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constituted as an ecclesiastical ordinance of more general application than before, could not be fully establisht in several countries, until the thirteenth century. But it introduced in its

3 For instance, 1, ordines majores became an impedimentum matrimonii dirimens. First Conc. Lateran. i. ann. 1123 can. 21: Presbyteris, diaconibus, subdiaconibus concubinas habere, seu matrimonia contrahere penitus interdicimus: contracta quoque matrimonia ab hujusmodi personis disjungi-judicainus. Conc. Lateran. ii. ann. 1139 can. 7: Hujusnuodi namque copulationem, quam contra ecclesiasticam rationem constat esse contractam, matrimonium non esse censemus. cf. Greg. Decretall. lib. iv. tit. 6. Qui clerici vel voventes matrimonium contrahere possunt. Thomassin. P. i. lib. ii. c. 65, § 4.–2. After that a vain attempt had been made in the eleventh century absolutely to forbid marriage in the case of the clerici minorum ordinum also (Thomassin. 1. c. § 1 ss.) Alexander III. first decreed on this point Decr. Greg. lib. iii. tit. iii. De clericis conjugatis c. 1: Si qui clericorum infra subdiaconatum acceperint uxores, ipsos ad relinquenda beneficia ecclesiastica et retinendas uxores districtione ecclesiastica compellatis. Compare the whole Titulus. Thomas Aquin. below note 7. Thomassin. 1. c. c. 66. .

+ I. In Spain cf. Paschalis II. epist. ad Didacum Episc. Compostell. ann. 1103 (Mansi xx. 1001): Si qui (presbyteri et diaconi] sane ante romanae legis susceptionem (see § 62. not. 1) secundum communem patriae consuetudinem conjugia contraxerunt, natos ex eis filios neque a saeculari, neque a dignitate ecclesiastica repellimus.—2. In England the marriage of priests tolerated by Lanfranc (see above $ 47 note 45) was strongly attackt by Anselm (Archbishop of Canterbury 1093—1109) especially in the Concill. Londinn, ann. 1102 and 1108, but was not yet eradicated. In the year 1125 the Papal Cardinal Legate Johannes Cremensis (concerning bim compare above $ 62. note 16). held another Synod in London on the subject. But about him Henricus Huntingdoniensis (about 1150) histor. lib. vii. : Cum in concilio severissime de uxoribus sacerdotum tractasset, dicens summum scelus esse a latere meretricis ad corpus Christi conficiendum surgere: cum eadem die corpus Christi confecisset, cum meretrice post vesperam interceptus est. Res apertissima negari non potuit, celari non decuit. Summus honor ubique habitus in summum dedecus versus est. Repedavit igitur in sua Dei judicio confusus et inglorius. These decrees were indeed establisht by law to all appearance in the Synods of London in the years 1127 and 1129 : but Chron. Saxon. vetus ad ann. 1129 (in Wilkins Conc. M. Brit. i. 411): nec ullam vim habuerunt omnia illa decreta : cuncti retinuerunt suas uxores Regis venia, sicut antea fecerant : For instance (Matth. Paris ann. 1129) the Bishops concesserunt Regi justitiam de focariis sacerdotum, quae res postea cum summo dedecore terminabatur : accepit enim Rex pecuniam infinitam de Presbyteris pro suis focariis redimendis. The displeasure is remarkable with which the English Historians, Henricus Huntingd. Matthew. Paris, and Thomas of Walsingham (about 1440) speak of the celibacy of priests under Gregor. VII. and Anselm. Also in Normandy the marriage of priests was openly maintained in the beginning of the 12th century (Acta SS. April. ii. 234.)—3. Celibacy was not establisht in the northern kingdoms till the thirteenth century. With reference to Sweden the words of Innocent. lib. xvi. ep. 118. ad Archiep. Lundensem are .reinarkable : postulasti per sedem apostolicam edoceri,-utrum sacerdotes Suethiae in publicis debeas tolerare conjugiis, qui super hoc se asserunt cujusdam summi Pontificis privilegio communitos.- Non possumus dare responsum, nisi viderimus privilegium quod praetendunt. Cf. lib. x. ep. 147. In Denmark, where even the peasants of Schoonen, in an insurrection 1180, among other demands required the restoration of marriage of priests (according to Hamsfort in Langebeck scr. reruin Danic, i. 280: ne uti hactenus per libidinem filiabus et conjugibus abuterentur illorum. Compare Saxo lib. xv. 366. Münter's Kirchengesch. v. Danemark u. Norwegen. II. i. 345.) Not till the year 1222, after many efforts of a Legate, a decisive law was issued by the Synod at Schleswig in favour of celibacy of priests (Pontoppidan's Annales Eccles. Dan. i. 637. Münter II. ii. 1033.) The same law likewise was first establisht in Norway and Iceland in the course of the thirteenth century (Münter II. ii. 1045): In Sweden by the Cardinal Legate, William Bishop of Sabina, in the Synod at Skenninge 1248 (Münter II. ii. 1051 the Constitutiones Schenningenses, which are missing in the collections of Councils, are to be found in Münters Magazin f. Kirchengesch, u. Kirchenrecht d. Nordens i. 192, printed according to the original in J. G. Liljengren diplomatarium Suecanum, Holm, 1829. 4. i. 330.)-4. In Hungary, Syn. Szabolchensis (at Szabolcs) ann. 1092. c. 3 : Presbyteris autem, qui prima et legitima duxere conjugia, indulgentia ad tempus datur propter vinculum pacis et unitatem Spiritus Sancti, quousque nobis in hoc domini Apostolici paternitas consilietur. Syn. Strigoniensis (at Gran) ann. 1114 can. 31: Presbyteris uxores, quas legitimis ordinibus acceperint, moderatius habendas, praevisa fragilitate, indulsimus (see this canon which is left out in Mansi xxi. 105, in Peterffy Conc. Hungar. i. 57.) It was first by means of the Decreta Hungarorum, quae de Guidone Cardinale susceperunt ann. 1267 (Mansi xxiii. 1183) that the Romish principles got the upper hand (Engel's Gesch. v. Ungarn i. 388.)-5. In Silesia, where Francis, Bishop of Breslau (+ 1194), wrote a letter of complaint, not now extant de clericorum et laicorum matrimoniis (s. Hanke de Silesiis indigenis eruditis p. 14. S. J. Ehrhard on the corrupt state of religion before the Reformation, Breslau 1778. 4.), in Bohemia where even the Archbishop of Prague was accused by Innocent III.. quod uxorem evidenter haberet, de qua filios generavit (Innoc. lib. v. epist. 28. J. Dobrowsky narratio hist. de sacerdotum in Bohemia coelibatu, Prag. 1787. Abridged in Illgen's Zeitschr. f. d. hist. Theol. 1844. iv. 113), and in Poland the marriage of priests was first discontinued in the middle of the thirteenth century (see Worbs in Staüdlin's u. Tzschirner's Archiv., f. Kirchengeschichte III. iii. 719. Raumer Gesch. d. Hohenst. vi. 236.) 6. In Germany marriage of priests seems to have been retained longest at Liege, which is easily explained from its earlier history (see § 49,

