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lenity shown by the Church to criminal clerks,21 evidently introduced the greatest disorders, the secular power endeavoured from time to time to reclaim its jurisdiction over the crimes of the clergy, 22 and thereby effected at least an increase of severity in the ecclesiastical tribunals.23

quæstione vel civili trahere ad judicium saeculare praesumat, contra constitutiones imperiales (see vol. i. Part 2, $ 113, note 14) et canonicas sanctiones. Quod si fecerit, actor a suo jure cadat, judicatum non teneat, et judex sit ex tunc potestate judicandi privatus. On the whole subject, comp. Thomassin. P. ii. lib. iii. c. 112-114.

21 Celestine III., in the year 1192, thus declares the fundamental principles of the Church, with regard to the punishment of the crimes of the clergy (Decr. Greg. lib. ii. tit. 1. c. 10): Si clericus-in furto, vel homicidio, vel perjurio, seu alio mortali crimine fuerit deprebensus legitime, atque convictus, ab ecclesiastico judice deponendus est. Qui, si depositus incorrigibilis fuerit, excommunicari debet, deinde, contumacia crescente, anathematis mucrone feriri. Postmodum vero, si in profundum malorum veniens contempserit; cum Ecclesia non habeat ultra, quid faciat, et ne possit esse ultra perditio plurimorum, per saecularem comprimendus est potestatem, ita quod ei deputetur exsiliuin, vel alia legitima poena inferatur. The secular judge was only allowed (Conc. Ilerdense ann. 1129 in Thomassin. P. ii. lib. iii, c. 113, § 5) to arrest such clergy flagrante maleficio in furto, rapina, homicidio, vel raptu mulierum, vel cudendo falsam monetam, but non ut vindictam in ipsum exerceat, sed ut eundem reddat ecclesiastico judici. Even Richard Caur de Lion ordained this in Normandy (Matth. Paris ad ann. 1190 p. 161.) On the other hand, Nicolas III. granted this same right as a privilege to Philip, King of France (Rayn. ann. 1278, § 37.)

22 Thus llenry II. intended (in the year 1164) to put an end to the crimes of the clergy in England by the constitutions of Clarendon, cap. 3. See about this and the result § 52, note 25 ss. Philip Augustus proceeded more cautiously in France with his Barons in the Capitulis de interceptionibus clericorum adversus jurisdictionem domini Regis ann. 1219 (Ordonnances des Roys de France de la troisième race, recueillies par M. de Laurière i. 40, and Nouvel examen dc l'usage général des fiefs en France par M. Brussel, Paris 1750. 4. t. ii. Appendix p. xxvii.) : Secundum capitulum, quod quando clericus capitur pro aliquo forisfacto, unde aliquis dicitur vitam vel membrum perdere, et traditur Clero ad degradandum, clerici volunt degradatum omnino liberare. Ad quod respondemus: quod clerici non debent eum degradatum reddere curiae, sed non debent eum liberare, nec ponere in tali loco, ubi capi non possit : sed Justitiarii possunt illum capere extra ecclesiam vel cimiterium, et facere justitiam de eo, nec inde possunt trahi in causam.- Si clericus deprehensus fuerit in raptu, tradetur Ecclesiae ad degradandum ; et post degradationem eum capere poterit Rex vel Justitiarius extra ecclesiam vel atrium, et facere justitiam de eo; nec poterit inde causari. In the baine manner he had already decreed, in the year 1214, with reference

On the other side the Prelates carried onward their invasion upon the rights of the State, but still in a manner which was often productive of good in that age, when at one time they encountered civic misrule and injustice with spiritual weapons, 24

to Crusaders (Ordonnances 1. c. p. 34): 6. Si Ballivi domini Regis aliquem crucesignatum deprehenderint ad praesens forefactum, pro quo debeat membris mutilari, vel vitam amittere secundum consuetudinem curiae saecularis, Ecclesia non defendet eum, vel res ejus. In aliis autem levioribus et minoribus forefactis–Ballivus—reddat absolute ipsum et res suas Ecclesiae requirenti pro jure faciendo. In Venice (see Gregorii IX. ep. ad ducem et commune Venet. ann. 1234 in Höfler's Friedrich II. s. 341) the Doge availed himself of a grant of the Patriarch of Grado, ut clerici de Venetiis sibi subjecti coram Duce de maleficiis et excessibus responderent, and had outlawed those who refused to appear before him, to answer for such charges : ut, si quis eos offenderet in rebus vel personis, remaneret impunis. Several ecclesiastics were put to death, others imprisoned. The same happened in the Lombard cities, Raumer's Hohenstaufen v. 113. Compare in fine the legislation of Frederick II. in Sicily in the year 1231, above $ 55, note 15.

