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etc. cf. Dictatus Gregorii 22. above $ 47, note 3. Innocent. III. de consecrat. Pontificis sermo 2: Nisi enim ego solidatus essem in fide, quomodo possem alios in fide firinare, quod ad officium meum noscitur specialiter pertinere, Domino protestante : ego, inquit, pro te rogavi, Petre etc. Rogavit et impetravit, quoniam exauditus est in omnibus pro sua reverentia (Hebr. v. 7.) Et ideo fides apostolicae sedis in nulla unquam turbatione defecit, sed integra semper et illibata permansit, ut Petri privilegium persisteret inconcussum. Individual errors of the Popes, which were to be forth with corrected by the Church, were yet considered in the 12th century to be compatible with this infallibility of the Roman Church or Roman see. Ivo ep. 233 : Si vero ea praecipiant (PP. RR.), quae sint contra doctrinam evangelicam vel apostolicam, ibi eis non esse obediendum exemplo docemur Pauli Apostoli, qui Petro sibi praelato, non recte incedenti ad veritatem Evangelii, in faciem restitit. Gratianus dist. xl. c. 6. ex dictis Bonifacii martyris : [Papa] cunctos ipse judicaturus a nemine est judicandus, nisi deprehendatur a fide devius : pro cujus perpetuo statu universitas fidelium tanto instantius orat, quanto suam salutem post Deum ex illius incolumitate animadvertit propensius pendere: and so Gratian does not shrink from adding to one passage of Gregory II. Caus. xxxii. qu. 7. c. 18 (see Part 1, § 8, note 22.): Illud Gregorii sacris canonibus, imo evangelicae et apostolicae doctrinae, penitus invenitur adversum. So also Innocent III. de consecr. Pont. Serm. 3: In tantum mihi fides necessaria est, ut, cum in caeteris peccatis Deum judicem habeam, propter peccatum, quod in fide committitur, possim ab Ecclesia judicari.Thomas Aquinas is the first to declare plainly the infallibility of the Pope in matters of faith. Quodlib. ix. art. 16 : Judicium eorum, qui praesunt Ecclesiae, potest errare in quibuslibet, si personae eorum, tantum respiciantur. Si vero consideretur divina providentia, quae Ecclesiam suam Spiritu sancto dirigit, ut non erret, sicut ipse promisit Joan xiv., quod Spiritus adveniens doceret omnem veritatem, de necessariis scilicet ad salutem ; certum est, quod judicium Ecclesiae universalis errare in his, quae ad fidem pertinent, impossibile est. Unde magis est standum sententiae Papae, ad quem pertinet determinare de fide, quam in judicio profert, quam quorumlibet sapientum hominum in Scripturis opinioni, cum Caiphas, quamvis nequam, tamen quia Pontifex, legatur etiam inscius prophetasse Joan. xi. In aliis vero sententiis, quae ad particularia facta pertinent, ut cum agitur de possessionibus, vel de criminibus, vel de hujusmodi, possibile est judicium Ecclesiae errare propter falsos testes. Canonizatio vero Sanctorum medium est inter haec duo: quia tamen honor, quem Sanctis exhibemus, quaedam professio fidei est, qua Sanctorum gloriam credimus ; pie credendum est, quod nec etiam in his judicium Ecclesiae errare possit.- Ergo dicendum, quod Pontifex, cujus est canonizare Sanctos, potest certificari de statu alicujus per inquisitionem vitae, et attestationem miraculorum, et praecipue per instinctum Spiritus sancti. Idem in Summa, Secunda Secundae qu. 1. art. 10 : Ad illius ergo auctoritatem pertinet editio symboli, ad cujus auctoritatem pertinet finaliter determinare ea quae sunt fidei, ut ab omnibus inconcussa fide teneantur. Hoc autem pertinet ad auctoritatein summi Pontificis, ad quem majores et difficiliores

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EXTENSION OF THE POWER OF THE PAPACY IN THE CHURCH.

