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and upbraided with biting satire.11 Now that the Pseudo-isidorian
is the Antigraphum Petri, written by a priest of Liege between the years 1153 and 1173 (see above note 4, near the end), a forcible reply to a priest, Lambertus by name, who required Peter to cease from his impugnatio sacerdotum, because the common people were led away by it to disobey their priests : sed insuper maledictionem Cham filii Noe, qui patris sui verenda nudavit, incurrunt, dum spirituales patres suos in aliquibus actibus, licet illicitis, vestro exemplo et doctrina dijudicando iram Doinini manifeste super se provocant. On the corruption of the Norwegian clergy see the Anecdoton historiam Sverreri Regis Norvegiae illustrans, ed. E. Chr. Werlauff. Havn. 1815. 8. p. il, written about the year 1197.- In the 13th century Jac. a Vitriaco hist. occident. cap. 5. de negligentia et peccatis Praelatorum :-dum nibil gratis accipiebant, nihil gratis conferebant;—non pastores, sed dissipatores, non Praelati, sed Pilati ; nocte in lupanari, mane in altari ; filiam Veneris nocte tangentes, filium virginis Mariae mane contrectantes etc. Especially Alexandri P. iv. ep. ad Archiep. Saltzburgensem et Suffraganeos (in Mansi xxiji. 827) in the year 1258. After an exhortation to a zealous and careful exercise of the pastoral office, the Pope there complains : Sed ecce letalis incuriae sopor pastoralis vitae vigilantiam, quod gementes dicimus, oppressisse videtur in plurimis, prout testatur nimia de plerisque regionibus clamans christiani populi corruptela : quae cum deberet ex sacerdotalis antidoti curari medelis, invalescit, proh dolor, ex malorum contagione, quod procedit a clero, ita ut alicubi verum sit, quod et prophetica querela testatur, Factus est, inquiens, sicut populus sic sacerdos (Jes. 24, 2.) Malitia namque dierum labentium, quae cum tempore corrupit et mores, dante quam plurimis ex impunitate audacem semper et in deteriora proclivem infraenis licentiae libertatem, nonnulli clerici praecipiti lubricae voluptatis arbitrio laxas committentes habenas, post carnis suae concupiscentiam abierunt, er relegata paene penitus a conversatione vitae suae clericalis munditie et honestate, tenent etiam in conspectu populi concubinas, cum quibus impudicae frontis irreverentiam induentes, foedas manus et foetidas—non erubescunt-sacris ministeriis immiscere.- Per tales maxime nomen Domini blasphematur in terris ;- per tales ergo perdit religionem catholicam devotio reverentiae christianae : per tales decipitur populus in Divinis, et ecclesiastica substantia dissipatur : hinc detrahitur verbo Dei, dum immundis labiis talium nunciatur, hinc haeretici mussitant et insultant, hinc tyranni saeviunt, hinc perfidi persequuntur, hinc grassantur audacius in Christi patrimonio sacrilegi exactores: a quibus, proh pudor, ob hujusmodi carnes putridas, quas disciplinalis mucro non resecat, sicut decet, sincerum catholicae matris corpus in ostentum ducitur et contemptum. Compare D. H. Leyser's deutsche Predigten des xiii. u. xiv. Jahrb. (Quedlinb. u. Leipz. 1838) Vorwort s. xxviii.
