Obrazy na stronie

There are several medals of Agrippina, which are distinguishable from those of her mother by the title of Augusta, which those of her mother never have . On some of her medals she is represented with her husband Claudius, in others with her son Nero. (Tac., Ann., lib. 12, 13, 14.—Dion Cass., lib. 59–61.-Sueton., Claud., 43, 44; Nero, 5, 6.) — III. Vipsania, daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and Pomponia, the daughter of T. Pomponius Atticus, his first wife. She was married to Tiberius, afterward emperor, by whom she had Drusus. Tiberius was much attached to her, and with great reluctance divorced her when commanded by Augustus, that he might marry Julia, the daughter of the emperor. She now married Asinius Gallus, the son of the celebrated Asinius Pollio, and bore him several children. This gave rise to a feeling of hatred in the breast of Tiberius against Asinius, which ultimately proved his ruin. (Wud. Asinius II.) The children of Agrippina by Asinius were, C. Asinius Saloninus, Asinius Gallus, Asinius Pollio, consul A.U.C. 776, Asinius Agrippa, consul A.U.C. 778, and Asinius Celer. Agrippina died A.U.C. 773, and, ac“ording to Tacitus (Ann., 3, 19), she was the only one of all the children of Agrippa that died a natural death. \Tac., Ann., 1, 12; 3, 19; 3, 75 ; 4, 1, 34.—Sueton., Tib., ch. 7.—Id., Claud., ch. 13.) — IV. ColoNIA, also called Colonia Agrippinensis (Tac., Hist., 1, 57; 4, 55), and on inscriptions Colonia Claudia Augusta Agrippinensium, or simply Agrippina (Amm. Marc., 15, 8, ii), originally the chief town of the Ubii, and called Oppidum. Ubiorum. These are mentioned by Caesar as a German nation, dwelling on the right bank of the Rhine, who were afterward transferred to the left, or Gallic side, by Agrippa. At this town Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus, was born; and, when she had attained to the dignity of empress by marriage with Claudius, she sent hither a military colony, A.C. 50, and caused the place to be named after herself. It soon became large and wealthy, and was adorned with a temple of Mars. The inhabitants received the jus Italicum. It answers to the modern Koln or Cologne. (Tac., Ann., 1, 35; 12, 27. Id., Hist., 4, 28; 1, 57; 4, 55.—Dion Cassius, 48, 49.)

AGRIPPINUs, bishop of Carthage, of venerable memory, but known for being the first to maintain the necessity of rebaptizing all heretics. (Vincent. Lirun., Commonit., 1,9.) St. Cyprian regarded this opinion as the correction of an error (St. Augustin., De Baptismo, 2, 7, vol. 9, p. 102, ed. Bened.), and St. Augustine seems to imply he defended his error in writing. (Epist., 93, c. 10.) He held the council of seventy bishops at Carthage, about A.D. 200 (Vulg. A.D. 215, Mans. A.D. 217), on the subject of Baptism. Though he erred in a matter yet undefined by the Church, St. Augustine notices that neither he nor St Cyprian thought of separating from the Church. (De Baptismo, 3, 2, p. 109.)—II. Pacónius, whose father was put to death by Tiberius on a charge of treason. (Suet., Tib., 61.) Agrippinus was accused at the same time as Thrasea, o 67, and was banished from Italy. (Tac., Ann., 16, 28, 29, 33.) He was a Stoic philosopher, and is spoken of with praise by Epictetus (ap. Stob., Serm., 7), and Arrian (1, 1).

