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before his throne; without in the meanwhile pronouncing any decision 11

But Urban's principal aim, for he disdained reconciliation, was the annihilation of Manfred.12. When England could pay no more he offered the Sicilian crown to Charles, Count of Anjou : although his more upright brother, St Lewis, strongly disapproved of the transaction," he came to an agreement with him as to

partis praejudicio utrumque ipsorum decrevimus in nostris literis nominandum in Romanorum Regem electum. Alexander's letter (note 9) was easily set aside, cum sint literae placentia quaedam, ne dicam adulatoria, non diffinitionem aliquam continentes. In the letter to Richard dd. ii. Kal. Sept. 1263 (the same no. 43 ss.) he writes otherwise : et licet idem praedecessor tibi favorem circa praerogativam alicujus intitulationis impenderit, non tamen nos decuit facilitate praecipiti sequi hujusmodi processum praedecessoris ejusdem, quem fratrem nostrorum-communis et decisiva collatio non praecessit.

11 Gebauer s. 213 ff. On this point the Troubadour Bertrand d' Alamanon (Millot i. 397. Original in Raynouard v. 72), thus speaks his wind : C'est le Pape, qui règne, qui possède l'empire: car il en tire plus de revenu, -que n'en pourroit tirer l'Empereur. Il ne cherche qu'à fomenter les troubles. Ce procès ne sera point jugé. Mais puisque les Rois le veulent terminer avec les armes, qu'ils se mettent chacun en campagne; que l'un des partis remporte la victoire. Alors les décrétales n'arrêteront plus, et l'on fera bien parler le Pape. Le vainqueur sera appelé fils de Dieu, sera couronné par le clergé. Tel est l'usage des gens d'église, quand ils trouvent un Empereur puissant, de se soumettre humblement à ses ordres, et de l'accabler, quand ils le voient décheoir.

12 Sabæ Malaspinae lib. ii. c. 7 (in Murat. viji. 806 s.) After the negotiations with Charles of Anjou were already begun, Urban caused Manfred to be summoned for form's sake; and he sent ambassadors. But their allegationes pro Rege idem summus Pontifex non admisit: quia, dum Ecclesia voluit,-Rex praedictus ipsius Ecclesiae beneplacita parvipendit, nec annuit postulatis. Cum autem postmodum visus est velle sub exquisitis cum omni diligentia pactis sedis ejusdem se subjicere voluntati, ejus humilitatem tunc repudiavit—Ecclesia.--Sicque ipsum Regem,--tanquam jam praescitum ad malum, summus Pontifex excommunicationis vinculo innodavit.

18 Compare Urban's letter to his Legate in France, Magister Albertus (ap. Raynald. ann. 1262, no. 21): Tuas nuper recepimus literas inter caetera continentes, quod clarissimus in Christo filius noster Rex Francorum illustris, verbis proculdubio subdolis aliquorum, intendentium, ipsum avertere a negotio, ad quod cum ipso tractandum te misimus, aures credulitatis inclinans : et eorundem fingentium, Conradinum,-vei si dictus Conradinus, ut eorum verbis utamur, a suo jure cecidit, nobilem virum Edmundum-per concessionem sedis apostolicae in regno Siciliae jus habere, suggestionibus informatus--dubitat,

conditions, 14 and declared Edmund's claim forfeited.15 However, Manfred came forth to meet his new antagonist : and the greatest

nec immerito, si veritas praemissis addesset, non sine multorum, ut asserit, scandalo jus invadere alienum.-- Verum illam debet idem Francorum Rex de nobis et fratribus nostris cepisse fiduciam,quod ipsum tamquam praedilectum, et Romanae Ecclesiae filium-ea dilectionis singularitate prosequimur, quod nec personam aut terram periculis ingerere, nec fainam scandalo aut detractioni subjicere, nec animam suam, cujus nobis licet immeritis curam novimus esse commissam, salutis vellemus discrimini subjacere : quodque nos et fratres ipsi sic nostras intendimus conscientias divinae majestatis virtute praeambula mundas Domino conservare,-quod in praedictorum Conradini et Edmundi, vel alterius cujusdam praejudicium cum conscientiarum scrupulo et divini offensa numinis nullo modo aliquid faceremus. However, Lewis' aversion to the cause continued, see below, note 18.