23 Innocent III. Decr. Greg. lib. i. tit. 1. c. 17: Praecipiatis ex parte nostra Praelatis, ut laicis de clericis conquerentibus plenam faciant justitiam exhiberi,-ne pro defectu justitiae clerici trahantur a laicis ad judicium saeculare, quod omnino fieri prohibemus. Idem Decr. Greg. lib. v. tit. 39. c. 35 : cum Praelati excessus corrigere debeant subditorum, et publicae utilitatis intersit, ne crimina remaneant impunita, et per impunitatis audaciam fiant, qui nequam fuerant, nequiores : non solum possunt, sed debent etiam superiores clericos, postquam fuerint de crimine canonice condemnati, sub arcta custodia detinere. He wrote also to the Bishop of Paris ( Decr. Greg. lib. v. tit. 40 c. 27. $ 1): Pro illo falsario clerico scelerato-hoc tibi duximus consulendum, ut in perpetuum carcerem ad agendam poenitentiam ipsum includas, pane doloris, et aqua angustiae sustentanduin, ut commissa defleat, et flenda ulterius non committat. The Conc. Lambethense ann. 1261 threatens on this account sentence of excommunication and interdict against the Detentoribus clericorum (Mansi xxiii. 1065), then however it decrees (p. 1072): quod quilibet Episcopus in suo Episcopatu habeat unum vel duos carceres --pro clericis flagitiosis deprehensis in crimine, vel convictis, juxta censuram canonicam detinendis. Item statuimus, quod si clericus aliquis adeo malitiosus et incorrigibilis fuerit,--quod, si esset laicus, secundum leges saeculi ultimum deberet pati suppliciuin, talis clericus carceri perpetuo addicatur.

24 In the first place by ecclesiastical legislation. Thus there were ecclesiastical laws with threats of the highest spiritual penalties, for the observation of the Treuga Dei (see above Part 1. § 36. note 4. Conc. Claromont. ann. 1095. c. 1. Conc. Lateran. ann. 1102. Conc. Lateran i. gen. ann. 1123. c. 13. Conc. Lateran. ii. gen. ann. 1139. c. 12

at another, by the same means, drew into their own hands the principal share in the administration of civic justice; so that the number of causes exclusively reserved for ecclesiastical judges, was ever on the increase, 25 and recourse to them was open under

Conc. Lat. iii. ann. 1179. c. 21, and so forth), against piracy (Conc. Lat. iii. c. 24) against the appropriation of stranded goods (ibid, and even earlier Conc. Nannetense ann. 1127), against sacrilege and incendiarism (Decr. Greg. lib. v. tit. xvii. De raptoribus, incendiariis et violatoribus ecclesiarum. Conc. Herbipol. ann. 1287. c 30: De spoliatoribus stratarum), against usury (Decr. Greg. lib. v. tit. 19. De usuris, however this was afterwards encouraged even by the Pope, see above $ 55. note 12), against false coinage (Conc. Lat. i. gen. c. 15), against tournaments (Conc. Lat. ii. gen. c. 14. Conc. Lat. iii. c. 20, detestabiles illas nundinas vel ferias, quas vulgo torneamenta vocant, cf. Decr. Greg. lib. v. tit. 13. De torneamentis), against trial by ordeal, which formerly was allowed (Decr. Greg. lib. v. tit. 35. De purgatione vulgari. See above Part 1. § 36.) But there were also prohibitions of new imposts (first indeed Alexander III. decreed in Conc. Lat. iii. gen. c. 22: Nec quisquam alicui novas pedagiorum exactiones sine auctoritate Regum et Principum consensu statuere,-aut veteres augmentare aliquo modo temnere praesumat ; however, afterwards the conditions were left out in the prohibition, Conc. Monspelliense ann. 1214. c. 43. Conc. Tolos. ann. 1229. c. 21. Conc. Biterrense ann. 1246. c. 29, and the Conc. Herbipol. ann. 1287. c. 40 even ordains : Cum iinponentes et exigentes nova passagia, vel antiqua seu concessa augmentantes singulis annis summus Pontifex in Coena Domini anathematis vinculo denunciet subjacere : statuimus, ut ordinarii locorum-singulis annis in Coena Domini solemniter coram populo eosdem, sive sint Archiepiscopi etc. aut laici, seu saeculares personae, quocumque nomine censeantur, pulsatis campanis et candelis accensis, excommunicatos denuncient, usque ad integram restitutionem tanquam excominunicatos ab omnibus evitandos. Compare the encroachments of Boniface VIII. on Philip the Fair, above § 59. note 21.) And there was interference even in the art of war (Conc. Lateran. ii. gen. c. 29 in Decr. Greg. lib. v. tit. 15. c. unic. : Artem autem illam mortiferam et Deo odibilem ballistarioruin et sagittariorum adversus Christianos et Catholicos exerceri de caetero sub anathemate prohibemus.)--These rules of discipline were to be administered by the Synodal tribunals. See above Part 1. $ 35. note 1, compare Montag's Gesch, der deutschen Staatsbürgerl. Freiheit ii. 412

