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election,' extended their independence and authority at the cost of the Bishops. On the other hand the Archdeacons of the 13th

quilibet judices ecclesiastici de causis, quas laici habent ad invicem, se ullatenus intromittant, nisi tales sint causae, quas ad forum ecclesiasticum non sit dubium pertinere: ne ex hoc saeculare judicium, quod est valde incongruum, enervetur. Conc. Colon. 1266 c. 17 (1. c. p. 623.) Conc. Mogunt. 1310. Tit. de foro competente (ibid. iv. 184.)

i The share of the Laity in the election of Bishops, was naturally much lessened by the principles vindicated in the contest about investiture. On the other hand, Innocent II. decreed Conc. Later. ann. 1139 c. 28: sub anathemate interdicimus, ne canonici de sede episcopali ab electione Episcoporum excludant religiosos viros : sed eorum consilio honesta et idonea persona in Episcopum eligatur. Accordingly, Gerohus Praep. Reichersporg. lib. v. (Baluz, miscell. v. 88), thus determines the manner of election : Spiritales et religiosi viri habent consulere, Canonici eligere, populus petere, honorati (for instance the Provost and noble officers) assentire, yet already with the condition, that if the last noluerint praebere assensum, nou propter hoc irrita erit electio, si alias est canonica, compare Hurter's Innocenz III. ii. 224. Still Bernard, Bishop of Paderborn, styles himself, in 1189, as ex cleri et populi electione ad apicem cathedrae Paderbrunnensis sublevatus, Riefert's Münsterische Urkundensammlung ii. 260. After that the election of the Pope had passed exclusively into the hands of the Cardinals, (see above § 52 note 30), the Cathedral chapters imitated this custom, and Innocent III. decreed simply, Conc. Later. IV. ann. 1215 c. 24 (Decr. Greg. I. vi. 42), as also the oath already required in 1209 from Otto IV. (see above $ 54 note 17), ut is collatione adhibita eligatur, in quem omnes, vel major, vel sanior pars capituli consentit: and Gregory IX. (Decr. Greg. 1. c. c. 56): Edicto perpetuo prohibemus, ne per laicos cum canonicis Pontificis electio praesumatur. Quae si forte praesumpta fuerit, nullam obtineat firmitatem: non obstante contraria consuetudine, quae dici debet potius corruptela. Cf. Thomassinus P. ii. lib. ii. c. 33. Disqu. de Capitulorum metropolitanorum et cathedralium Germaniae origine, progressu et juribus etc. auct. M. C. Jcto. Amstelod. 1758. 4. & 32 ss. Planck IV. ii. 588 ft. Raumer vi. 21.

? Especially by means of articles, which they made the newly elected Bishop promise upon oath, so that Innocent III., 1204, declared all such juramenta in damnum episcopalis juris, to be pot binding (Decretal. Gregor. II. xxiv. 27): Likewise Nicolas III., 1278 ( Sexti II. xi. 1) P. Gallade diss. de capitulatione Episcopo Germaniae electo proposita in A. Schmidt thesaurus juris eccles. ii. 767. Right of punishment over their own members was allowed to the Chapters (Decret. Greg. I. xxxi. 13); they often, however, ventured on great invasions of the episcopal power, even on passing measures against the Bishops. Accordingly the Bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Rheims at Compiegne in the year 1277, united in a common resistance (Mansi xxiv. 183), attendentes quoil capitula et canonici cathedralium Ecclesiarum nostrae Remensis provincia in nos-exercuerunt, spiritualia jura sibi damnabiliter usurpando, interdum auctoritate propria, interdum etiam per

century, by their arrogant encroachments, caused more and more of their authority to be withdrawn from them, and bestowed on the newly instituted episcopal officials, and peniten

