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FROM GREGORY VII. TO THE REMOVAL OF THE PAPAL SEE TO

FRANCE. FROM 1073_-1305.

PRINCIPAL SOURCES.

1. Latin Authors: Marianus Scotus, Lambertus Hersfeldensis, Sigebertus

Gemblac. and Bernoldus, the continuer of the Hermannus Contractus (see before Div. ii.).--Ekkehardus Uraugiensis (Abbot of Aurach, Wurtzburg), chronica down to 1125 (ed. G. Waitz in Pertz viï., 1).-Otto, Bishop of Freisingen (+ 1158. Chron. rerum ab. init. mundi usque ad annum 1146 gestarum libb. viii. to which are annexed libb. ii. de gestis Frid. I. down to 1156, with continuations by Radevicus, Canon. in Freisingen 1160, and an anonymous author, to 1170. There is a good continuation of the Chron. from 1146—1209 by Otto de S. Blasio. Collected in Chr. Urstisii historic. Germ. i. 1. The libb. ii. de gest Frid. with Radewich's continuation, are more correctly given in Muratori scriptt. rer. Ital. vi. 633; and Otto de St Blasio is best published in monumentis res Allemann. illustrant. ed. Ussermann, ü. 449. On the value of Otto's v. Freisingen historical works see Schumacher's Beiträge zur deutschen Reichshistorie, Eisenach 1770, 4. S. 1. ff).—Chronica regia S. Pantaleonis (composed in the monastery of St Pantaleon at Cologne, at three different periods, namely, in the year 1000, 1106 (so far almost entirely copied from Ekkehardus) and 1162, in Eccardi corpus historic. med. ævi i., 683; continued down to 1237 by Godefridus Mon. Pantal. in Freheri scriptt. rer. Germ. ed Struve i., 335). --Annalista Saxo (from 741 to 1139, ed. G. Waitz in Pertz viii., 542), according to Waitz, an ecclesiastic of Halberstadt, a compiler, see Stenzels Gesch. Deutschland's unter d. fränk. Kaisern, ii. 110). — Chronicon Urspergense (the first part down to 1125 is Ekkehardi chron., the continuation by the two abbots of Auersberg, Burcard down to 1226, and Conrad of Lichtenau to 1229. The whole was formerly called after the last named. Ausg. Strasburg, 1537, 1540, and 1609 fol. See Schumacher 8. 38. Stenzel ü., 106). Albericus, monk at Drübeck (Trium fontium) in the neighbourhood of Liege (chron. ab orbe cond. usque ad ann. 1241 ed. Guil.

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Leibnitius in Accessionibus histor. T. ii. Hanov. 1698. 4. Emendations in B. Menckenii scriptt. rer. Germ. i. 37.)- Vincentius Bellovacensis, a Dominican in Royemont (+ 1264. Speculum historiale libb. xxxii. Argentor. 1473. iv. voll. fol. Aug. Vindel. 1474. iii. voll. fol.).-Albertus Stadensis (Benedictine Abbot in Stade, after 1240 a Franciscan. Chron. ab orbe cond. usque ad ann. 1256. ed. Reinerus Reineccius. Helmst. 1587. 4. and in Schilteri scriptt. rer. Germ. p. 123 ss. Lectt. variantes, emendationes et supplementa in Haeberlin analectis medii ævi p. 607).—Matthæus Paris, Benedictine at St Alban's (+ 1259 Historia major) ab ann 1 066—1259, with a continuation by Wilh. Rishanger in 1273, ed. Guil. Wats. London 1640 and 1684 fol.) - Martinus Polonus, Archbishop of Gnesen (+ 1278, Chronicon down to 1277 ed. Herold, Basil. 1559 and J. Fabricius Cæsar. Colon. 1616. fol. There is a continuation down to 1343 in J. G. Eccardi corp. scriptt. medii ævi i. 1413.)

For Church History specially, Ordericus Vitalis, Benedictine in the monastery of St Evroul in Ouche († after 1141. Histor. eccles. libb. xiii., down to 1141, in A. du Chesne scriptt. Normann. Paris, 1619 fol. p. 319 ss., translated into French from a better text by Louis Dubois, Paris 1825 -27. 4 voll. 8. On this see Lappenberg Gesh. v. England ii., 378).Ptolomæus de Fiadonibus from Lucca, a Dominican, Bishop of Torcello (+ 1327, Hist. Eccles. libb. xxiv, down to 1316 in Muratorii scriptt. rer.