train a greater increase of the most shameful licentiousness, from the readiness of the Bishops to overlook it. Besides that unchastity, which already made many thoughtful minds mistrustful of celibacy,” utter worldliness and love of pleasure,

note 9 and 12. Comp. Antigraphum Petri, written by a priest of Liege between the years 1153 and 1173 (MS. in Paris, see Hist. lit. de la France xiv. 406): Ipsos (Presbyteros) qui se legitimas pisse habere asserunt usores, interroga, quare eis in extremis renuncient, quare quidam totiens mutent ? Si enim legitimum est matrimonium, mutare non licet, vel renunciare eis non est necesse : si illicitum, fornicatio est. Still about the year 1220 the cathedral clergy married not far from Liege cum solemnitate, quae solet in matrimoniis observari (Raumer vi. 236, from the Regest. Honorii iii.), and in Zurich about the year 1230 married clergy were to be found (J. J. Hottinger's Helvetische Kirchengeschichte ii. 30.) J. Anton Theiner und Augustin Theiner, die Einführung der erzwungenen Ebelosigkeit bei den christl. Geistlichen und ihre Folgen, Altenburg 1828, II. i. 269.

5 Comp. Schröckh xxvii. 184. Especially the long list of decrees of Councils against the concubinae, focariae and pedissequae of the clergy s. 206. Raumer vi. 235. On the unnatural excesses of the clergy see Hüllmann's Städtewesen des Mittelalters iv. 261.

6 Rupertus Tuitiensis comm. in Apocalypsin c. 2. lib. ii. (Opp. ed. Mogunt. II. 490): turba plebeja rectores Ecclesiae clainoribus suis coarguit atque objurgat eo quod talis pestilentia, tanta in sacros ordines macula ex ipsorum acciderit avaritia. Heavy fines were imposed on priests who had wives or concubines. For which reason many Bishops tolerated such cases willingly, as the Conc. Lateran. iv. ann. 1215 can. 14. and the Constitutt. Edmundi Archiep. Cantuar. ann. 1236 accuse them of doing, maxime obtentu pecuniae vel alterius commodi temporalis. However the number of the guilty necessitated forbearance. Thus a verdict was given against the immoral clergy (Dist. lxxxi. c. 6), ut à sacerdotali removeantur officio, but the gloss to this says, communiter autem dicitur, quod pro simplici fornicatione quis deponi non debet, cum pauci sine illo vitio inveniantur.