11 To this class belong the Poems of Gualtherus Mapes (see above $ 62, note 20.) The Thierfabel (first in Latin. Isegrimm, in the earlier half of the 12th cent., Reynard in the middle of the 12th cent., afterwards translated into the language of the country), see Reinhart
principles, by reason of the abolishment of Provincial Synods, the ease of appeal to Rome, and the aggravation of the complaints against Bishops, were evidently in part the cause of the increasing corruption ; Innocent III. endeavoured to introduce reforms, and, by the institution of an inquisitorial mode of procedure against clerks notorious for ill-living, 12 to put a stop Fuchs v. Jac. Grimm Berlin 1834. Einleit. Gervinus Gesch. d. deutschen poet. Nationalliteratur i. 122. Le Roman du Renart (by Peter of St Cloud 1233) publié par M. Méon, Paris 1826, 4 voll. 8. Niederdeutsche Gedichte des Jacob v. Maerlant, Schreiber in Damme in Flandern 1235—1300, see U. P. Okken diss. de priva religionis christianae, medio aevo inter Nederlandos progressae, natura, Groning. 1846. p. 68.-La Bible de Guiot (see 8 62. note 18) and other satirical pictures of the manners of the 13th century in the Fabliaux et contes publiés par M. Méon. 4 Tomes. Paris 1808. Compare Vincent v. Beauvais Hand- und Lehrbuch v. F. Chr. Schlosser ii. 150.
12 Conc. Lateran. iv. ann. 1215 c. 6 (Decr. Greg. lib. v. tit. i. c. 25): Sicut olim a sanctis Patribus noscitur institutum, metropolitani singulis annis cum suis suffraganeis provincialia non omittant concilia celebrare. (Compare on the other hand Conc. viii, ann. 869 c. 17. Part 1. $ 41. note 15.) In quibus de corrigendis excessibus et moribus reformandis, praesertim in clero, diligentem habeant cum Dei timore tractatum, canonicas regulas, et maxime quae statutae sunt in hoc generali concilio, relegentes, ut eas faciant observari, debitam poenam transgressoribus infligendo. Ut autem id valeat efficacius adimpleri, per singulas dioeceses statuant idoneas personas, providas videlicet et honestas, quae per totum annum simpliciter et de plano, absque ulla jurisdictione, sollicite investigent, quae correctione vel reformatione sint digna, et ea fideliter perferant ad metropolitanum, et suffraganeos, et alios in concilio subsequenti. (Compare the verdict of the Synodal tribunal Part 1. $ 35. note 1.) Cap. 7 (Decr. Greg. I. xxxi. 13): Irrefragabili constitutione sancimus, ut Ecclesiarum Praelati ad corrigendos subditorum excessus, maxime clericorum, et reformandos mores, prudenter et diligenter intendant, ne sanguis eorum de suis manibus requiratur. Ut autem correctionis et reformationis officium libere valeant exercere : decerni. mus, ut executionem ipsorum nulla consuetudo vel appellatio valeat impedire, nisi formam excesserint in talibus observandam. Compare on the other side, $ 62, note 9.) Cap. 8 (Decr. Greg. V. i. 24): Non solum cum subditus, verum etiam cum Praelatus excedit, si per clamorem et famam ad aures superioris pervenerit, non quidem a malevolis et maledicis, sed a providis et honestis nec semel tantum, sed saepe,-debet (Praelatus) coram Ecclesiae senioribus veritatem diligentius perscrutari ; ut si rei poposcerit qualitas, canonica districtio culpam feriat delinquentis.—Licet autem hoc sit observandum in subditis, diligentius tamen est observandum in Praelatis, qui quasi signum sunt positi ad sagittam. Et quia non possunt omnibus complacere, cum ex officio suo teneantur non solum arguere sed etiam increpare, frequenter odium multorum incurrunt, et insidias patiuntur. Et ideo
to the evil : but such external measures could no longer avail. Now that the clerical order had entirely forfeited the respect of the Laity, 13 their arrogance was endured with so much the greater discontent: and in spite of the undefined fear of the mystical character received by them, at their ordination, a frantic hatred of the clergy was not unfrequently displayed. 14
ss. Patres provide statuerunt, ut accusatio Praelatorum non facile admittatur.--Verum ita voluerunt providere Praelatis, ne criminarentur injuste.-Sed cum super excessibus suis quisquam fuerit infamatus, ut jam clamor ascendat, qui diutius sine scandalo dissimulari non possit, vel sine periculo tolerari; absque dubitationis scrupulo ad inquirendum et puniendum ejus excessus-procedatur, quatenus, si fuerit gravis excessus, etsi non degradetur ab ordine, ab administratione tamen amoveatur omnino. Comp. F. A. Biener's Beiträge zu d. Gesch. des Inquisitions-Processes. Leipzig 1827 s. 38 ff.