14 The first outline of the Papal conditions, 23. March 1262, is in Muratorii antiquitt. Ital. med. ævi vi. 105, a second dated 17. Jun. 1263, in Martene et Durand thesaur. nov. anecdotorum ii. 9. On the other hand, on 28. Jul. 1263, the Pope promised the count tithes of all ecclesiastical revenues in France and the kingdom of Arles : farther still, faciamus verbum crucis proponi contra Manfredum-et Saracenos Luceriae per omnes terras, in quibus verbum hujusmodi poterit secure proponi : illamque indulgentiam, ac illa privilegia et illas immunitates his, qui contra Manfredum et Saracenos praedictos signum crucis assumserint, largiamur, quae transfretantibus in terrae sanctae subventionem in generali concilio sunt concessa. Demus etiam dicto Comiti omnes redemtiones votorum personarum illarum, quae signum crucis in subsidium dicti negotii duxerint assumendum, et redimere voluerint

hujusmodi vota sua. At last he offers the protection of the Church for -- Charles' lands, and so forth. In Jan. 1264 the Pope consented to some modifications of the treaty at the request of Charles : see the three letters ad Albertum sedis apost, notarium in Martene 1. c. p. 33 ss.

15 Urbani epist. ad Henr. Regem et nobilem virum Eadmundum dd. 28. Jul. 1263 (in Rymer-Clarke I. i. 428) :-Quia ergo liberum est nobis et ipsi Ecclesiae, de praedicta regno Siciliae disponere,-cum conditiones, sub quibus regnum ipsum a praefato praedecessore concessuin extitit, adimpletae non fuerint, sicut nostis; nos—magnificentiam vestram-rogandam duximus attentius et hortandam, in remissionein vobis peccaminum nihilominus injungentes, quatenus--nullum deinceps nobis et ipsi Ecclesiae super hujusmodi dicti regni negotio ingeratis impedimentum, nullumque contradictionis obstaculun opponatis; sed --et verbis ostendatis et literis, quod vobis non displicet, immo placet, si dicta Ecclesia super ipsius regni negotio tractet cum aliquibus mundi Principibus, suamque possit de ipso regno conditionem facere meliorem : preces super hoc apostolicas taliter impleturi, quod Regem Regum constituatis exinde vobis propitium et benignum, et praedictam Romanam Ecclesiam reddatis propter hoc vobis perpetuis temporibus in vestris opportunitatibus favorabilem adjutricem.

part of the estates of the Church was in the King's power, 16 when the Pope died († 2. Oct. 1264.)

Clement IV. at last reapt the sweet as well as the bitter fruits, which his predecessors had sown. Charles arrived at Rome (in May 1265),17 but without money.18 The Papal Bull for a

16 See Urban's account in his epistle to Cardinal Simon, Legate in France, Martene thes, ii. 82. His call for help addressed ad universos fideles is in Raynald 1264, no. 16. Raumer iv. 484.

Hi As early as 26. Feb., Clement issued two Bulls (d’Achery spicilegium iii. 648.) The one deprives Edmund once more of all claim for Sicily, and shows in a legal argument that there had never been any collation or concession of the kingdom itself, made either to Edmund or his Father, by the Apostolic See, or by its mandate or authority (the obsequious Henry, as early as June 1265, sent ambassadors to the Pope with full power to renounce his claim on the kingdom of Sicily. See Rymer-Clarke, p. 457.) The other Bull solemnly hands over the kingdom to Charles of Anjou, on the conditions already agreed on. About these last a new act was executed at the time of Charles's investiture, 29. May 1265 (in Ravnald ad h. a. no. 13 ss.), which received the Papal assent in a Bull dated 4. Nov. (in Martene thesaur. ii. 220 ss.) Accordingly Charles was crowned in Rome by five cardinals on the 6th of January 1266. By the terms of this last definitive treaty Charles was required to pay a yearly quit-rent of 8000 ounces of gold, quolibet triennio unum palafridum album, pulcrum et bonum in recognitionem veri dominii eorundem regni et terrae, and immediately after taking possession of the kingdom 50,000 ounces of gold. If the terms were not kept, first the excommunication of the King, then an interdict of the whole country, were to follow. For this Charles held the whole kingdom in its former extent, only with the exception of Benevento. When the Pope required it, the King was to send him 300 knights in aid.

