Obrazy na stronie
PDF
ePub

SECOND CHAPTER.

HISTORY OF THE HIERARCHY OF THE CHURCH IN OTHER LANDS.

[ocr errors][merged small]

Whilst in the great struggles of this age, in which Church and State strove for the chief power, the Popes made themselves masters of both : the Hierarchies of the Church in other countries could only attain that independence of all secular power! at which they aimed, so far as the existing feudal relations allowed. The earlier influence of the Lords of the soil, over the appointments to Bishoprics and Abbacies, vanished altogether in Germany from the time of Otto IV., and was straightened by degrees in other countries4 also. But in all cases, even when appointed on the side of the Church, the Prelates had to take the oath of fealty as before, to discharge

How this was opposed, see above $ 48. note 12. Comp. Urbani II. epist. 14, ad Rodulphum Comitem (Mansi xx. 659): Nosse te volumus, quia nulli saecularium domino potestatem in clericos habere licet; sed omnes clerici Episcopo soli esse debent subjecti. Quicunque vero aliter praesumpserit, canonicae procul dubio sententiae subjacebit. $ 49. not. 14 and 15, $ 50. note 8 towards the end.

? Comp. above $ 49. note 5, $ 50, note 8.

3 In the 12th century imperial nominations of Bishops, or imperial influence over the elections, came into vogue, see Sugenheim's Staatsleben des Klerus im Mittelalter Bd. 1. (Berlin 1839) s. 153. Otto IV. and Frederick II. had, however, to disclaim this right. ($ 54. note 71. and 30.)

4 In France, England, and Spain, there was a regulation establisht by law, that the King's permission to elect, and afterwards his confirmation of the election, must be obtained. In Naples, Hungary, Denmark, and Sweden, nomination by the King continued till the 13th century. Staudenmaier's Gesch. d. Bischofswahlen (Tübingen 1830) 8. 249. Sugenheim i. 197.

5 This was acknowledged by Innocent III. in Conc. Lateran. ann.

their feudal obligations, and in all causes relating to fiefs to acknowledge the right of their feudal lord.? On these feudal relations the Lords of the soil grounded also the right of Regalia (jus Regaliæ) and the right of spoils (jus spolii or jus exuviarum);& although these rights were disallowed by the Popes, the 1215 c. 43 (Decr. Greg. lib. ii. tit. 24 c. 30.) Even in Germany the Prelates could not assume the regalia before doing so. Sugenheim i. 162.

Thomassin. P. iii. lib. i. c. 45--48. Hüllınann's Gesch. d. Ursprung's d. Stände in Deutschland 2te Aufl. s. 272 ff. Montag's Gesch. d. deutschen staatsbürgerl. Freiheit ü. 447.

7 This right was recognized by Alexander III. Decr. Greg. lib. ii. tit. 2. c. 6. (The rubric also runs thus : Si quaestio feudalis est inter clericum et laicum, cognoscet dominus feudi) and c. 7. Thus Innocent III. interceded with King Philipp II. of France (lib. viii. ep. 190) for the Bishops of Auxerre and Orleans : dum eorum saisiri fecisti regalia, immo etiam quaedam alia praeter illa, -levi occasione praetensa, quod quidam eorum milites in tuo exercitu constituti ad locum, quem eos adire praeceperas, ire cum aliis noluerint, absentibus eisdem Episcopis per licentiam a te liberaliter impetratam. Et cum-tibi humiliter supplicaverint, ut faceres eis reddi regalia sic subtracta, paratis postmodum curiae tuae subire judicium, sicut in talibus fieri consuevit, tu supplicationes eorum admittere noluisti etc. cf. lib. xiv. ep. 52.