exquisitas lites, quas contra nos aggredi non verentur, nonnumquam etiam per subtractionem divini officii, contra nos pro suae libertatis arbitrio sua organa suspendendo. Other examples may be seen in J. H. Boehmeri jus eccl. Protestantium T. ii. lib. iii. tit. 9. § 8 ss. Thomassinus P. i. lib. 3. c. 41.–The Chapters were at this time places reserved for the younger sons of the nobility. The Chapter of Strasburg in 1232 prided itself, before Gregory IX. (Decr. Greg. lib. iii. tit. 5. c. 37) upon consuetudinem antiquam, inviolabiliter observatam, juxta quam nullum, nisi nobilem et liberum, et ab utroque parente illustrem-in suum consortium hactenus admiserant; the Pope, however, disclaimed this usage, quod non generis, sed virtutum nobilitas vitaeque honestas gratum Deo faciunt etc. When Nicolas IV. had appointed the famous Peter Aichspalter (physician to the Emperor Rudolph, afterwards Archbishop of Mayence) to be Dean of the Chapter at T'reves in the year 1289, many members of the Cathedral body opposed this and another appointment (Gesta Trevirorum edd. Wyttenbach et Müller ii. 138): asserebant enim, se juramento adstrictos esse, et super hoc publicum confirmationis instrumentum sedis apostolicae impetrasse, quod personas, quantumcunque literatas,---nisi de clara stirpe genitas, admittere-non debeant in canonicos et fratres. After a hard struggle, however, they were obliged to yield. Seufert's Geschichte des deutchen

Adels in den hohen Erz-und Domcapiteln. 1790. Hurter's Innocenz · III. iii. 348.—Comp. especially Planck IV. ii. 565. Raumer vi. 29.

3 Concerning their rights and duties see Decr. Greg. lib. i. tit. 23. De officio Archidiaconi. So cap. 1. Ut Archidiaconus post Episcopum sciat, se vicarium esse ejus in omnibus. Nevertheless the jurisdictio delegata gradually changed into an ordinaria ; and the Archdeacons abused their power to oppress the inferior clergy and defy their Bishops. Thomassin. P. i. lib. ii. c. 20. J. G. Pertschens Abhandl. v. d. Archidiacon, bischöfl. Officialen und Vicarien. Hildesheim 1743. Planck IV. ii. 598. Hurter's Innoc. III. ii. 364.

* By the Provincial Synods of the 13th century, e.g. Conc. apud Vallem Guidonis ann. 1242 cap. 4 : Sane quia nonnulli, quos ecclesiasticus ordo ad relevamen et subsidium Episcoporum elegit, et ss. Patrum canones decreverunt, ut quod per seipsos non possent, facilius cognoscentes per alios explicarent, falcem suam in messem alienam mittentes, ad illicita manus suas et prohibita mittere non verentur : statuimus, ut Archidiaconi et alii de causis matrimonialibus, simoniae, vel aliis, quae degradationem vel amissionem beneficii, vei depositionen exigant, nisi de speciali mandato sui pontificis, nullatenus cognoscere vel diffinire praesumant, nec Officiales habere, excepto civitatis Arcbidiacono qui alias officiales habere consuevit. Comp. Pertsch g. 81, 190, 197.

• Single examples of this office occur in the 12th century (Thomassin. P. i. lib. i. c. 8. § 3. Pertsch s. 271): in the thirteenth they

tiaries. When, from the 13th century onwards, the titular Bishops? also came into vogue, the wealthier Bishops found so

become more common (Conc. Paris. ann. 1212 P. iii. c. 11, and Conc. Rotomag, ann. 1214 P.'iii. c. 11: [Episcopi] Officiales fideles habeant et prudentes sine personarum acceptione gratis justitiam exhibentes.) In the Decret. Greg. the officials were not even mentioned in lib. i. tit. 28. De officio vicarii, on the other hand, in the lib. Sextus Decretalium lib. i. tit. 13, refers the chap. De officio vicarii only to them. There are several mentions of them : Officiarius (Conc. Cicestrens. ann. 1289 c. 10), Vicarius in spiritualibus et temporalibus (Conc. ap. Nobiliacum ano. 1290), Tcnens vices Episcopi (Conc. Pergam. ann. 1311 rubr. 22), Vicarius in spiritualibus (1.c. rubr. 23), Vicarius seu officialis (1. c. rubr. 24.)-The first trace of distinction between the Vicarius in spiritualibus and the Officialis, seems to be found in the Conc. Colon. ann. 1280, see Pertsch s. 273. Comp. Joh. Wolf's hist. Abhandl. v. d. geistl. Commissarien im Erzstift Mainz. Göttigen 1797. 8.