13 So the Lady, whose favour he sought, answered the Troubadour Gui d'Uisel, who was also a canon (about 1200): Vous êtes un noble homme; quoique vous soyez clerc, vous êtes aimé et estimé (Millot hist. littér. des troubadours. iii. 4.)
1 As also Boniface VIII. confest : Clericis laicos infestos oppido tradit antiquitas, see above $ 59, note 6. We may compare especially the words of the Troubadour, Peire Cardinal (about 1220) according to the translation in F. Diez Leben und Werke der Troubadours, Zwickau 1829, s. 447. The clergy call themselves pastors and are butchers. Kings and Emperors once used to rule the world : now priests exercise lordship with theft and treason, with hypocrisy, force, and persuasion. They are not satisfied unless everything is surrendered to their hands, and though there be delay in the end it is brought about. The higher their rank, so much the less virtue they possess and the more folly, the less truthfulness and the more falsehood, the less learning and the more faults, and withal so much the less courtesy.--The Priests are so full of ambition, that they cannot bear to see any one in the whole world hold sway except themselves. They work with all their might to draw over the whole world to themselves. If any one is discontented under the yoke, they win such persons with obsequiousness and gifts with pardons and hypocrisy-with indulgence--with eating and drinking—with preaching and cursing—with God and the devil. Vultures and birds of prey scent not the mouldering carrion so swiftly as they scent a rich man. Immediately he is their friend ; sickness lays him low, he inust heap gifts on them to the prejudice of his relations. Frenchinen and Priests have the praise of superior wickedness—for goodness is their aversion, and so forth. Bertrand Carbonel also (about the year 1250) in Diez s. 587, writes thus, Ha, ye false priests, liars, traitors, perjurers, whoremongers, infidels, so much open wickedness ye work day by day, that ye have thrown the whole world into consternation. St Peter never drew revenues from France, nor extorted usury, . no, he held upright the balance of justice. Ye do nought of the kind.
Not to any regard for their persons, but to the superstition and circumstances of the age, were the clergy indebted for the remarkable increase of their property; it was brought about partly by vindication of tithe law, partly by wills, partly by
For money ye unjustly pronounce and recall sentence of excommunication ; without money there is no redemption for us. Guillem Figueira also (about 1244) in Diez s. 567 : Truly our shepherds are become ravening wolves, they rob wherever they can, and wear therewith the mien of peace. One of them will lie with a woman, and nevertheless on the next morning touch with unhallowed hands the body of our Lord. If you lift your voice against them they bring accusations against you, you are excommunicated, and if you do not pay, you have neither peace nor friendship more to hope from them. Holy Virgin Mary, our Lady, grant me but to live to the day when I shall neither have to shun nor fear them more.
1 On the scarcity of gifts, and the inclination to cut down ecclesiastical incomes in the thirteenth century, see Lacomblet's Urkundenbuch fr die Gesch. des Niederrheins. Bd. ii. Vorr. s. ix.