? So early as the year 1120 there was written Rotomagensis Anonymi tract. an liceat Sacerdotibus inire matrimonia in Brown appendis ad fascic, rerum expet. et fugiend. p. 166 (comp. Theiner II. i. 323), where it was first shown that, traditio hominis est, et non Dei, non Apostolorum institutio : Then, hoc mandatum naturalem ordinem conservari vetat, perturbari jubet, et ideo contra aeternam legem fit, et peccatum est : peccant enim, qui mandatum tale instituunt, quo naturalis ordo destruitur; to conclude, fit contra voluntatem et praedestinationem illius, qui quae futura sint fecit. From the same time perhaps may the so-called epist. secunda Volusiani Episc. Carthaginensis in

John Fox acts and monuments of Martyrs, Lond. 1684. ii. 393 (epist. i. is the epist. Udalrici ad Nicolaum, see Part 1, $ 34, note 9) derive its origin; it is a defence of the married clergy, and written in their name E.g. Inhibito naturalis unius mulieris conjugio surrepit non

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avarice and simonyo were the principal faults, for which the clergy at this time were commonly rebuked with solemn earnestness10 naturalis, sed contra naturam execrabilis sodomitica fornicatio, surrepit illicita et damnabilis, non legitima sed contra legem alienae uxoris contaminatio, nccnon etiam et meretricabilis nefanda pollutio, quin etiam abominabilis omnibus parentalis incestatio vel aliarum immunditiarum vel libidinum a Diabolo inventarum id genus, in quibus humana infirmitas periclitatur.—Quodsi mali sumus, nobis ipsis sumus, et plus nobis quam aliis nocemus : et quos fortasse malos conspicitis, quid boni interius habeant ignoratis. Sunt eniin plerique, quos de incontinentia judicatis, qui continentiores sunt, quam illi, quos de continentia glorificatis. Of Petrus Comestor, Chancellor of the University of Paris, about the year 1170, his pupil Gyraldus Cambrensis records (ex Ms. in Cave scriptt. eccl. hist. lit. ii. 239): lloc autem Magistrum Petrum Manducatorem in audientia totius scholae suae, quae tot et tantis viris literatissimis referta fuit, dicentem audivi, quod nunquam hostis ille antiquus in aliquo articulo adeo Ecclesiam Dei circumvenit, sicut in voti illius (sc. continentiae sacerdotumn) emissione.-Thomas Aquinas (in Summa, quae incipit Commiserationes Domini etc. cap. 165, in Flacii catal. test. verit. no. 262): Dicit Canon, quod, si clerici in minoribus ordinibus constituti se continere non possunt, et matrimonium contrahere voluerint, debet eis assignari sustentatio sua de beneficiis suis extra Ecclesiam, ita quod de caetero non ministrent in Ecclesia in ordine suo, sed censuram babeant, et libertate gaudeant clericorum. Contra hanc canonicam institutionem hodie obtinet consuetudo, quod statim ex quo acolytus contrahit matrimonium, omni ecclesiastico beneficio privatur (see above note 3), cum canon, ut dictum est, praecipiat, do beneficio sustentari. Si autem acolytus in secreta confessione ad discretum Sacerdotem veniat, et se nullo modo continere posse dicat, non multum peccat Sacerdos, dando ei consilium, ut cum aliqua occulte matrimonium contrahat, et occulte sui Episcopi oculos fallat. Minus enim credimus esse peccatum, beneficium cum occulto conjugio retinere, quam fornicariam contra divinam prohibitionem habere. Si vero postea ad sacros ordines a suis Praelatis cogatur accedere, credimus minus esse peccatum uxoré uti, quam cum alia fornicari, si ex toto noluerit continere. Gulielmus Durantis tract. de modo gener. conc, celebr. (see above $ 62. note 28.) P. ii. rubr. 46 : Cum paene in omnibus conciliis et a plerisque Romanis Pontificibus super cohibenda et punienda clericorum incontinentia, et eorum honestate servanda multa hactenus emanavcrint constituta, et nullatenus ipsorum reformari quiverit correctio morum :-videretur pensandum, an expediret et posset provideri, quod in ecclesia occidentali, quantum ad votum continentiae, serraretur consuetudo Ecclesiae orientalis, quantuin ad promovendos, potissime cum tempore Apostolorum consuetudo Ecclesiae orientalis servaretur.