The extension of the ecclesiastical power of the Popes, as well in its external as in its internal relations, was the result of the development of this idea. In the eleventh century the Spanish

Ecclesiae quaestiones referuntur.—Unde et Doininus Luc. xxii. 32. Petro dicit, quem summum Pontificem constituit : Ego pro te rogavi, Petre, ut non deficiat fides tua : et tu aliquando conversus confirma fratres tuos.-Et ideo ad solam auctoritatem summi Pontificis pertinet nova editio symboli, sicut et oinnia alia, quae pertinent ad totam Ecclesiam, ut congregare Synodum generalem, et alia hujusmodi :-cujus auctoritate Synodus congregatur, ut ejus sententia confirmatur.

i Historia Compostellana (written in the beginning of the 12th century) ii. 1, in Florez España sagrada xx. 253 : Before this time almost the whole of Spain was rude and unlettered. Nullus equidem Hispanorum Episcopus sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae matri nostrae ser. vitii aut obedientiae quidquam tunc reddebat. Hispania Toletanam, non Romanam legem recipiebat. Sed postquam Adefonsus (VI. King of Castile, Asturia, Leon, Gallicia, and a part of Portugal, 1065—1109), Rex bonae memoriae, Romanam legem Romanasque consuetudines Hispanis contradidit, ex tunc, utcunque obliterata quadam nebula inscientiae, sanctae Ecclesiae vires in Hispanis pullulare coeperunt. Quid enim memorem, rudes et imperitos anteriores Ecclesiae b. Jacobi fuisse Praelatos ? Tempore siquidem Toletanae legis quidam Cardinalis atque Legatus s. Rom. Ecclesiae venit in Hispaniam.—Cumque venisset in Gallaeciam, nuncios suos, ut decebat, ad Episcopum loci illius Compostellam praemisit. Episcopus autem Compostellanus accersito uno de thesaurariis Ecclesiae b. Jacobi, ecce, inquit, adest Cardinalis Romanae Ecclesiae ; vade, et quantum obsequii impendit tibi Romae, tantumdem impendas ei Compostellae : quantum famulata est tibi Ro. mana Ecclesia, tantumdem famuletur ei Compostellana Ecclesia. The annexation to Rome was made particularly painful by the exchange of the Mosarabic for the Roman liturgy : to this end Gregorii VII. lib. i. ep, 64 ad Alphonsum Castellae et Sancium Aragoniae Reges ann. 1074 (Mansi xx. 110): Quapropter ut filios carissimos vos adhortor et moneo, ut vos sicut bonae soboles, etsi post diuturnas scissuras, demum tamen ut matrem revera vestram Romanam Ecclesiam recognoscatis, in qua et nos fratres reperiatis, Romanae Ecclesiae ordinem et officium recipiatis, non Toletanae, vel cujuslibet aliae, sed istius, quae a Petro et Paulo supra firmam petram per Christum fundata est. King Alphonso first submitted the question to the ordeal—but although trial by single combat, and after that, trial by fire, had decided in favour of the Mosarabic liturgy, still the King decided nevertheless for the Roman. (Rodericus, Archbishop of Toledo, + 1245, de rebus Hispanis vi. 26.) The necessity of uniting with the rest of western Christendom, in order

churches in the eleventh and twelfth the Irish-Scotch, and the Milanese Churches3 gave in their submission. The oath of

to carry on their war with the Moors, worked most powerfully on the Kings of Spain. The French ecclesiastics, who at this tiine were advanced in great numbers to the higher spiritual dignities in Spain, confirined the adhesion to Rome, see Rosseeuw Saint-Hilaire in the Mémoires de l'académie royale des sciences morales et politiques. T. 1. Savants étrangers (Paris 1841. 4) p. 831.

2 See vol. i. Part 2. § 133 not. 16-19. The Scottish Church had already given up before this time her contest with the Anglo-Roman Church, and had joined with her in communion, she retained, however, her antient discipline, which was independent of Rome, and her Liturgy, until King David I. (1124-1153) introduced Canons instead of the Culdees into the Cathedral Churches (an historical account of the antient Culdees, by John Jamieson, Edinburgh 1811. 4. p. 252), the Culdees were thrown into the background by the Canons, and only suffered to retain their office till they should die out. Compare Historia b. Reguli, written about 1140, in Jamieson p. 383 : Habebantur tamen in Ecclesia s. Andrea, quota et quanta tunc erat, tredecim per successionem carnalem quos Keledeos appellant, qui secundum suam aestimationem et hominum traditionem magis quam secundum sanctorum statuta Patrum vivebant. Sed et adhuc similiter vivunt.-Postquam Keledei effecti sunt, non licet eis habere uxores suas in domibus suis, sed nec alias, de quibus mala oriatur suspicio, mulieres.-Reditus et possessiones proprias habebant, quas, cum e vita decederent uxores eoruin, quas publice tenebant, filii quoque vel filiæ, propinqui vel generi inter se dividebant.—Non erat, qui b. A postoli altari deserviret, nec ibi Missa celebrabatur, nisi cum Rex vel Episcopus illo advenerat, quod raro contingebat. Keledei namque in angulo quodam Ecclesiae, quae modica nimis erat, suum officium more suo celebrabant. However, the Culdees maintained themselves as colleges of secular priests, as long as to the 15th century. They were subject indeed to Rome, but it was with the reservation of their harmless peculiarities. Braun de Culdeis, Bonnae 1840. 4, p. 10.

