfrey, Archbishop of Treves (from 1124-1128), as the contemporary Baldricus relates in his vita Alberonis (in Honthemii hist. Trevir, i. 468): D. Godefridum Archiepiscopum suis artibus in tantum sibi subegerat, quod dicebat, se in beneficio tenere palatium atque omnes reditus episcopales in illud deferendos, et quod ipse pascere deberet Episcopum cum suis Capellanis, et caetera omnia ad Episcopatum pertinentia de suo esse beneficio. Ad Episcopum autem dicebat pertinere Missas, et ordinationes clericorum, et consecrationes Ecclesiarum celebrare : sui vero juris dicebat esse terram regere, omniaque in Episcopatu disponere, et militiam tenere. Unde per singulos dies ad prandium Episcopi sextarium vini et duos sextarios cerevisia administrabat, ipse vero cum multitudine hominum in mensa sua quasi magnus Princeps quotidie epulabatur splendide, stipatus caterva militum ubique incedebat, et omnibus modis toti terrae principabatur.

8 The efforts of the Popes with this view may be found in Hurter iv. 75, comp. above § 53 note 6, § 54 note 16. The oft-repeated orders of the Emperors on the condition of the administrators (for instance in Ratisbon 1104 in Pertz iv. 62, in Gelnhausen 1180, p. 164) are to be found in Hüllmann s. 251. Montag ii. 488. Raumer vi. 384.

9 Montag ii. 514 ff.

10 Zirngibl. S. 320 ss. Hüllmann S. 268 ss. Eichorn's deutsche Staats- u. Rechtsgeschichte ii. 528. Raumer vi. 125. Hurter iv. 67, 80.



Allgem. Literatur s. Bd. 1. Abth. 2. vor. $ 95 u. & 119. Ueber den Zustand sammt

licher Orden in dieser Zeit Jac. a Vitriaco (Bisch. v. Acco, dann Cardinal + 1244: von ihm Hist. orientalis et occidentalis ed. Fr. Moschus. Duaci 1597, 8) hist. occidentalis c. 12-C. 33.

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Martene et Durandi vett. scriptt. collectio amplissima. T. vi. praef. p. 2. Hurter's

Innocenz III. iv. 85.

The cycle of advance from the institution of fresh orders to fresh decay, and the reverse, a cycle in which monastic history incessantly travels, has never repeated itself more often than in this period. Especially in France there rose many founders of orders, who desired no less than the Popes to restore a stricter discipline in the Church, and endeavoured with this in view to bring back monastic rules to their first severity. Stephen of Tigerno founded (1073—1083) the order of Grammont (ordo Grandimontensis) ;' Bruno of Cologne (1084) the Carthusian order (La Grande Chartreuse in Grenoble, ordo Cartusianus) ;

1 Vita 8. Stephani by Gerhard, seventh prior of Grammont, in Martene et Durand ampliss. collectio vi. 1050.—Mabillon annal. Ord. s. Ben. v. 65, 99. Ejusd. act. SS. Ord. Ben. saec. VI. ii. praef. p. xxxiv. Hurter iv. 137.

? Mabillon annales v. 202. Ejus acta SS. Ord. Ben, saec. VI, ii. praef. p. xxxvii. Acta SS. Oct. iii. 491, ad d. 6, Oct. The true origin of the order is recorded by Bruno's later contemporary Guibert, Abb. b. Mariae de Novigento, de vita sua lib. i. c. 11 (Opp. ed. d'Achery p. 467): The tale of the miraculous inducement which led S. Bruno to renounce the world, is first found at the end of the 13th

Robert of Arbrissel (1094) the order of Fontevraud (ordo Fontis Ebraldi) ;; the Abbot Robert (1098) the monastery and order of Citeaux (Cistercium. ordo Cisterciensis.)* In the course of the 12th century the Premonstrant order was added, it was founded by Norbert, a canon of Zante, at Premontré (Premonstratum) in 1120,5 and the Carmelite order, which received its origin about 1156 on Mount Carmel, from one Berthold a Calabrian.. Gaston, induced by the prevalence of a

cent., and is gathered from the Breviar. Romanum under Urban VIII. Jo. Launoji de vera causa secessus 8. Brunonis in eremum. Paris 1646. (Opp. II, ii. 324.) Pragm. Gesch. d. vornehmsten Mönchsorden (i0 Bde, Leipz. 1774–83) iv. 1. Hurter iv. 149.

3 Mabillon ann. v. 314. Acta SS. Febr. iii. 593, ad d. 25. Febr. Roberts Leben von s. Zeitgenossen Baldricus Abb. Burguliensis in Act SS. I. c. The long forgotten superstition of the Syneisactæ was renewed by Robert (see vol. i. part 1, § 73, not. 17), as we are given to understand in the notices in Godefridi Abb. Vindocinensis lib. iv. ep. 47, ad Robertum (in Sirmondi opp. jii. 549. Bibl. PP. Lugd. xxi. 49, that this letter is not a forgery as the Bollandists would make us believe, see Mabillon 1. c. p. 424), and in the letter of Marbod, Bishop of Rennes, to Robert (Mabillon 1. c. p. 425) The order remained in truth confined to France. Pragm. Gesch. i. 279. Hurter iv. 229.