18 In this the Pope had many arbitrary acts of Charles to complain of, comp. Clementis epist. ix. xii. lxxii. (Martene thes. ii. 105, 107, 141.) But all his letters at this time remark on Charles's necessity and want of money, for instance epist. cxvi. ad Carolum (1. c. p. 173): Thesaurus apud nos nullus latet, nec nos eum multiplicare proponimus illis modis, quibus multi homines vellent. Vide partes orbis concussas, et scire poteris causas inopiae. Anglia adversatur, Almannia vix obedit, Francia gemit et queritur, Hispania sibi non sufficit, Italia non subvenit, sed emungit : et unde potest Romanus Pontifex, si Deum timet vel reveretur homines, sibi vel aliis in militia vel pecunia subvenire ?-Ceterum scripsit nobis secretissime legatus Franciae—motum contra te carissimi in Christo filii nostri illustris Regis Franciae fratris tui. Tu ergo-da operam totis viribus ad pacan-lum ipsius animum etc. Epist. cxx, ad Simonem Cardin. Legate in France, p. 179: If the money rising from the tithe of ecclesiastical revenue to be collected in France be not soon sent to the King, Regem oportet vel fame deficere vel

Crusade19 had collected an army in Provence, which now marched through Northern Italy; but it markt its track by devastations of every kind. The Pope's friendship for Charles was already much cooled,ao when he gained the victory over the noble Manfred

aufugere ;-Rex deficit, perit negotium, et nos cum eo cadimus quoad illud etc. Epist. cxxxii. ad Regem Siciliae, p. 186 : Tuis nunciis saepe diximus, et per literas tibi saepius intimavimus, quod tuis, ut vellemus, subvenire defectibus non valemus, et quotiens replicatur: cadit ergo negotium, si non facitis; nos subjungere cogimur : cadet Ecclesia, si quod postulatur implemus. Epist. clxv. ad Simonem Cardin. p. 214:-Rex) suum et suorum vestitum et victum in sudore vultus sui mendicat, in manus respiciens creditorum, qui sanguinem ejus ebibunt, quod non valet duos denarios solido vendentes eidem etc.

19 Addressed to the Cardinal Legate Simon in Martene thesaur. ii. 196 ss., and the same with a few alterations ad Archiepiscopos Bituricens. Narbon. Senon. et Rothomagens. et Priorem Praedicatorum et Ministrum Minorum Fratrum, Provinciales Franciae et Decanum Rhemensem dd. iv. Non. Nov. (According to Raynald 1265 no. 26. iv. Non. Sept.) in Wadding ann. Minorum iv. 242. It begins: De venenoso genere, velut de radice colubri, virulenta progenies Manfredus, quondam princeps Tarantinus, egressus, ab ineunte aetate paternis se conformans nequitiis, nisus est quantum potuit paternam saevitiam superare. Qui sicut impius in pessimis rebus exultans, gloriatus est esse ae dici Ecclesiae persecutor, ad depressionem orthodoxae fidei, enervationem juris ecclesiastici, et jugem turbationem Italiae, prout patet, per opera damnabilia progenitoris imitatione suspirans etc. To those who should take the Cross and in propriis personis et expensis accesserint, plenam suorum peccaminum veniam indulgemus, et in retributione justorum salutis aeternae pollicemur augmentuin. Eis autem qui non in propriis personis hoc fecerint, sed in suis dumtaxat expensis-viros idoneos destinaverint, et illis similiter, qui licet in alienis expensis, in propriis tamen personis accesserint, et eis qui quartam seu majorem partem proventuum-de reditibus suis pro hujusmodi negotio collectoribus ad hoc deputatis-erogaverint, plenam suorum concedimus veniam peccatorum. At the end it runs, according to Martene: Et ut fideles Christi libentius et ferventius currant ad verbum Domini audiendum, oninibus vere poenitentibus et confessis, qui ad tuam et illorum, quibus id commiseris, solennem praedicationem accesserint-X. vel xx, seu xxx. vel xl. dierum indulgentiam-largiaris, prout videris expedire. On the other hand, according to Wadding: Caeterum vos-rectores Ecclesiarum-moneatis diligenter, et efficaciter inducatis eos ad id, si necesse fuerit per censuram ecclesiasticam compellendo, ut ipsi cum parochianis suis ad audiendum verbum Crucis devote ac reverenter accedant etc.