6 Innocent III. gave rise to them by the decree, Conc. Later, ann. 1215 cap. 10 (Decr. Greg. lib. i. tit. 31. c. 15): Praecipimus, tam in cathedralibus quam in aliis conventualibus ecclesiis viros ideoneos ordinari, quos Episcopi possint coadjutores et cooperatores habere, non solum in praedicationis officio, verum etiam in audiendis confessionibus, et poenitentiis injungendis, ac caeteris, quae ad salutem pertinent animarum. Si quis autem hoc adimplere neglexerit, districtae subjaceat ultioni. Cf. Thomassin. P. I. lib. ii. c. 10, $ 5 ss. To these Penitentiaries now fell also the casus Episcopo reservati, about these consult Thomassin. P. I. lib. ii. c. 14.

7 Episcopi in partibus infidelium or Episcopi titulares, according to the exigencies of the case, had already been establisht in Spain, ever since the invasion of the Saracens (Thomassin. P. i. lib. i. c. 27. § 8 ss.), and in the Byzantine empire (1. c. c. 28 $ 4 ss.) In the 13th century some wealthy bishops of the west began to employ their colleagues who were driven about that time from the cast, as Vicarii in pontificalibus or Suffraganei. The first recognised suffragan Bishops are Henricus Ostiensis Episc. in Trêves, in the year 1241 (Honthem. hist. Trevir. i. 640); in Mayence 1248 Theodericus Ep. Vironensis (Johannis rerum Mogunt. ii. 421 and the continuation in Bodmanns Rheingauischen Alterthümern. Mainz 1819. 4. s. 832) ; soon after suffragans are found at Cologne (J. H. Heister Suffraganei Colonienses. Colon. 1614. p. 05); about 1255 Thomas Cantipratensis is suffragan Bishop in Cambray. After the complete conquest of Palestine by the Saracens, the banisht bishops wandered about the west in great numbers, and offered their services ererywhere, especially to the abbeys exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, and this led the way to great abuses. Clement

V. declared at the Conc. Viennense ann. 1311(Clementin. lib. i. tit. iji. c. 5): In plerisque Ecclesiis-clero carentibus et populo christiano multos frequenter, et religiosos praesertim, improvida superiorum provisio ad pontificatus adsumit honorem, qui nec, ut expediret, prodesse, nec praeesse, ut deceret, valentes, instabilitate vagationis et mendicitatis

many substitutes, that they had no farther occasion to trouble themselves about the exercise of their office. In imitation of their example, the cathedral canons also transferred their ecclesiastical duties to vicars, and became idle gluttons.

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The ecclesiastical laws which aimed at the outward propriety of the clergy were indeed significantly increased in severity, and often enough renewed in this period. They did not however produce their intended effect, from the want of an inward organization of morality. An effort was made at the end of the eleventh century to restore in the religious foundations the canonical mode of life, even in conformity with one of the stricter

opprobrio serenitatem pontificalis obnubilant dignitatis. Accordingly he decreed, ut nullus de caetero, quantacumque dignitate praepollens, nisi speciali super hoc auctoritati sedis apostolicae fulciatur, de pastore provideat cathedrali ecclesiae, sibi qualitercumque subjectae, quae clero careat et subditis Christianis : nullusque religiosus a suo umquam, quod provisioni tali consentiat, licentietur Praelato. Cf. Conc. Ravennate ii. ann. 1311 rubr. 24. De excessibus Praelatorum :-Valde indignum est, juri Ecclesiae et honestati contrarium, quod admittanturet recipiantur ad episcopalia exercenda ignoti et vagabundi Episcopi, et maxime lingua et ritu dissoni : ex quorum ordinatione, sicut experientia docuit, proveniunt duo mala, quia promoventur incogniti, inhabiles et indigni, et etiam de ipsorum rita ordinatione dubitatur etc. Conc. Ravenn. iii. ann. 1314 rubr. 4: Item exhortamur,--ac attentius requirimus omnes et singulos exemptos,--ut nullos Episcopos peregrinos vel ignotos, et populum subditum citra mare non habentes, invitent, seu admittant ad ordinationes tenendas, seu alia pontificalia exercenda in ipsorum Ecclesiis, monasteriis vel locis. In the 14th century they began to find employment universally with the Bishops as Vicarii in Pontificalibus, particularly in Germany, Spain, and Portugal. In France, on the other hand, suffragan Bishops never came into office. Cf. Thomassin. P. i. lib i. c. 27 ss. F. A. Dürr diss. de Suffraganeis s. Vicariis generalibus in pontificalibus Episcoporum Germaniae. Mogunt. 1782. 4. Planck IV. ii. 604.

