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so often came to the advantage of the Popes, carried away Conrad also (21. May 1254.)18 When the Pope engaged to respect the rights of Conradino, then but two years old,19 Manfred, as his guardian, put himself under his protection (Sept.1254),20 and Innocent took possession of the kingdom. However it was soon discovered that the Pope entertained other designs:21 and now Manfred

veniret, quoniam sciebat semper ad damna propria pronum et credulum, obtulit et concessit ei regnum Siciliae et Apuliae. Rex autem de promisso papali uinbratili adeo exhilaratus est, et adeo dilatatum est cor suum inani gaudio, quod voce, gestu et risu exultationem protestans, filium suum Ednuundum Regem Siciliae palam vocaret, credens pro facto se jam de ipsu regno subarratum.-Rex igitur quicquid de thesauro suo, quicquid de scaccario (Exchequer) quicquid mutuo potuit a fratre suo Comite Richardo recipere, quidque poterat a Judaeis abradere, quicquid de rapinis Justiciariorum itinerantium valuit extorquere, misit Papae, ut Conraduin impugnaret, et omnes suos Siculos et Apulos expugnaret.-- With this the Pope hired troops, et copiose sterlingos distribuit, et cum defecissent, significavit Regi, quod defuit illi pecunia. Rex autem instinctu diaboli et avaritiac, resciibens Papae, mittebat ei literas patentes obligatorias, regio sigillo consignatas, ut sufficienter, imo abundanter inutuo caperet a mercatoribus Italicis.Papa autem his omnibus consentiens, lioc mandatum acceptavit : si bene fecerit, judicet Judex omnium judiciorum Dominus, cui cura est de omnibus, non autem meum est, facta papalia judicare. The deed of gift to Edmund, dated 6. March 1254, is in Rymer-Clarke i. i, 297. Next ibid. p. 301, follows a charge to the English bishops, quatenus ad requisitionem Regis-recipiatis-pecuniam mutuo, quantumcunque poteritis invenire; Ecclesias ipsas universas et singulas-obligantes.

18 Raumer iv. 347.

19 Innocent universis Christi fidelibus (Raynald. 1254 no. 46): nos circa carissimum in Christo filium nostrum Conradum Regem Hierosolymitanum, illustrem Ducem Sueviae, -apostolicae benevolentiae gratiam effundentes, - regnum Hierosolymitanum, et ducatuin Sueviae, et alia jura sua, ubicunque illa, sive in regno Siciliae, sive alibi habeat, integra et illaesa sibi-volumus conservare : et permittimus, quod universi de ipso regno Siciliae in serie juramenti fidelitatis, quod nobis et Ecclesiae Romanae praestabunt, possint adjicere : Conradi pueri jure salvo.

20 Innocent invested him, dd. 27. Sept. 1254 (Raynaldus ad h. a. no. 57 ss.) with the dukeduin of Tarento and several earldoms, and indeed ita quod-tu et iidem haeredes immediate a Romana Ecclesia, nullum alium praeter ipsam recognoscendo in iis superiorem vel dominum, teneatis perpetuo : and named him (ib. no. 60) Governor of the Land on this side the Strait, ita quod vicariam hujusmodi immediate ab apostolica sede recognoscas et teneas.

21 Notwithstanding his acknowledgment of Conradin's right (note 19) and the surrender to Manfred (note 20), he had confirmed the grant to

stepped forth again into the lists in behalf of the rights of the Hohenstaufen. Apulia was quickly conquered by him; and Innocent only escaped by death from another war († 13. Dec. 1254.)22

Whilst the energies of the western world were engaged separately with the Mongols, the Latin Empire at Constantinople, and the Papal warfares, and its enthusiasm for Palestine cooling; the kingdom of Jerusalem received little aid from this quarter, when it was hard pressed again by the Chowaresmier in the service of the Sultan of Egypt, who soon conquered the principal part of it, together with the capital city (1247.) Only the pious Louis IX. took the Cross (1248, Sixth Crusade.)23 He thought

the English Prince Edmund 9. Jun. 1254 (Rymer-Clarke i. i. 304), and wished at last to take possession of the kingdom in person. Raumer iv, 359.