Compare on this head de Marca de conc. Sac. et Imp. lib. viii. c. 1 ss., especially c. 17 ss. Natalis Alex. hist. ecclesiast. ad sacc. xiii. et xiv. diss. viii. Meibomii rerum Germ. iii. 185 ss. Planck IV. ii. 79. Sugenheim's Staatsleben des Kierus im Mittelalter i. 267. Traces of both are to be found even earlier than this. From the daring robbery of the ecclesiastical succession (Thomassini vetus et nova disciplina de beneficiis P. iii. lib. ii.c. 51 ss.) the right of spoils developt itself, and was already old in the time of Frederick I., see § 53. not. 6. Probably the most antient intimation of the prerogative in Germany is to be found in Frider. Archiep. Colon. epist. ad Otton. Bamb., see above S. 49. note 21. On the ground of the prerogative see the declaration of Philip the Fair to the Bishop of Auxerre (quoted by De Marca from the Act of Parliament lib. viii. c. 22. $ 6): Sicut feodum vassallo vacans interim cum suis reditibus a domino licite occupatur, et propter defectum hominis, ut vulgari nostrae patriae verbo utamur, de jure et generali consuetudine Regni nostri per dominum, qousque superveniat persona, quae illi serviat, licite detinetur : sic nos et nostri antecessores vacante Ecclesia Carnotensi et temporalem jurisdictionem et bona temporalia accipimus, et nostros facimus omnes fructus, qui proveniunt ex eisdem. Non solum autem nostram potestatem in bonis episcopalibus exercemus ; imo bona temporalia praebendarum et dignitatum, sive sit jurisdictio temporalis, sive alia bona temporalia, quae possint ad aliquem pertinere, cum vacante praebenda vel dignitate concedimus, et de eis, praedicto tamen modo, disponimus nostro jure.

9 Conc. Claromont. ann. 1095 can. 31. Conc. Tolosan. ann. 1119. can. 4.

German Emperors were not compelled to resign them until the time of Otto IV.10 Even then they were generally maintained by the German Princes,11 by the rest of the monarchs, and also by their most powerful vassals.12 The German Emperors retained the jus primarum precum,13 as a pitiful remnant of the Regalia.

LBy Otto IV. and Frederick II., see § 54. note 17. and 30, by Rudolph of Hapsburg S. 58. note 8.

11 Sugenheim i. 289. Frederick's II, universal prohibition of the spoils in the Confederatio cum Principibus ecclesiasticis, Frankfort 1220, in Pertz iv. 236, was never observed. When the Margraves of Brandenburg in 1244 renounced all claim on the right of spoils, nevertheless governors and patrons continued to exercise it. Spieker's Kirchen- u. Reformationsgesch. d. Mark Brandenburg i. 412, 585.

12 Sugenheim i. 294. The Conc. gener. Ludg. ann. 1274 can. 12. in Mansi xxiv. 90. pronounces sentence of excommunication (as Guil. Durantis sen, who was present at it says, in his comm. ad canones Conc. Ludg. ad clamorem Praelatorum Franciae et Angliae) against those who regalia, custodiam, sive guardiam advocationis, vel defensionis titulum in ecclesiis, monasteriis, sive quibuslibet aliis piis locis, de novo usurpare conantes, bona ecclesiarum, monasteriorum, aut locorum ipsorum vacantium. occupare praesumunt. On the other hand : Qui autem ab ipsarum ecclesiarum, caeterorumque locoruin fundatione, vel ex antiqua consuetudine, jura sibi hujusinodi vindicant : ab illoruin abusu sic prudenter abstineant, et suos ministros in eis solicite faciant abstinere, quoad ea, quae non pertinent ad fructus sive reditus provenientes vacationis tempore, non usurpent; nec bona caetera, quorum se asserunt habere custodiam, dilabi permittant, sed in bono statu conservent. However the Prerogative of Philip the Fair was again made a subject of contention by Boniface VIII., but without result, see above S. 59. note 13. and note 21., no. V.