Agrius ("Ayptoc), I. a son of Porthaon and Euryte, and brother of OEneus, king of Calydon, in AEtolia, Alcathous, Melas, Leucopeus, and Sterope. He was father of six sons, of whom Thersites was one. These sons of Agrius deprived OEneus of his kingdom, and gave it to their father; but all of them, with the exception of Thersites, were slain by Diomedes, the grandson of OEneus. (Apollod., 1, 7, § 10,8; $ 5, &c.) Apollodorus places these events before the expedition of the Greeks against Troy, while Hyginus (Fab., 175: compare 242, and Antonin. Lib., 37) states that Diomedes, when he heard, after the fall of Troy, of the misfortunes of his grandfather CEneus, hastened back and

expelled Agrius, who then put an end to his own life; according to others, Agrius and his sons were slain by Diomedes. (Compare Pausan., 2, 25, § 2.-Op., Herold, 9, 153.) In the mythic history of the Greeks we find several Agrii, and in almost all the allusion appears to be a symbolical one. Thus, for example, in the case of the one first mentioned, Agrius is the “Wild Man,” the “Man of the fields,” while CEneus, on the other hand, is the “Wine-man,” the “cultivator of the vine.” (Compare Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 4, p. 372. — Apollodor., 1, 8, 6. – Anton. Lib., Fab., 37. — Verheyk ad Anton. Lib., Fab., 21, p. 136.) In the case of the father of Thersites, the name Agrius may be intended as a figurative allusion to the rude and lawless manners of the son.—II. According to Hesiod (Theog., 1013), a son of Ulysses and Circe, and brother of Latinus and Telegonus, “who, afar in the recess of the Holy Isles, ruled over all the renowned Tyrsenians.” He is the same, in all probability, with the god or hero called Agrius by the Arcadians (a term to be derived from 'Aypóc, ager), and whose most solemn festival the Parrhasii introduced into the island of Ceos, one of the Cyclades. There was a deity of the same name in Thessaly, whence his worship was carried to Cyrene in Africa. There was an Agrius also in Boeotia, whose name appears in the Cadmean genealogy. The mythology connected with this son of Ulysses and Circe appears in Italy under a new form, and he is there to be identified with the Arcadian Evander of the Latins, while his mother, Circe, seems to be the same with Carmenta, a name equivalent to the Latin Maga. (Compare Livy, 1, 7.) This Agrius is mentioned also by the scholiast on Apollonius (3, 200), and by Eustathius (ad Hom., Il, p. 1796); nor should it be omitted here that there was among the Romans agens Agria. (Varro, De Re Rust., 1, 2–Cic., Flacc., 13.) Gottling, a recent editor of Hesiod, has a very learned note on the subject of Agrius, in which he appears to favour the reading of Tpaików to #6é Aarivov in place of 'Ayptov #6é Aarivov as occurring in Hesiod (Theog., 1013). AGROEcius or AGROEtius, a Roman grammarian, the author of an extant work “De Orthographia et Differentia Sermonis,” intended as a supplement to a work on the same subject, by Flavius Caper, and dedicated to a bishop, Eucherius. He is supposed to have lived in the middle of the 5th century of our era. His work is printed in Putschius's “Grammaticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui,” p. 2266-2275. AGROETAs ('Aypotrag), a Greek historian, who wrote a work on Scythia (>kutukù), from the thirteenth book of which the scholiast on Apollonius (2, 1248) quotes, and one on Libya (Aubvkd), the fourth book of which is quoted by the same scholiast (4, 1396). He is also mentioned by Stephanus Byz. (s. v. 'AutreWoc). Agroir A, the early name of Attalea, a city of Lydia, on the Hermus, northeast of Sardis. Major Keppel (Travels, vol. 2, p. 335) remarks, “It is on the right bank of the Hermus, which flows at the base of a rocky mountain, through a chasm of which it disappears. The passage here is rather dangerous. The direct road from Cassaba to Adala (Agroira) is twelve hours. No vestiges of antiquity were observed here: there are coins, however, of Attalea.” (Sestini, p. 106.—Cramer's Asia Munor, v. 1, p. 435.) AGRoN ('Aypov), I. the son of Ninus, the first of the Lydian dynasty of the Heracleidae. The tradition was, that this dynasty supplanted a native race of kings, having been originally intrusted with the government as deputies. The names Ninus and Belus, in their genealogy, render it probable that they were either Assyrian governors, or princes of Assyrian origin, and that their accession marks the period of an Assyrian conquest. (Herod., 1, 7.)