Ital. xi. 741). II. Byzantine Authors : Joh. Zonaras (at the head of Div. i.) after whom follow

close : Nicetas Choniates (from 1117 to 1206), Georgius Acropolita (from 1204 to 1261), Georgius Pachymeres (from 1258 to 1308).

FIRST CHAPTER.

HISTORY OF THE PAPACY.

Sources : Besides individual Biographies, there are the Collections of Lives of

the Popes by Pandulphus Pisanus Card. (about 1184, from Gregory VII. down to Alexander III.), Bernardus Guido, a French Dominican, afterwards

a Opinion of Baronius ad ann. 996 no. 63: Matthæus Paris quam fuerit animo infensissimo in apostolicam sedem quivis facile poterit intelligere (nisi probra illa fuerint additamenta potius ejus qui edidit Novatoris, haeretici hominis, cum peculiare sit illis, libros quos potuerint depravare).–Cum liber iste indignus luce a majoribus judicatus, occultatus lateret in angulo; his ipsis temporibus nostris, magno praeconio tanquam praevia face, emersit in lucem anno MDLXXI. A quo libro si quis demat calumnias, invectivas, dicacitates et blasphemias in apostolicam sedem frequenter iteratas, aureum sane dixerit commentarium, utpote quod ex publicis monumentis, totidem verbis redditis (ut dictum est) egregie contextum et coagmentatum inveniatur. The suspicion repeated by Bellarmin also, and yet more distinctly stated by J. B. Gollerius (Act. SS. August 1, 451) has died away of itself since manuscripts have been found elsewhere.

Bishop of Lodeve (+ 1331, from Victor III. to John XXII.), and Nicolaus Rosselius, Arragonius Card. (about 1356, derived from Cencii Camerarii, i. e. Honorii III. liber censuum camerae apost. see Pertz in the Archive d. Gesellsch. für deutsche Geschichtsk. x. 97), collectively in Muratorii scriptt rer. Ital. III., i. 273. Afterwards by Amalricus Augerii, a French Augustine monk (about 1365, Actus Pontiff. Roman, from Peter to John XXII., or 1321, important on Innocent III., in Eccardi corp. historic. med. æv. ii. 1641, and Muratori l. c. III. i.).

Works : Planck IV. i. 93. Schmidt's K.G. Th. vi. and vii. (the last by F. W. Rettberg). Neander V. i. 105.

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Special sources : I. Documents : Gregorii VII. registri s. epistolarum libb. xi.

(the tenth is missing) in Mansi xx. p. 60 ss. There are many letters
which belong to this head in Udalrici Babenbergensis codex epistolaris
(collected about 1125) in Eccardi corpus historic. medii. aevi. t. ii. p. 1 sg.

-II. Notices of contemporaries in favour of Gregory are published
specially by the Jesuit Jac. Gretzer, and in his vetera monumenta contra
schismaticos jam olim pro Gregorio VII. conscripta et nunc primum in
lucem vindicata studio, Seb. Tengnagel, Ingoldstadii, 1612, 4 (united in
Gretseri Opp. t. vi.), against him by Melch, Goldast (apologiae pro Imp.
Henrico IV. adv. Gregorii VII. impias criminationes, recensitae studio M.
Goldasti, Hanoviae 1611, 4), in connexion with polemical writings. 1.
Hostile to Gregory : Bennol (Cardinal), de vita et gestis Hildebrandi, p.
libb. ii. in Goldast, p. 1.-Otbertus (bishop of Liege about 1106), de vita et
obitu Henrici IV. in Goldast, p. 204.–Benzo (Bishop of Alba), panegyricus
rythmicus in Henricum III. Imp. in Mencken scriptt. rer. Germ. i. 957, and
J. P. de Ludwig reliquiae manuscriptt. ix., 217. 2. In defence of Gre-
gory: Paulus Bernriedensis (canon at Ratisbon, afterwards in the monastery
of Bernried), de vita Greg. VII., in Gretser opp. vi. 119, in Mabillon act.
ss. ord. Bened. saec. vii., ii., 403, and in Murator. scriptt. rer. It. iii., i., 314.
-Bonizo lib. ad amicum in Oefelii scriptt. rerum Boicarum ii. 794. (See
on this head part i. & 22, note 33.)—Besides Bruno (clerk in Mersburg),
hist. belli Saxonici (written 1082), in Pertz monum. vii., 327. General
review of the sources in Stenzel's Gesch. Deutschlands unter den fränkischen
Kaisern ii. 55. Das Zeitalter Hildebrands für und gegen ihn, aus zeit-
gleichen Quellen, von G. Cassander, Darmstadt 1842. (But compare
Berliner literar. Zeitung, 1842, s. 1084.)