13 The first known document on this head in Germany is by Conrad IV., King of Rome, in the year 1242 (found in Senkenberg Cod. Probationum p. 9), and by King Richard (in Guil. Durantis specul. juris lib. iv. P. iii. tit. de dignitat, et praeb. § 2, no. 7. and in Aventini antiqu. Altah. in Oefele scriptt. rer. Bavar. i. 728): He, however, already makes use of the expression : vestigia praedecessorum nostrorum et imperatorum Romanorum inhaerentes. Rudolph of Hapsburg writes to an abbot in the Paraleipomenis ad chron. Ursperg. ann. 1286, and quoted thence in Goldast. const. Imp. iii. 446 : Cum ex antiqua et approbata, ac a divis Imperatoribus et Regibus ad nos producta consuetudine quaelibet Ecclesia in nostro Romano Imperio constituta, ad quam beneficiorum ecclesiasticorum pertinet collatio, super unius colla. tione beneficii precum nostrarum primarias admittere teneatur, Devotionem tuam rogamus, quatenus huic clerico de ecclesiastico beneficio, quod ad tuam collationem attinet, ob reverentiam sacri Imperii, studeas liberaliter providere. cf. Würdtwein subsid. dipl. ii. 1. On the whole question Thornassinus P. ii. lib. i. c. 54. especially II. C. de Senken

Since even the clergy in the 12th century were taxt by their secular lords, not unfrequently in an unjust and violent manner :14 Alexander III. (in 1179) decreed that all contributions to the necessities of the State, which were not founded on feudal obligations, should depend upon their own free grant ;15 Innocent III. (1215) made them dependent on the Pope's permission.16 Though even now the clergy were often burdened with heavy imposts in favour of individual princes with the Pope's concurrence :17 still the fundamental principle might be main

berg de jure primarum precum Regum Germaniae Imperatorumque, indulto papali haud indigente tract. ed. R. C. de Senkenberg. Francof. ad M. 1784. 4.

14 Concerning the taxes and immunities of the clergy at this time consult particularly Thomassin P. ii. lib. i. c. 41-44. Planck iv. ii. 158. Bernard of Clairvaux in his letter of thanks to the Duke of Lorraine for the release from taxation (epist. 119), writes about it like Ambrose (vol. i. part 2. § 91. note 2): Alioquin non renuimus Domini nostri sequi exemplum, qui pro se non dedignatus est sulvere censum, parati et nos, libenter quae sunt Caesaris Caesari reddere, et vectigal cui vectigal, et tributum cui tributumn : praesertiin quia juxta Apostolum non tain debemus requirere datum nostrum, quam vestrum lucrum (Phil. iv. 17.)

15 Conc. Lateran. iii. can 19. in Mansi xxii. 228 (Decr. Greg.' lib. ii. tit. 49. c. 4): in diversis partibus mundi rectores et consules civitatum necnon et alii, qui potestatem habere videntur, tot Ecclesiis frequenter onera imponunt, et ita gravibus eas crebrisque exactionibus premunt, ut deterioris conditionis factum sub eis sacerdotium videatur, quam sub Pharaone fuerit, qui divinae legis notitiam non habebat.Universa fere onera sua imponunt Ecclesiis, et tot angariis eas affligunt, ut illud eis, quod Jeremias deplorat, competere videatur : Princeps provinciarum facta est sub tributo (Thren. i. 1.) Sive quidam fosgata, sive expeditiones, sive quaelibet sibi arbitrentur agenda : de bonis Ecclesiarum, clericorum et pauperum Christi usibus deputatis cuncta volunt fere compilari.--Quocirca sub anathematis districtione severius prohibemus, ne de caetero talia praesumant attentare, nisi Episcopus et Clerus tantam necessitatem vel utilitatem aspexerint, ut absque ulla coactione ad relevandas communes necessitates, ubi laicorum non suppetunt facultates, subsidia per Ecclesias existiment conferenda.