2 Compare Part i. § 9 note 1. Tithe was in the first place introduced as a Divine ordinance, where as yet it had found no entrance, and in spite of all opposition from the laity, gradually past into law. Thus in Portugal it was recognized at the end of the eleventh century, and in the twelfth prevailed universally, Schäfer's Gesch. v. Port. i. 167. In Castile and Leon Alphonso X., in bis Partidas, gave it force of law, see $ 62, note 22, and the Mémoires p. 854 there quoted. In Denmark St Knud, Canute the Saint introduced it in 1086; but it was always paid irregularly, and in the year 1171 the peasantry of Schoonen, rose in rebellion on this account Münter's K.G. V. Dänem. u. Norw. II. i. 15. 343. In Norway it was demanded iminediately after the conversion of the country, however, it had to be enforced by King Magnus in the year 1267, Münter II. i. 37. Further, in the second place, it was establisht as a ruling maxim, that all tithes were of ecclesiastical origin ; and that, where they had past into the possession of laymen, they were withheld from the Church only by robbery or feudal grant (to bailiffs and administrators, decimae infeudatae) but that no layman could possess tithes without peril to his soul. Especially so after Conc. Lateran. iii. ann. 1179 c. 14, Mansi xxii. 226): Prohibemus etiam ne laici decimas cum animarum suarum periculo detinentes, in alios laicos possint aliquo modo transferre. Si quis vero receperit, et Ecclesiae non tradiderit,
advantageous purchases and mortgages, obtained mostly from
christiana sepultura privetur. Frederick I., indeed, in the diet at Gelnhausen 1180 declared that the lay impropriation of the decimae infeudatae was legal (Arnold. Lubec. lib. ii. c. 18. see above, $ 53. note 6), and it was commonly understood that only the transfer of tithes from layman to layman was forbidden in that canon. However, conscientious scruples were awakened by it in the minds of many lay impropriators. Thus in many places tithes were restored to the Church, especially to religious Houses, or sold and exchanged at a low valuation. See Warnkönig's Flandrische Staats und Rechtsgeschichte (Tübingen 1835) i. 443.
3 A considerable influence over these was consigned to the clergy, by the decree of Alexander [II., 1170 (Decr. Greg. lib. iii. tit. 26. c. 10): testamenta, quae Parochiani coram presbytero suo et tribus vel duabus aliis personis idoneis in extrema fecerint voluntate, firma decernimus permanere : which was yet more enhanced by the determination that the parish priest must be a witness (Constit. Ricardi Ep. Sarum ann. 1217. c. 70, in Mansi xxii. 1127: Praecipimus quod laicis inhibeatur frequenter, ne testamenta sua faciant sine praesentia sacerdotis.- Inter alia etiam singuli sacerdotes infirmos suos moneant, et efficaciter inducant, quod fabricae Sarum Ecclesiae sua memores, prout Deus inspiraverit illis, in testamento suo, de bonis suis relinquant. Conc. Avenion. 1281 can. 10: Ne aliquis auderet sine suo parochiali Presby. tero condere testamentum. Thomassin. P. iii. lib. i. c. 24, § 5, 6, 8.) People were reminded at their last confession to make their wills; to die intestate or unconfest, was held to be the same (see du Fresne glossarium s. v. intestatio), refusal of burial in consecrated ground was the consequence of either (Brewer's Gesch. d. französischen Gerichtsverfassung, Düsseldorf 1837, ii. 704.) All suits about wills, even the execution of the wills, belonged to ecclesiastical jurisdiction. They even demanded in England and Normandy (Ecelesiasticae libertatis in Normannia leges ann. 1090, Mansi xxii. 592): Si quis subitanea morte-praeoccupatus fuerit, ut de rebus suis disponere non possit, distributio bonorum ejus ecclesiastica auctoritate fiat, and with regard to this the Papal Legate Othobonus in Conc. Londin. ann. 1268 c. 24 (Mansi xxii. 1238); more closely determined that such possessions should not be held back by the Prelates, but be distributed for pious purposes. In such a case in France a will made by the relative instead of the deceased, is admitted, see Brewer ii. 705.-In Germany, on the other hand, wills made on a deathbed met with a long resistance from the maxim of law, that he alone could make a valid will, who could yet walk free and unsupported along the highway. (J. Grimm's deutsche Rechtsalterthümer, Göttingen 1828 s. 96.) In vain did the German Bishops vie in opposition to this custom, quae dicenda potius est corruptela, cum sit contraria rationi, et contra jura canonica et civilia, videlicet, quod judices et scabini et consiliarii quorundam oppidorum-judicant, quod nullum testamentum, donatio vel legatum teneat super immobilibus, quod vel quae a decumbentibus in lecto in pios usus