22 The opinion of the age on this Pope expresses itself in the dream of a Cardinal, wbich Matthew Paris, p. 897, relates. The Church accuses the Pope before the throne of the Godhead : Accuso eum super tribus. Primo cum in terris Ecclesiam fundasses, libertatibus eam donasti, quae a te ipso processerunt : hic vero eam reddidit ancillam vilissimam. Secundo fundata est Ecclesia salus peccatorum, ut scilicet lucrifaceret animos miserorum : hic vero fecit eam mensain nummulariorum. Tertio fundata est Ecclesia in fidei firmitate, justitia et veritate : hic vero fidem et mores fecit vacillare, justitiam sustulit, veritatem obumbravit: justum ergo judicium redde mihi.

23 Wilken vii. 15. Even now there are scattered voices of the Troubadours. Lanfranc Cigala (Millot ii. 158, comp. Diez Leben u. Werke der Troubadours, Zwickau 1829, s. 569) warmly encourages men to take the Cross. Je ne regarde point comme chevalier, quiconque ne va de bon coeur et de tout son pouvoir au secours de Dieu, qui en a si grand besoin.-Croyezvous, méchans barons, qu'il convienne, que Dieu vous aide, et qui vous ne l'aidiez pas ? On the other hand, Sordel excuses himself to Charles of Anjou (1. c. p. 98): Seigneur comte, vous ne devez point exiger, que j'aille chercher la mort.-Par la mer tout le monde gagne son salut. Mais moi je ne suis point pressé de me sauver : je veux arriver le plus tard qu'il sera possible à la vie éternelle : ainsi je ne m'embarquerai de ma vie. A few years later is the Sirvente of the Templar (original in Raynouard iv. 131, Diez s. 588), where it is written : God has sworn and assured us, that no one who believes on Jesus Christ, shall remain there. Still further, He will make of the minister of S. Mary (the Templars' church in Jerusalem) a mosque (basomairia); and if this is pleasing to His Son, who inight be expected to be grieved at it, so should it also be pleasing to us. So he is foolish who fights with the Turks, when Jesus Christ is not against them.-God who used to wake, sleeps now, yet Mahomet (Basomet) works with all his might, and lets Melicadeser work (probably this is Malek al Kamel, Sultan of Egypt, Malek al Adel's son.) The Pope

to conquer Palestine in Egypt, he even took Damietta (1249), but on his further advance was taken prisoner (1250), and returned (1254) with a small remnant of his army to France 24

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ALEXANDER IV. (25. DEC. 1254-25. MAY 1261.) URBAN IV. (29. AUG. 1261

-2. OCT. 1264.) CLEMENT IV. (5. FEB. 1265 - 29. NOV. 1268.)

Scurces : Jamsilla and Malaspina (see at the head of $ 56.) Raumer iv. 376.

Alexander IV. although he almost exhausted England,? could not hinder Manfred, who was chiefly supported by his brave and richly endows the Arelatese and French with indulgences, in their war against the Germans. But bere with us the Legates show great avarice; for our crosses give way to Tourneser-creuzers (a coin), and whosoever will, exchanges bis pilgrimage for the war in Lombardy ; therefore I tell you in good earnest, they are selling God and His Pardon for money.

24 Schlosser III. ii. 1, 167. Raumer iv. 282.

1 According to Matth. Paris, p. 897 : Vir, ut ajunt, satis benignus et bene religiosus, assiduus in orationibus, in abstinentia strenuus; sed sibilis adulantium seducibilis, et pravis avarorum suggestionibus inclinativus. -Scripsit autem in principio creationis suae cunctis Ecclesiarum Praelatis, postulans humiliter, ut orarent pro ipso, ut Dominus daret ei potestatein, gratiam et voluntatem, Ecclesiam Dei congrue gubernare, et vicarius Dei et Petri successor competenter appellari. In quo facto novo (alii enim ejus successores nil tale fecerunt) multorum corda in spem erexit meliorem. Veruntamen a collateralibus fratribus suis decipi cito se permisit ejus simplicitas.