1 He appears not to have fallen away from Gregory till after 1081, Cassander s. 75. He is falsely called Bruno in Schröckb. xxv. 531, &c., after a mistake in chron. Ursperg. ad ann. 1079.

Works : Joh. Voigt Hildebrand als Gregor. VII. und sein Zeitalter, 2e Aufl.

Weimar 1846. J. M. Söltl Heinrich der Vierte Münch 1823. Dess. Gregor.
VII. Leipz. 1847. Schlosser's Weltgesch. II., ii., 694. Stenzel's Gesch.
Deutschlands unter den fränk Kaisern. i. 274.

THROUGH Gregory VII. the ideas, hitherto for the most part undeveloped, of the supremacy of the Pope over the Church, and of the Church over the State, first assumed the shape of a

? Especially Gregor. lib. iv. epist. 2, ad Herimannum Episc. Metensem, in the year 1076 : ubi Deus b. Petro principaliter dedit potestatem ligandi et solvendi in caelo et in terra (Matth. xvi. 19), nullum excepit, nihil ab ejus potestate subtraxit. Nam qui se negat, non posse Ecclesiae vinculo alligari, restat. ut neget non posse ab ejus potestate absolvi. Et qui hoc impudenter negat, se a Christo omnino sequestrat. Quod si s. sedes apostolica divinitus sibi collata principali potestate spiritualia decernens dijudicat, cur non et saecularia ? etc.lib. viii. epist. 21, ad eundem in the year 1081 : itane dignitas (regalis) a saecularibus etiam Deum ignorantibus inventa non subjicietur ei dignitati (sacerdotali), quain omnipotentis Dei providentia ad honorem suum invenit, mundoque misericorditer tribuit ? cujus Filius, sicut Deus et homo indubitanter creditur, ita summus sacerdos caput omnium sacerdotum ad dexteram Patris sedens, et pro nobis semper interpellans habetur: qui saeculare regnum, unde saeculi filii tument, despexit, et ad sacerdotium crucis spontaneus venit. Quis nesciat, reges et duces ab iis habuisse principium, qui Deum ignorantes, superbia, rapinis, perfidia, homicidiis, postremo universis paene sceleribus, mundi principe diabolo videlicet agitante, super pares, scilicet homines, dominari caeca cupiditate et intolerabili praesumtione affectaverunt ?-Quis dubitet, sacerdotes Christi regum et principum omniumque fidelium patres et magistros censeri? Nonne miserabilis insaniae esse cognoscitur, si filius patrem, discipulus magistrum sibi conetur subjugare ; et iniquis obligationibus illum potestati suae subjicere, a quo credit non solum in terra, sed etiam in caelis se ligari posse et solvi? There are notices of Gregory the Great and Gelasius in Part i., § 24, note 17.--Talibus ergo institutis, talibusque fulti auctoritatibus plerique Pontificum alii Reges, alii Iinperatores excommunicaverunt. Thus Innocentius excommunicated Arcadius for consenting that S. John Chrysostom should be banished from his see. Vol. i., Part 2, $ 85, note 13. Alius item Romanum Pontifex, Zacharias videlicet, Regem Francorum non tam pro suis iniquitatibus, quam eo, quod tantae potestati non erat utilis, a regno deposuit, et Pippinum-in ejus loco substituit, omnesque Francigenas a juramento fidelitatis, quod illi fecerant, absolvit. Part i., § 5, note 9.) Then there is an appeal to Ambrose (vol. i. part 2, § 91, note 8) and the work imputed to him, De Dignitate Sacerdot (See Part 1, $ 24, note 17.) A proof worth reading of the argument. and examples to which Gregory here appeals is to be found in D. Blondellus de formulæ Regnante Christo in veterum monumentis usu. Amstelod. 1646, 4, p. 155, ss. The disdain of secular power here

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