8 There was a brief of Clement IV. in 1266, in which the canons of Merseburg were forbidden this abuse, see Fraustadt's Einfuhrung d. Reform. in Hochstifte Merseburg, Leipzig 1843, s. 10.

1 Cf. Thomassinus, P. i. lib. iii. c. 11 and c. 21. According to Chrode

rules (the so-called regula S. Augustini): but the new regulations were soon relaxt.? The celibacy of the clergy, which was now

gang's rule the canons possessed the ecclesiastical revenues in common; however, each one remained in sole possession of his own private means. The Cathedral of S. Rufus in Avignon, founded in the year 1039, was the first to have regular canons, who lived in complete community of goods (Pagi crit. ad h. a. no. 8 and 10): Yet this regulation was not strictly enforced, when Nicolas II. and Alexander II. sought to re-establish the vita canonica universally (see Part i. $ 26, note 3), and at the same tiine Petrus Damiani asserted the authority of St. Augustine for it. Petrus D. stated (lib. i. ep. 6, ad Alexandrum P.), with reference to the sermones ii. de moribus clericorum by this Father, quia clericus, qui pecuniam possidet, ipse Christi possessio vel haereditas esse, vel Deum haereditate possidere non potest. Quod tamen non de Clericis omnibus dicimus, sed de his specialiter, qui canonico censentur nomine, et vivunt in congregatione. At the same time he censured the regula Aquisgranensis (Part 1, § 8, note 6), which still allowed canons to retain their private possessions, and the canons who availed themselves of it. Thus a regula S. Augustini began to be spoken of, till at length one was actually composed from those sermons (see in Luc. Holstenii codex regularum monasticarum et canonicarum ed. Marian. Brockie ii. 120.) Bernoldus ad ann. 1091 (in Pertz vii. 452) is the first to mention three coenobia clericorum juxta regulain 6. Augustini communiter viventium, founded by Altmann, Bishop of Passau, and ad ann. 1095 (p. 463), another establisht by Lutolphus, Bishop of Toul, the foundation deed of this, dated vi. Idus Oct. 1091 is in Gallia christ. xii, app. p. 472. There is a severer censure of the reg. Aquisgr. in Gerhohus de corrupto Ecclesiae statu lib. v. in Baluz, miscell. v. 180. E. g. p. 198 : illa-aulica regula, de aula Regis egressa, multa in suo contextu babet sana Patrum documenta ;--sed illis praemissis adulterina quaedam sunt admixta, quibus priorum puritas ita est infecta et turbata per nescio quos aulicos dictatores, veris falsa, bonis mala permiscentes etc. p. 199 : contra quam [regulam] nunc tantopere disputare illud cogit, quod eriam quidam canonici vitam communem secundum regulam b. Augustini professi-eandem sic acceptant, ut in conventibus suis eam recitari faciant quasi authenticam et nullius erroris permixtione infectam etc.—Quae namque ratio est, ut majores et plures clericorum congregationes regulam profitcantur aulicam nulla sedis apostolicae auctoritate canonizatam etc.? The canons who lived after the rule of St Augustine now styled themselves canonici regulares, the others can. seculares. Compare on both Jacobi a Vitriaco hist. occidentalis c. 21 and c. 30.

2 Probst turnarii Ecclesiarum Germ. historia in Ad concordata nationis Germ. integra documentorum fasc. iv. (Francof. et Lips. 1777, 8) p. 245 ss. Planck IV. ii. 570. As a relic of this a custom prevailed in several places, that the members of the chapter, on high feast days, or during Lent, should take their meals together. Hurter's Innocenz III. iii. 352.

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