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more induced to repeal gradually all the decrees issued by his predecessor against France.40

But after the death of Benedict XI. († 7. July 1304) the French party among the Cardinals, after a long conclave, contrived to manage that Bertrand d’Agoust, Archbishop of Bordeaux, who had already delivered himself over into Philip's hands by a secret compact, should ascend the Papal throne as Clement V. (5. Jun. 1305,) 41 Thus the Papal see fell under the influence of France, and began a fresh career.

Royaume, pourcequ'il li appartient, que ce soit fait, que vous gardiez la souveraine franchise de vostre Royaume, qui est telle, que vous ne recognessiez de vostre Temporel Souverain en terre hors que Dieu, et que vous faciez declairer, si que tout le monde le sache, que le Pape Boniface erra manifestement et fist peché mortel notoirement, en vous mandant par lettres Bullées, qu'il estoit vostre Souverain de vostre

Temporel, et que vous ne pouvez prevendes donner, ne les fruits des Eglises cathedrales vacans retenir, et que tous ceux qui croyent le contraire, il tenoit pour Hereges.

Item, que vous faciez declairer, que l'en doit tenir ledit Pape pour Herege,-pourcequ'il ne veut cette erreur rapeller, ayant dit moult de fois, qu'en cette creance vivroit et mourroit, et que ja pour nul homme ce ne rappelleroit etc. An interesting historical proof that the priesthood and temporal sovereignty have always been distinct. Ce fut grand abomination a ouïr, que ce Boniface, pourceque Dieu dist à saint Pierre " ce que tu lieras en terre, sera lié au ciel," cette parole de spiritualement, entendit mallement, comme Boulgare, quant au Temporel, se il mit un homme en prison temporelle, le mist pour ce Dieu en prison en ciel. At the end, Pourquoi il pert raisonnablement, qu'il fut Herege, et en cette herreur mourut, et s'aucun vouloit ledit Boniface excuser de tout cest esclandre etc.- Parquoy que aucun autre ne preigne exemple à faire ainsi, et pourceque la peine de luy face paour aux autres,-vous noble Roy sur tous autres Princes defenseur de la foy, destructeur des Boulgres, pouez et devez et estes tenus requerrer et procurer, que ledit Boniface soit tenus et jugiez pour Herege, et punis en la maniere, que l'en le pourra et devra, et doit faire apres sa mort : si que vostre souveraine franchise soit gardé etc.

40 See all the Bulls issued with this view in Du Puy, preuves p. 207.

41 Compare the account given by the writers of the day Ferreti Vicentini (about 1328) hist. suorum temporum in Muratori scriptt. rer. It. ix. 1014 and Giovanni Villani (+ 1348) histor. Fiorentine lib. viii. C. 80. in Muratori xiii. 415 ss.

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Spittler's Werke, herausg. v. K. Wächter. i. 305 (Fragm. aus einem zweiten

Theile d. Gesch. d. kan. Rechts). J. J. Lang Gesch. u. Institutionen. des
Kirchenrechts. i. 215. Eichhorn's Kirchenrecht i. 322. Dess. deutsche
Staats-und Rechtsgeschichte (4te Aufl.) ii. 247. Richter's Kirchenrecht
(2te Aufl.) s. 135.

The old canon Law was quite displaced at this period, by the new Papal rights built upon the foundation of the Pseudo-isidorian principles. After that the Decretals had been intermingled with the Canons by several systematical compilers, and thereby acquired equal authority with them on all points; the Benedictine? Gratian at Bologna, the abode of legal knowledge at that time, essayed a concordantia discordantium Canonum libb. iii.,9 (1150),4 which naturally enough decided throughout in favour of the new Papal Law. By means of this work the

1 On these see Ballerini de ant. collect. canonum P. iv. c. 13 ss. (in Gallandii sylloge ed. Magont i. 640), v. Savigny's Gesch. d. röm. Rechts im Mittelalter ii. 274. Aem. L. Richter's Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Quellen des can. Rechts. Leipzig 1834. H. Wasserschleben's Beiträge zur Gesch. d. vorgratianischen Kirchenrechtsquellen, Leipz. 1839. Among them Burchard, Bishop of Worms (4 1025), is remarkable for bis Decretorum libb. xx., and Ivo, Bishop of Chartres (+ 1115), for his Decretum, and the Pannormia, an abridgement from it (against Theiner über Ivo's vermeintl. Decret. Mainz 1832, according to whom the Decretum is the work of some later author, see Wasserschleben 8. 47.)