20 It is worthy of note that Urban, even on 2. Feb. 1266, caused Manfred to be summoned to clear himself of the suspicion of heresy; accordingly Manfred sent two proctors : Urban writes thereupon to a cardinal epist. 232, dd. 21. Febr. (in Martene thes. ii. 279): de Manat Benevento by treachery (26. Febr. 1266), and took possession of the kingdom. It was yet more so when the avaricious and heartless Charles not only immediately alienated the minds of his new subjects by extortion and cruelty, 21 but also paid slight attention to the treaty concluded with the Pope.22

Nevertheless his hatred of the Hohenstaufen outweighed this dislike. Though Clement also did not venture to decide with regard to the disputed Imperial election in Germany,23 still he trembled at the possibility of its being settled by a fresh election of Conradin.24 When this youth25 appeared in Italy (Oct. 1267)

fredo coeperunt aliqui (Cardinales) dubitare, an scilicet ex eo, quod multo tempore claves Ecclesiae contemserit, orta sit illa suspicio (haereseos), de qua concilium loquitur generale. Unde variis varia sentientibus--tuum consilium expectamus :-an scilicet excusari possit Manfredi absentia personalis propter hostem in januis constitutum.-Item si petierit ad se mitti cardinales, vel alios, coram quibus purgare se debebat, an sit ei haec gratia facienda. Item an ex his, quae acta sunt contra ipsum,- possit amodo condemnari. Item an expediat, etiamsi liceret, et si licet et expediat, qualis sententia sit preferenda.

21 On the cruelties at Benevento after the battle, see Clement's epistle 262. ad Carolun (Martene l. c. p. 306.) Raumer iv. 536. On Charles' merciless system of government see the same, s. 554 ff. Schlosser III. ii. ii. 50. Among the Pope's letters of advice to him, see especially epist. 380.22. Sept. 1266 (in Martene p. 406) :-inhumanus diceris, et ad nullum afficeris, prout dicitur, amicitia.Addimus juxta famam communem, quod homines regni tui etiam videre contemnis, et justitiam procrastinas ;-quibus si nec visibilis fueris, nec adibilis, si nec affabilis, nec amabilis, et eisdem volueris principari, profecto in manu gladium et in dorso loricam, et a latere praeparatum exercitum habere te jugiter oportebit.—Nunc ad tuos digredimur, illos scilicet, qui vel tuo assistant lateri, vel ad terrarum tuarum regimen destinantur: et de istis communiter dicitur, quod tibi subtrahunt, et tuis auferunt, quidquid possunt.—Quodsi rapina hujusmodi excusabilis esse posset, hoc solum videtur ad excusationem prodesse, quod tu fures videris facere, quibus non reddis debita, nec assignata certa stipendia etc.

22 Raumer iv. 560 ff.
23 Gebauer Leben Richards s. 226 ff.

24 Clem. epist. 278 to his English Legate on 8. May 1266 (in Martene p. 319): expedit modis omnibus Imperii negotium terminari, cum multi laborent ad Conradinum praeficiendum eidem, quod quanti posset esse discriminis, ipse vides. Thence the prohibition imposed on the Archbishop of Mayence 18. Sept. 1266 in Schannat vindemiae literariae coll. 1. p. 207 ss. To this time also undoubtedly belongs the epistle of Clement to the Electoral Princes; (bearing the false date 1254), brought to light by Bodmann Codex. Epist. Rudolfi i. p. 305 : Intel

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