3 After that the submission was already begun in the year 1059 (See Part 1 § 25 note 13) still the Milanese would not consent that their Archbishops should receive the Pallium from Rome. Compare the contemporary Landulphi jun. hist. Mediol. c. 38. (Muratorii scriptt. rer. Ital. v. 509): The newly elected Archbishop Anselm contra publicum interdictum Cleri et populi Mediolanensis Romam ivit (ann. 1126), in order to satisfy the Pope on this head : ceu vir prudens et sapiens cum Papa et Cardinalibus ejus multa contulit, et conferendo ecclesiasticas consuetudines Ambrosianae Ecclesiae, et honores ejus archiepiscopatus et urbis vivis et bonis rationibus defendit. When required by the Pope to receive the Pallium, he askt the advice of his companions. One answered him, quod prius sustineret nasum suum scindi usque ad oculos, quam daret sibi consilium, ut susciperet Romae stolam, et Ecclesiae Mediolanensi praepararet hanc novam et gravissi

vassalaget imposed upon all metropolitans by Gregory VII., served as an effectual assistance in the vindication, under all

mam, quam Honorius Papa dicebat sibi imponere, mensuram ; and he took his departure without the Pallium. Political circumstances, however, brought about an alteration. The Milanese, on the disputed imperial election, took Conrad's part against Lothair. Anselm crowned him, and on this account was pronounced deposed by the Pope. On the Papal schism, which followed soon after, Anselm and the Milanese declared for Anacletus II. against Innocent II. But as Lothair and Innocent gradually got the better of their enemies, their party also grew in Milan. At last the town submittted and surrendered Anselm. But it was first owing to the representations of Bernard (Bernardi ep. 131) that the Milanese suffered themselves to be so workton, as to allow their new Archbishop to accept the Pallium froin the Pope. Landulphus c. 41. The leading clergy of Milan, contra solituin decus Mediolani et ejus Ecclesiae Innocentio Papae fidelitatem juraverunt: and in c. 43. The newly elected Archbishop Robaldus Pisis Innocentio Papae juravit (ann. 1136), et jurando libertatem Ecclesiae Mediolanensis in contrarium convertit.