25 Innocent. III. lib. xii. ep. 154 ad Comitem Tolosanum (Decr. Greg. lib. v. tit. 40. c. 26): super universis capitulis, quae pro pace servanda sunt,-item viduis, pupillis, orphanis et personis miserabilibus teneris in judicio ecclesiastico respondere (see vol. 1. part 2. § 115).Beside, all civil and criminal cases against persons who had taken the cross, belonged exclusively to the ecclesiastical tribunal, all cases of marriage-wills and covenants and accusations of usury. Comp. Thomassin. p. ii. lib. 3. c. 110. Planck IV. ii. 249. de Pouilli sur la all circumstances.26 Yet in the 12th century even within the pale of the Church, Bernard's voice of warning was raised against this immoderate extension of Episcopal jurisdiction ;27 afterwards, however, it was attackt only by the secular power from time to time, and stoutly defended by the Church.28 naissance et les progrès de la jurisdiction temporelle des églises in the Memoires de l'Acad. des Inscr, xxxix. 603. Schilling de origine jurisdict. eccl. in causis civilibus. Lips. 1825. 4. p. 53 ss. At last Lucius III. decreed ann. 1181 (Decr. Greg. lib. ii. tit. ii. c. 8) personis ecclesiasticis-malefactores suos—sub quo inaluerint judice convenire. For this reason ecclesiastics bought up cases, in order to bring them before ecclesiastical tribunals : this was forbidden by Gregory IX. (Decr. Greg. lib. i. tit. 42. c. 2) and Conc. ad Castruin Guntherii ann. 1231 c. 19.

26 The Church claimed the superintendence of all justice: Thus Conc. Lateran. II. gen. ann. 1139 c. 20. (Caus. xxiii. qu. 8, c. 32) adds to the decree about the ecclesiastical punishment of incendiaries : Sane Regibus et Principibus faciendae justitiae facultatem consultis Episcopis et Archiepiscopis non negamus :-Thence the appeals in defectu justitiae saecularis, even in matters of feudal tenure (Alexander III. ad Archiep. Senonensem, in Decr. Greg. lib. ii. tit. 2. c. 6 : per dominum feudi causam jubeas terminari, et si ipse malitiose distulerit, tu ei debitum finem imponas. cf. c. 10 and 11.) Innocent III. advanced furthest in the Decretale ad Praelatos Franciae, by which the Denunciatio Evangelica was establisht, see above $ 54. note 6. The Gloss to this even says : executionem gladii temporalis Imperatoribus et Regibus cominisit Ecclesia, et tamen jurisdictionem causarum civilium aliqando per Sacerdotes exercuit. Compare Bonifacii VIII. epist. above $ 59. note 7, and the speech of Cardinal Portuensis § 59. note 25. cf. Schilling de orig. jurisdict. eccl. in causis civil. p. 66.