2 According to Spittler's Beiträgen s. 4. a Camaldulenser.
3 Commonly called the Decretum Gratiani, sce Spittler s. 12.

4 According to the Glossa ad c. ii. qu. 6. c. 31. (which is even found in one of the most antient Glossers, Hugo, Bp. of Ferrara (4 1210), see Gerhardi Groot sermo in Kist en Royaards Archief voor kerkelijke Geschiedenis ii. 312): anno Dom. MCL. ut ex Chronicis patet.

o For the history of the Decretal, see J. H. Boehmeri diss. de varia decreti Gratiani fortuna publisht before hist Corpus jur. can. Tom. i. (Spittler's) Beitrage zur Geschichte Gratians und seines Decrets, in Canon Law, together with the Roman Law, became the subject of zealous and scientific study at Bologna and Paris, and Gratian as well as Justinian had numerous commentators.? But by this means the contradictions of the old and new Law,8 which had been but imperfectly adjusted by Gratian, were brought out in such numbers that the Popes were incessantly forced to fresh decisions. Thus countless decretals appeared," whose daily increasing mass threatened to cause the greatest perplexity, 10 till Gregory IX. caused a systematical code, chiefly

Abele's Magazin für Kirchenrecht und Kirchengesch. St. i. (Leipz. 1778. 8.) e. i. ff. (Sarti) de claris Archigymnasii Bononiensis professoribus (ed. M. Fattorini. PP. ii. Bonon. 1769 and 72) P. i. p. 247 ss.On Gratian's mistakes, false and mutilated quotations, reception of forged documents, see Antonii Augustini (Archbishop of Tarragona) de emendatione Gratiani dialogorum libb. ii. Tarrac 1587. 4. (cum not. St. Baluzii et G, Mastricht, in Gallandii de vetustis canonum collectionibus dissertationum sylloge, ed. Magont. ii. 185). The principal work is C. S. Berardi Gratiani canones genuini ab apocryphis discreti, corrupti ad emendatiorum codicum fidem exacti etc Taurini. Tomi iv. 1752. 4. Jod. le Platt diss. de spuriis in Gratiano canonibus (in Gallandii syll. ii. 801). J. A. de Riegger diss. de Gratiani collectione canonum, illiusque methodo et mendis (in Oblectam. hist. et jur. eccl. i. 1). Richter de emendatoribus Gratiani diss. Lips. 1835.

6 Decretistae and Doctores decretorum in opposition to Legistae and Doctores leguin. The confirmation of the Decretal by Eugene III. 1152 is most likely fictitious, Spittler s. 14 ff. Eichhorn's Rechtsgesch. ii. 255. But even Popes appeal to it, Boehmer diss. p. xviii.

7 Concerning them Guido Pancirolus de claris legum interpretibus (Lips. 1721. 4.) lib. iii. c. 6. Lang Gesch. u. Instit. des Kirchenrechts. 1, 259. The most remarkable of these is John Semecca, Provost of Halberstadt (Magister Teutonicus t 1245, see Niemann's Gesch.v. Halberstadt 1,343), from his glosses arose the glossa ordinaria, which received its finishing touch from Barthol. von Brixen (+ 1258.)

o Hence the decree of a Cistercian Chapter in the year 1188 (Martene thesaur, anecdot. iv. 1263): Liber, qui dicitur canonum, sive decreta Gratiani, apud eos qui liabuerint secretius custodiantur, ut cum opus fuerit proferantur. In communi armario non resideant propter varios, qui inde provenire possent, errores.

9 Most of thein were issued by Alexander III. and Innocent III.

10 On the collections made before Gregory IX. see Henricus Card. Ostiensis (about 1250) summa super titulis decretalium p. 4: tam ex dictis ss. Patrum quam legibus fuit liber Decretorum compositus.Postea vero cum multae decretales epistolae extra corpus Decretorum vagarentur, Mag. Bernardus, Papiensis Praepositus, primum compilationein composuit. Sed et tempore procedente Mag. Guilebertus suam effecit. Aliam etiam et Alanus. Deinde Mag. Bernardus

drawn from the Papal Decretals (Decretalium Gregorii P. ix. libb. v. 1234),1 to be prepared by the Dominican Raymund de Pennaforti ; which even in this period of time (1298) was increased under Boniface VIII. by a liber sextus gathered from