4 The first trace of this is in the year 1073, when Wibert, Archbishop of Ravenna, at his consecration had to take an oath to the Pope Alexander II. (Bonizonis liber ad amicum lib. vi. in Oefelii rer. Boic. script. ii. 810), se fidelem esse Papae Alexandro ejusque sucessoribus, qui per meliores essent electi Cardinales. We have four forms of this oath from this age, I. in the acts of the Roman Synod 1079, where the Patriarch of Aquileia had to take it, in Mansi xx. 525. II. In an epist. Gregorii vii. ad Petrum Subdiac. in the Decret. Gregor. lib. ii. tit. xxiv. c. 4. III. The form of the oath of the Archiepiscopus Trinovitanus, Primas totius Bulgariae in the Gestis Innocentii III. c. 77. IV. The oath of Eadmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the year 1233, in Raynald ad. h. a. no. 65. I introduce number I. entire, and give of the other forms only the most important deviations: Ab hac hora et inantea fidelis ero b. Petro et Papae Gregorio, suisque successoribus, qui per meliores Cardinales intraverint. (II. IV. ejusque successoribus canonice intrantibus.) Non ero in consilio, neque in facto, ut vitam, aut membra, aut papatum perdant, aut capti sint mala captione. Ad synodum, ad quam me vocabunt vel per se vel per suos nuntios, vel per suas literas, veniam et canonice obediam, aut, si non potero, legatos meos mittam. Papatum Romanum et regalia s. Petri (thus also no. IV., on the other hand no. II. reads regulas ss. Patrum ; III. honores, dignitates et rationes apostolicae sedis) adjutor ero ad retinendum et defendendum, salvo meo ordine. Consilium vero quod mihi crediderint per se, aut per nuncios suos, sive per literas, nulli pandam me sciente ad eorum damnum. Legatum Romanum eundo et redeundo honorifice tractabo, et in necessitatibus suis adjuvabo. His, quos nominatim excommunicaverint, scienter non communicabo. Romanam Ecclesiam per saecularem militiam fideliter adjuvabo, cum invitatus fuero. Haec omnia observabo, nisi quantum sua certa licentia remiserint. Instead of the three last circumstances, of that idea of an episcopus universalis, whose vicars were the bishops. After that the Popes began to confirm sentences no. II. has Limina Apostolorum singulis annis aut per me aut per certum nuncium visitabo, nisi eorum absolvar licentia. Sic me Deus adjuvet, et haec sancta Evangelia. Each of the other two forms has besides insertions peculiar to itself. Thus no. III. Eorum certum malum si scivero, impedire studebo. Quodsi non potero impedire, eis quam cito potero intimare curabo.- Cum quemlibet de meis Suffraganeis consecravero, faciam illi jurare, ut Romano Pontifici et Romanae Ecclesiae perpetuam obedientiam et debitum honorem impendat. Caeterum cum aliquem coronavero in Regem Bulgarorum et Blacorum juxta indulgentiam mihi et successoribus meis ab apostolica sede concessam, ab eo juratoriam recipiam cautionem, quod ei qui tunc apostolicae sedi praefuerit, successoribus ejus, et Ecclesiae Romanae devotus et obediens permanebit, et cunctas terras et gentes suo subjectas imperio in obedientia et devotione sedis apostolicae conservabit.—On the other hand IV. Possessiones vero ad mensam mei archiepiscopatus pertinentes non vendam, neque donabo, neque pignerabo, neque de novo infeudabo, vel aliquo modo alienabo inconsulto Romano Pontifice. In the promise of no. II. Limina Apostolorum singulis annis aut per me aut per certum nuncium visitabo ; no. III. has singulus quadrienpiis; no. IV. singulis trienniis. One may see plain enough how the forms are modified according to circumstances. This oath of vassalage (see Part 1 § 23. note 11) may be compared with the oath of Boniface (ibid. § 4. note 3.) On a refusal of this see Paschalis ii. epist. ad Archiepisc. Salonae (in Cencii Camerarii lib. censuum in Baronius 1102 no. 8. Mansi xx. 984, with the inscription Poloniae, out of which in other 'manuscripts has been made Polemensi, Coloniensi, most frequently Panormitano. Later manuscripts have conjectured Colocensi, but Colocza had not yet, at that time, an Archbishop. Steph. Katona hist. crit. regum Hungar, stirpis Arpadianae iii. 149 ss. proves the right reading to be Salonae): Significasti, frater carrissime, Regem et Regni majores admiratione permotos, quod pallium tibi ab apocrisiariis nostris tali conditione oblatum fuerit, si sacramentum, quod a nobis detulerant, jurares.— Ajunt, omne jusjurandum a Christo Deo in Evangelio esse prohibitum, nec ab ipsis Apostolis post Dominum, nec in conciliis inveniri posse statutuin. Quid est ergo quod idem Dominus subsecutus ait: Quod amplius est a malo est (Matt. v. 37) ? hoc enim amplius ut exigamus, malum nos, illo permittente, compellit. Nonne malum est ab Ecclesiae unitate, a sedis apostolicae obedientia, resilire ? — Nonne praedecessor tuus praeter Romani, Pontificis conscientiam damnavit Episcopum ?-Quid super Episcoporum translationibus loquar, quae apud vos non auctoritate apostolica sed nutu Regis praesumuntur? Propter haec mala et alia evitanda hujusmodi juramentum exigitur. The assertion of Gregory VII. and his immediate successor, nisi praesenti personae pallium non esse concedendum (Greg. VII. lib. i. ep 24) had soon to be given up. Pertsch de pallio p. 222 ss.- Much that is worth reading on the history of this oath may be found in F. A. Zaccaria de rebus ad hist.

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