27 Bernard. de considerat. lib. i. c. 3. Quaeso te, quale est istud, de mane usque ad vesperam litigare, aut litigantes audire? Et utinam sufficeret diei malitia sua, non sunt liberae noctes etc. c. 6 : Putasne haec tempora sustinere, si hominibus litigantibus pro terrena haereditate, et flagitantibus abs te judicium, voce Domini tui responderes : 0 homines, quis me constituit judicem super vos ? (Luc. xii. 14.) In quale tu judicium mox venires? “Quid dicit homo rusticanus et imperitus, ignorans primatum suum, inhonorans summam et praecelsam sedem, derogans apostolicae dignitati ?" Et tamen non monstrabunt, puto, qui hoc dicent, ubi aliquando quispiam Apostolorum judex sederit hominum, aut divisor terminorum, aut distributor terrarum.- Mihi tamen non videtur bonus aestimator rerum, qui indignum putat Apostolis seu apostolicis viris non judicare de talibus, quibus datum est judicium in majora.—Quaenam tibi major videtur et dignitas et potestas, dimittendi peccata, an praedia dividendi ? Sed non est comparatio. Habent haec infima et terrena judices suos, Reges et Principes terrae. Quid fines alios invaditis ? Quid falcem vestram in alienam messem extenditis ? etc.

28 Only Alphonso X. yielded everything by his decision in the

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Just as on one side the Episcopal rights were curtailed by the Popes, so on the other side, the Cathedral chapters also, especially after they had attained the exclusive privilege of Episcopal

Partidas, that all law-suits, which rose from sins, belonged to the ecclesiastical tribunal : still the Cortes often protested: see § 62. note 22, and the treatise by Rosseeuw St Hilaire p. 847 quoted there. Everywhere there rose a feeling of hostility between the secular and ecclesiastical tribunals: thence the charge : saeculares judices in exhibenda justitia personis ecclesiasticis saepe in judicio sunt remissi (Lucius III. ann. 1181 in Decr. Greg. lib. ii. tit. 2. c. 8.) The accusation was retorted on the secular side especially in France : Capitula de interceptionibus Clericorum adv. jurisdictionem domini Regis, ann. 1219, above note 22. There were new complaints of the Barous at the Assembly of the States at Melun in the year 1225. Compare Preuves des libertés de l'église Gallic. ch. vii. nr. 5. Under St Lewis a combination of the Barons was formed against the usurpations of the Church (Matth. Paris ann. 1246 p. 719), where among other things it was also settled (p. 720) ut nullus clericus vel laicus alium de caetero trahat in causam coram ordinario judice vel delegato, nisi super haeresi, matrimonio, vel usuris : amissione omniuin bonorum suorum et unius membri mutilatione transgressoribus imminente ;-ut sic jurisdictio nostra resuscitata respiret, et ipsi hactenus ex nostra depauperatione ditati--reducantur ad statum Ecclesiae primitivae, et in contemplatione viventes nobis, sicut decet, activam vitam ducentibus ostendant miracula, quae dudum a saeculo recesserunt. Compare on the other hand the letters of condemnation by Innocent IV. to the French clergy, to his Legate the Episc. Tusculanus (both are in Raynald 1247 no. 49 ss. the last is given more fully in Duchesne bist. Franc. scriptt. v.714, but by mistake as an epist. Innoc. III.) and ad Episc. Aurelianensem (in Bulaei hist. Univ. Paris. iii. 210.)— Thence the decress of councils against those who ut nullus conqueratur coram ecclesiastico judice, prohibent. Conc. Herbipol. 1287 c. 36. Statuta synodal. Joannis ep. Leodiensis ann. 1287 tit. xvii. c. 9. (Mansi xxiv. 922.) Conc. Compendiense 1301 c. 4. 5. Guil. Durantis de modo celebrandi concil. gener. P. ii. rubr. 70. In Germany Imperial admonitions were given that ecclesiastical and secular tribunals should not overstep their boundaries, see Sammlung der Reichsabschiede i. 17 (ann. 1232), s. 36 (Rudolph v. Habsburg 1282 und 1291), s. 38 (Adolph v. Nassau 1293 u. Albrecht i. 1303.) In consequence there was from time to time a withdrawal of ecclesiastical usurpations Conc. Mogunt. 1261 can. 18 (in Hartzheim Concil. germ. ii. 600): Ne Praelati vel

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