Compostellanus, in Curia Romana moram faciens, ex registro domini Innocentii III. quandam compilationem extraxit, quae Romana appellata fuit. Sed quia ibi erant quaedam decretales, quas non admittebat Romana Curia, ideo idem Innocentius per manum Petri Beneventani compilationem edidit, quae tertia vocabatur. Qua recepia Mag. Johannes Walensis de duabus dictis compilationibus Guileberti et Alani unam compilavit, quae vocabatur secunda. Postmodum concilio generali per eundem Innocentium celebrato, tam de constitutionibus generalis concilii quam aliis decretalibus ipsius Innocentii compilatio quarta processit. Postremo quinta compilatio per Honorium III. facta fuit. Et si ea, quae praemisi, bene attenderis, octo compilationes poteris invenire. Ideo bene congruebat, ut Gregorius IX. faceret opus nonum. Boehmer de decretalium pontificum Romanorum variis collectionibus et fortuna before his Corpus juris can. II. xxiii. A. Theineri comm. de Romanorum Pontificum epistolarum decretalium antiquis collectionibus et de Gregorii IX. P. M. decretalium codice, Lips. 1829. 4. Recherches sur plusieurs collections inédites de décré. tales du moyen âge par Aug. Theiner. Paris 1832. 8. Lang s. 228. Eichhorn's Kirchenr. i. 336. His deutsche Rechtsgesch. ii. 259. Richter's Kirchenr. s. 141. Beside the incompleteness which was continually brought to light again and again from the first, we have to remark the wholesale falsifying and forgery of Decretals, of which Innocent III. lib. i. epist. 349. gives nine sorts (comp. Decret. Gregor. lib. V. tit. 20. de crimine falsi and lib. ii. tit. 22. de fide instrumentorum.) Thence the complaints of Stephen Bishop of Tournay (from 1192 to 1200), epist. 251. ad Coelestinum P. iii. (in ed. Car. du Molinet, Paris 1679 p. 366, more correctly in the Notices et extraits des mss. de la biblioth. du Roi X. ii. 101): si ventum fuerit ad judicia, quae jure canonico sunt tractanda,-profertur a venditoribus inextricabilis silva decretalium epistolarum, quasi sub nomine sanctae recordationis Alexandri Papae : et antiquiores sacri canones abjiciuntur, respuuntur, exspuuntur-Hoc involucro prolato in medium ea, quae in conciliis ss. PP. salubriter instituta sunt, nec formam conciliis, nec finem negotiis imponunt, praevalentibus epistolis, quas forsitan advocati conductitii sub nomine Romanorum Pontificum in apothecis sive cubiculis suis confingunt et conscribunt. Novum volumen ex eis compactum et in scholis solemniter legitur, et in foro venaliter exponitur, applaudente coetu notariorum, qui in conscribendis suspectis opusculis et laborem suum gaudent imminui, et mercedem augeri.

11 Henricus Ostiensis 1. C. Dictus dominus Gregorius tantam confusionem et prolixitatem removere cupiens, ex dictis decretis, decretalibus epistolis, et dictis ss. Patrum, ac legibus antiquis, compila. tionibus decretalium abrogatis voluit necessaria et utilia redigere in hunc librum.

the later decretals, divided likewise into 5 books.12 When the Decretals began to be unfolded into a complete legislative system, Professorial chairs were appropriated to them at the Universities ;13 by means of which the Popes at once acquired a convenient method for the speedy and universal publication of the new laws as they appeared.14 On the other hand Gratian's Decretal was continually more and more neglected, and together with the use of it disappeared every trace of the antient canon law.

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The Pseudo-isidorian Idea that the Pope was the Episcopus universalis of the Church,' was now developed by the ambition of the Popes and the cringing flattery of their creatures, favoured by the state of politics and the ignorance of the age,2 to a degree never anticipated in former times. Bishops were degraded to be

12 Eichhorn's Kirchenr. i. 345. Richter's Kirchenr, s. 143.

13 Decretalistæ or Decretistae. The Decretales Gregor. are indebted for their glossa ordinaria to Bernard de Botono from Parma, Canon at Bologna (+ 1266), see Lang s. 262 ; the liber sextus of John Andreæ, Decretalist in Bologna (+ 1348, see Savigny vi. 87.)

14 Compare the Brief with which Innocent IV. despatches the decrees, Conc. Lugdun. ann. 1245 universitati magistrorum et scholarium Bononiae commorantibus (Mansi xxiii. 651), quatenus eis, quas sub bulla nostra vobis transmittimus, uti velitis amodo tam in judiciis, quam in scholis, ipsas sub suis titulis, prout super qualibet earum exprimitur, inseri facientes.

15 Rogeri Bacon opus majus (about 1266) ed. Jebb. p. 250. Gratianus multa scripsit jura, quae nunc abrogata sunt, sententia saniore praevalente.

1 See Part 1. § 20, note 8. Above $ 47, note 3.

2 Hence it was that the mass of forged evidence, which may be found in Thomas Aquinas, especially in his opusc. contra errores Graecorum, could be attributed to the antient Greek Fathers. Thus Cyril of Alexandria in libro thesarorum is represented as having said, among other sayings of the same kind (see Thomas in sent. lib. iv. dist. 24. qu. 3. art. 2): ut membra maneamus in capite nostro, apostolico throno Romanorum Pontificum, a quo nostrum est quaerere, quid credere, et quid tenere debeamus, ipsum venerantes, ipsum rogantes prae omnibus : quoniam ipsius solius est reprehendere, corrigere, statuere,

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