2 Alexander confirmed the grant of his predecessor to Edmund, upon hard conditions (the Bull, dated 9. Apr. 1255, is in Rymer. ed. Clarke I. i. 316.) Two thousand ounces of good and pure gold were to be paid annually as quit rent. King Henry was to pay all the expenses of the Church, incurred hitherto in the matter of Sicily, which were estimated at 135,541 pounds sterling, and besides 20,000 pounds sterling of his royal bounty to the Pope and Cardinals : ac insuper de damnis, expensis et interesse, ac aliis, quae hac occasione intervenient, plenam satisfactionem impendet. Lastly, within a year's time he was to send à general with an army sufficient to conquer the land. Now began new extortions. Vast sums were taken up in the name of English prelates with Italian bankers (Mat. Paris p. 910.) Master Rustandus legista appeared as Papal Legate. He preached a crusade against Manfred, and sought for money. Thus he closed a sermon with the words : Estote filii obedientiae, obligamini tali et tali mercatori in tanta pecuniae quantitate (ib. p. 914), and so forth.

faithful Saracens, from subduing the whole kingdom of Sicily, and afterwards ascending the throne in person (1258.) The Pope's Ban had so little effect in Sicily, that the new King even overran the States of the Church (1259), and now that the English resources were exhausted, 4 compelled the Pope to make proposals for peace (1260.) Manfred was obliged to refuse these as extravagant, and immediately after gained the ascendancy in Tuscany also.

Alexander was more fortunate in Germany, which fell a prey to him because of its internal dissensions. After King William's death († 1256), the choice, from which Papal fear and vengeance excluded the young Conrad from the first, was undecided betwixt

8 He opened his mind on this point in the following manner, to an embassy sent by Conradin's mother (see the contemporary Matthaei Spinelli ephemerides Neapol. in Muratori scriptt. rer. It. vii. 1088): Regnum orphanu isti perditum fuisse, se autem illud manu armata vindicasse a potestate duorum Pontificum,-Papam vero et regnicolas nullo modo consensuros unquam, ut dominarentur Teutonici; se tamen aliud non praetendere, quam ut sibi relinquatur Regnum ad vitam, morte sua rediturum ad Conradinum; Reginam porro recte facturam, mittendo filium educandum istic, et moribus Italicis imbuendum, habendumque a Rege filii loco.

* On the troubles caused in England since the year 1258 by the pressure for money, see Schlosser III. ii. ii. 288.

5 Matth. Spinellus l. c. p. 1096 : The proposal was, quod Papa vellet in pacis conditionem adduci, ut Rex Manfredus bona erepta Regno egressis redderet, et a Regno expellere: Saracenos. Rex autem Manfredus respondit, quod duplo plures accersere vellet : itaque fecit.

6 Alex. epist. ad Archiep. Maguntin. dd. V. Kal. Aug. 1256 (ap. Raynald. ad h. a. 110. 3 ss. Leibnitii cod. jur. gent. diplom. Prodr. p. 10 ss.)--Nam in hoc pravo genere patrum in filios cum sanguine derivata malitia, sicut carnis propagatione, sic imitatione operum nati genitoribus successerunt. Ex quo liquido perpendi potest et conjici, si ex ipso aliquae potestatis reliquiae remanserunt, quid sperandum sit in futurum de illis, quid in posterum exspectandum : vita namque ac gesta praedecessorum perversa iniquitatem praenuntiant successoris, nec horribilis et scelesta illorum memoria quicquam boni de ipsorum posteritate credere vel sperare permittit : de colubro quidem egreditur regulus, et arbor mala noxios fructus profert etc.- Ideoque fraternitatem tuam monemus, rogamus, et hortamur attente, ac per apostolica tibi scripta in virtute obedientiae sub debito fidelitatis, quo nobis et Eccelsiae Romanae teneris, ac sub poena excommunicationis, quam ex nunc in te proferimus, districto praecipiendo mandamus, quatenus praefatum Conradum puerum nullatenus in Regem eligas, nec nomines, neque consentias in eundem etc.