4 Relatio qualiter incepit Ordo Cisterciensis, by an unknown author, first publisht in Auberti Miraei chron. Cisterciensis Ordinis. Colon. Agripp. 1614. 8. p. 8, and here less injured than the copy in Luc. Holstenii cod. regal. ed. Brockie 11. 386. ss. taken from Rog. Dodsworthii et Guil. Dugdale monasticon Anglicanum vol. 1. Mabillon. ann. v. 219. 393. Angeli Manrique annales Cistercienses. Lugd. 1642. voll. iv. in fol. Chrysost. Henriquez regula, constitutiones et privilegia Ord. Cisterciensis, Antverp. 1630. fol. Pierre le Nain essai de l'histoire de l'ordre de Citeaux. Paris 1696 8. voll. ix. in 8. Pragm. Gesch. ii. 49. jj. 1. Hurter iv. 164.

5 Compare especially the contemporary Hermanni Monachi de mira. culis s. Mariae Laud. libb. iii. c. 2 ss. in Guiberti opp. ed. d'Achery p. 544 ss. Acta SS. Jun. i. 804. ad d. 6. Jun. Chrysost. van der Sterre vita s. Norberti. Antverp. 1656. 8. La vie de 8. Norbert (par le P. Louis Charles Hugo), Luxemb. 1704. 4. Pragm. Gesch. iv. 271. Hurter iv. 200.

6 The order grew up in some inconsiderable hermitages so unnoticed, that we owe the first intimation of it to the cursory remark of a Greek writer. John Phocas 1185 in his description of the Holy Land (in Leon. Allatii gynnmicta. Colon. 1654. 8. p. 1.) first mentions the cavern of Elias on Carmel, the ruin of an antient monastery, and adds Opò δέ τινων χρόνων ανήρ μοναχός, ιερεύς την αξίαν,-εξ αποκαλύψεως του Προφήτου τω τόπω επιδημήσας,-άδελφούς ώσει δεκά συνάξας, νύν τον άγιον χώρον ékeivov oikei. . Even in the year 1211 the society was so insignificant that Willibrandus ab Oldenburg in his Itinerarium terrae sanctae (in

pestilential disease distinguisht by the name of St Antony's Fire, founded (1095) the order of St Antony at Vienne, for the cure of the sick, (called Hospitalarii s. Antonii Abbatis, Antonier, Autoniterherren): Guido instituted at Montpellier about 1178 the Brethren of the Hospital, Innocent III. in 1204 appointed the newly revived Hospitale s. Spiritus in Saxia as their MotherHouse at Rome, similar Hospitalia s. Spiritus were founded in connexion with this in many towns (the brethren were called Hospitalarii s. Spiritus, Kreuzherren.): For the liberation of captive Christians from the hands of the Infidels, John of Matha, establisht in 1198 the order of the Trinitarians (Ordo sanctissimae Trinitatis de redemtione captivorum, Mathuriner) with the principal monastery of Gerffroi in the diocese of Meaux.

On the other hand in both the elder orders that of the Benedictines and of Cluny, desire of independence, ambition, and love of pleasure had increased with their wealth. The Popes encouraged them in the following manner; since the time of Gregory VII., they had been continually granting new exemptions to the monasteries, 10 which canvassed for them with jealous rivalry,

Allatius 1. c.) mentions indeed the Mansio Eliae, but not this. On the other band Jacobus de Vitriaco (1218), in his hist. Hierosol. c 52 (Gesta Dei per Francos I., 1075 : Alii ad exemplum et imitationem sancti viri et solitarii Eliae Prophetae in monte Carmelo-juxta fontem, qui fons Eliae dicitur, -vitam solitariam agebant etc. However the society received a rule, (probably in the year 1209) from Albert Patriarch of Jerusalem (in Holsten. codex regul. ed. Brockie iii. 18,) and confirmation of the rule from Pope Honorius III. 1226, under the name Fratres eremitae de monte Carmelo, also eremitae s. Mariae de Carmelo, cf. Dan. Papebrochius in Act. ss. April. i. 774. Pragm. Gesch. i. 1. Hurter iv. 211.

? Acta Ss. Januar. ii. 160. J. E. Kappii diss. de fratribus s. Antonii. Lips. 1737. 4.

8 Petri Saulnier. diss. de capite s. Ordinis s. Spiritus, in qua ortus progressusque Ordinis totius, ac speciatim Romanae domus amplitudo disseruntur. Lugd. 1694. 4. Vom Orden d. heil. Geistes, in Abele's Mag. f. Kirchenrecht u. Kirchengesch. ii. 421. Hurter iv. 220. ..

9 Pragm Gesch. iv. 111. Hurter iv. 213.

10 Of these there were many gradations, see Thomassin. p. I. lib. iii. c. 37 ss. Planck IV. i. 542. Montag ii. 532. Raumer vi. 363. 374. Hurter iii. 488: How far these extended in some cases compare Urbani ii. ep. x. ad Abbatem Cavensem (in Mansi xx. 652), in which he grants the Monastery first many indulgencies, and afterwards remarkable privileges : Apostolicae ergo memoriae praedecessoris

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