16 Conc. Lateran, iv. can. 46. in Mansi xxii. 1030 (Decr. Greg. lib. iii. tit. 49. c. 7), with reference to Alexander's decree: Verum si quando Episcopus simul cum Clericis tantam necessitatem vel utilitatem prospexerint, ut-subsidia per Ecclesias duxerint conferenda : praedicti laici humiliter et devote recipiant cum actionibus gratiarum. Propter imprudentiam tamen quorumdam Romanum prius consulant Pontificem, cujus interest communibus utilitatibus providere. 17 There are instances of Papal grants above $ 56. note 17. § 57.

N

tained, that the clergy could never be taxt by secular princes.18 Only in the free towns there was developt an opposition, more active as issuing from the people, against the freedom from taxation usurped by the clergy.''

In the same manner the clergy claimed immunity from all secular tribunals,20 especially in personal cases. But when the

not. 2. § 59. not. 10. cf. Thomassin. P. ii. lib. i. c. 41. § 6. ss. C. 43. § 5. 88.

18 Many Prelates indeed still sought to obtain immunity from taxation by privilege froin their sovereign lord (see Hüllmann's Gesch. d. Ursprungs d. Stinde 2te Ausg. s. 235): others, however, demanded this as a right in the widest signification. cf. Conc. Narbon. ann. 1227 can. 12. in Mansi xxiii. 24 : Item statuimus, ut clerici occasione patrimonii sui vel personae nullatenus tallientur etc. In like manner Conc. Tolosan. ann. 1229 can. 20. 21. Conc. Biterrense ann. 1246 can. 22. Conc. Nannet. ann. 1264 can. 7. Conc. Colon. ann. 1266 can. 8. Conc. Budense ann. 1279 can. 59 et 60. (in Mansi xxiv. 300.) Compare the attempts of Boniface VIII. above $ 59. note 6 and the next.

19 Compare note 15. In this point the Lombard cities came forward with their example, Raumer's Hohenstaufen v. 110. Hüllmann's Städtewesen iv. 127. Hurter's Innoc. III. iii. 288. In the year 1230 the men of Zurich agreed on the law, that priests also should pay taxes, keep watches, repair walls and moats, and bear other common burdens, see Tschudi's Schweizerchronik for the year 1230.

20 This was claimed in its widest signification by Urban II. See above note 1. cf. Conc. Nemausense ann. 1096 can. 14 (Mansi xx. 936): Nullus--nec clericos, nec monachos in curiam suam ad saeculare cogat venire judicium : quoniain hoc rapina esset et sacrilegium. However, Gratian, under caus. xi. qu. 1. c. 30, thus states the practice of the courts in his time on this point: Ex bis oinnibus datur intelligi, quod in civili causa clericus ante civilem judicem conveniendus est.--In criminali vero causa non nisi ante Episcopum est clericus examinandus. On the other hand, Alexander III. already declares once more, Conc. Lateran. ann. 1179 can. 14: Sane quia laici quidam ecclesiasticas personas, et ipsos etiam Episcopos, suo judicio stare compellunt; eos, qui de caetero id praesumpserint, a communione fidelium decernimus segregandos. And Innocent III. (Decr. Gregor. lib. ii. tit. 2. c. 12) upbraids the Archbishop of Pisa with this charge : asseruisti, te usque ad haec tempora tenuisse, quod licitum sit cuilibet clerico renunciare saltem in temporalibus causis juri suo, et sibi laicum judicem constituere, praesertim ubi adversarii voluntas accedit, and disclaims this opinion, cum non sit beneficium hoc personale, cui renunciari valeat, sed potius toti collegio ecclesiastico sit publice indultum, cui privatorum pactio derogare non potest. Frederick II., on his coronation at Rome 1220, granted the widest exemption to the clergy, by the constitution which was adopted also into the cod. Justin, under lib. i. tit. iii. I. 33 (Pertz iv. 214): Statuimus, ut nullus ecclesiasticam personam in criminali

« PoprzedniaDalej »