Richard of Cornwall and Alphonso the wise, King of Castile.? The Germans were already accustomed to look for decision from the Pontiff:8 Alexander at first prudently delayed, but afterwards inclined to Richard (1259), who had taken possession.

Nevertheless Urban IV. regarded the German question as still undecided, and repeatedly summoned the two candidates

?G. Chr. Gebauers Leben und denkwürdige Thaten Herrn Richards erwählten röm. Kaisers, Leipzig 1744. 4. The documents of the Contract between Richard and Conrad, Archbishop of Cologne, on the election of the former, inay be seen in F. J. Bodmann codex epistolaris Rudolfi I. Lips. 1806. p. 306 ss.

8 Richard had to give a written and attested promise to the cities of Frankfort (Gebauer s. 352), Oppenheim (s. 136), Wesslar (s. 356), and Friedberg (s. 358): si forte a sanctissimo Patre nostro domino summo Pontifice fuerimus, quod absit, per diffinitivam sententiam reprobati, et alius Rex contra Nos eligatur, qui ad obtentum regni et imperii Romani nobis potior sit in jure, dictusque summus Pontifex praenominatos cives et alios fideles nostros, ad avertendum eos a fidei nostrae cultu per sententiam interdicti et excommunicationis arctaverit, nos ipsos ex tunc a fidelitatis nobis praestito juramento et ab omni promisso -dimittemus. . 9 Alex, epist. ad. Ricardum dd. XI. Kal. Maji 1259 (in RymerClarke I. i. 382. Gebauer s. 156.)- Considerantes etiam quod semper fuisti Ecclesiarum amator praecipuus etc.-attendentes insuper, quod circa personam tuain inclytain-est ad unctionem et coronationem etiam jam processum ; nostrum ad te totaliter direximus animum, firmo intendentes proposito,-tuae promotioni frequenter intendere, atque ad omne bonum tuum impendere opem et operam efficacem. Et ecce dilectum filium, fratrem Walterum de Rogat-ad regimen Alemanniae in favorem tuum duxiinus specialiter destinandum, universis praedicti Imperii Principibus--tibi adhaerentibus et non adhaerentibus mandantes, -- ut adhaerentes constanterin tua fidelitate persistant, et non adhaerentes tibi studeant adbaerere firmiter etc. The Legate would say more to himn; and ut cautius et melius ad optatum perducantur effectum, secretum apud te, nemini revelando, teneas illa; quia, si secus fieret, plurimum pegotio deperiret.

10 The party of the Hohenstaufen family was still strong in Germany. The Pope had heard from the King of Bohemia (see Urban. epist. ad Reg. Bohem. dd. iïi. Nov. Jun. 1262 in Raynald. ad h. a. no. 5 ss.), qualiter etiam in illis partibus vulgaris rumor insonuit, quod nonnullorum ex praedictis Principibus (ad quos Romani Regis spectat electio) ad hoc tendit intentio, ut videlicet Conradus puer--ad Romani culinen Imperii sublimetur. Thereupon he renewed the prohibition of his predecessor (see note 6) with regard to the two candidates for the throne, he decided, in a bull addressed to the Cardinals, dd. vii. Id. Aug. 1263 (in Raynald. ad. h. a. no. 40): cum tam memoratus Comes, quam praefatus Rex electi fuerint, nos veritatem sequentes, sine alterutrius

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