8 Schröckh xxvii. 159. Raumer vi. 233. Hurter's Innocenz III. ii. 423. On their frequent engagements in battle and slaughter, Schröck xxvii. 165.

9 Schröch xxvii. 175. Raumer vi. 193. 10 Especially by Bernhardus Clarav. for example epist. 152. ad Innoc.

P. ii. ann. 1135 : Insolentia clericorum, cujus mater est negligentia Lpiscoporum, ubique terrarum turbat et infestat Ecclesiam. -Alienis niinirum laboribus locupletantur clerici, comedunt fructum terrae absque pecunia : et prodit quasi ex adipe iniquitas eorum. In Psalm Qui habitat, sermo 6. no. 7 (ed. Mabill. ii. 61): Ipsa quoque ecclesiasticae dignitatis officia in turpem quaestum et tenebrarum negotium transiere : nec in his salus animarum, sed luxus quaeritur divitiarum. Propter hoc tondentur, propter hoc frequentant ecclesias, Missas celebrant, Psalmos decantant. Pro episcopatibus et archidiaconatibus impudenter hodie decertatur, ut Ecclesiarum reditus in superfluitatis et vanitatis usus dissipentur. Superest jam, ut reveletur homo peccati, filius perditionis etc. In convers. Pauli, sermo 1 (ii. 126): Conjurasse videtur contra te [Deum] universitas populi christiani a minimo usque ad maximum : a planta pedis usque ad verticem non est sanitas ulla : egressa est iniquitas a senibus judicibus, vicariis tuis, qui videntur regere populum tuum. Non est jam dicere : ut populus, sic sacerdos; quia nec sic populus, ut sacerdos. Heu, heu, domine Deus, quia ipsi sunt in persecutione tua primi, qui videntur in Ecclesia tua primatum diligere, gerere principatum! In Cantica, sermo 33. no. 15 (iii. 61): Ministri Christi sunt, et serviunt Antichristo. Honorati incedunt de bonis Domini, qui Domino honorem non deferunt. Inde is, quem quotidie vides, meretricius nitor, histrionicus habitus, regius apparatus : inde aurum in frenis, in sellis et calcaribus, et plus calcaria quam altaria fulgevt. Inde splendidae mensae et cibis et scyphis, inde comessationes et ebrietates, inde cithara et lyra et tibia, inde redundantia torcularia, et promptuaria plena eructantia ex hoc in illud. Inde dolia pigmentaria, inde referta marsupia. Pro hujusmodi volunt esse et sunt Ecclesiarum praepositi, Decani, Archidiaconi, Episcopi, Archiepiscopi. Ibid. sermo 77 (p. 131): Quem dabis mihi de numero praepositorum, qui non plus invigilet subditorum vacuandis marsupiis, quam vitiis exstirpandis ? Sermo de conversione ad clericos, especially c. 20 (iv. 112): Curritur passion ad sacros Ordines, et reverenda ipsis quoque spiritibus angelicis ministeria homines apprehendunt sine reverentia, sine consideratione. Neque enim signum regni occupare caelestis, aut illius timent imperii gestare coronam, in quibus avaritia regnat, ambitio imperat, dominatur superbia, sed et iniquitas, luxuria etiam principatur : in quibus et pessima forte appareat intra parietes abominatio, si juxta Ezechielis prophetiam (Ezech, viii. 8) parietem fodiamus, ut in domo Dei videamus horrendum. Siquidem post fornicationes, post adulteria, post incestus, nec ipsae quidem apud aliquos ignominiae passiones et turpitudinis opera desunt etc.--Compare Bernard's contemporaries, Gerhohus de corrupto Ecclesiae statu (in Baluzii miscellan. r. 1), Potho mon. Prumiensis de statu doinus Dei libb. v. (in Bibl. PP. max. xxi. 489), Anonymi sermo ad Clerum in Conc. Rhemensi (ann. 1148) congregatum (in Bernardi opp. v. 225), in which the severest passages of S. Bernard are quoted word for word : and St Hildegard, Abbess of Bingen (see Meiners de s. Hildegardis vita, scriptis et meritis in the Commentatt. Soc. Gotting. t. xii. class. hist. p. 79.) The Pfaffenleben, a fragment from the 12th century in Haupt's and Hoffmann's altdeutschen Blättern, 1 (Leipzig 1836), 217. Besides there

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