—II. The son of Pleuratus, a king of Illyria. In the strength of his land and naval forces he surpassed all theoreceding kings of that country. When the AEtolians attempted to compel the Mediomans to join their confederacy, Agron undertook to protect them, having been induced to do so by a large bribe which he received from Demetrius, the father of Philip. He accordingly sent to their assistance a force of 5000 Illyrians, who gained a decisive victory over the Etolians. Agron, overjoyed at the news of this success, gave himself up to feasting, and, in consequence of his excess, contracted a pleurisy, of which he died (B.C. 231). He was succeeded in the government by his wife Teuta. Just after his death, an embassy arrived from the Romans, who had sent to mediate in behalf of the inhabitants of the island of Issa, who had revolted from Agron, and placed themselves under the protection of the Romans. By his first wife, Triteuta, whom he divorced, he had a son named Pinnes, or Pinneus, who survived him, and was placed under the guardianship of Demetrius Pharius, who married his mother after the death of Teuta. (Dion Cass., 34, 46, 151—Polyb., 2, 2–4.—Appian, Ill., 7.—Flor., 2, 5. Plin., H. N., 34, 6.)— III. Son of Eumelus, grandson of Merops, lived with his sisters, Byssa and Meropis, in the island of Cos. They worshipped the earth, as the giver of the fruits of harvest, without paying regard to any other deity. When they were invited to the festival of Minerva, the brother replied that the black eyes of his sisters would not please the blue-eyed goddess, and that, for himself, the owl was an object of aversion. If desired to offer sacrifice to Mercury, he declared that he would show no honour to a thief. At the sacrifices of Diana he did not appear, because that goddess roamed abroad the whole night long. Provoked at this conduct, Minerva, Diana, and Mercury came to their dwelling, the latter as a shepherd, the two goddesses as maidens, to invite Eumelus and Agron to a sacrifice to Mercury, and the sisters to the grove of Minerva and Diana. When, however, Meropis reviled Minerva, she and her sisters were changed into birds, together with Agron, who attempted to seize upon the divinities, and Eumelus, who heaped reproaches upon Mercury for the metamorphosis of his son. The legend makes Meropis to have been changed into a small bird of the owl kind: Byssa retained her name, and became, as a species of sea-fowl, the bird of Leucothea: Agron became the bird Charadrius. (Anton. Lib., 15.) AgróLas, surrounded the citadel of Athens with walls, except that part which was afterward repaired by Cimon. (Pausan., 1, 28.) We have here one of the old traditions respecting the Pelasgic race. Agrolas was aided in the work by his brother Hyperbius, both of them Pelasgi. According to Pausanias (l.c.), they came originally from Sicily. It is more than probable, however, that the names in question are those of two leaders or two tribes, and that the work was executed under their orders The wall erected on this occasion was styled Pelargicon, and the builders of it would seem to have erected also a town or small settlement for themselves, which afterward became part of the Acropolis. (Compare Siebells, ad Pausan, 1, 28–Müller, Gesch. Hellen. Stamme, &c., vol. 1, p. 440.) Agroter A, I. an annual festival, celebrated at Athens to Diana Agrotera ('Apréutóu 'Ayporépa). It was instituted by Callimachus the polemarch, in consequence of a vow made by him before the battle of Marathon, that he would sacrifice to the goddess as many yearling she-goats (xuatpac) as there might be enemies slain in the approaching conflict. (Schol. ad Aristoph., Equit., 657–Xen., Anab., 3, 2, 11.) The number of the Persians who fell was so great, that a sufficient amount of victims could not be obtained. Every year, therefore, 500 goats were slain, in order to make up the requisite number, until, at last, the whole thing grew into a regular custom. Ælian (V. H., 2, 25) makes the vow in question to have been

offered up by Miltiades, and the number of annual victims 300–II. The name Agrotera ('A)porépa) is also sometimes applied to Diana herself. In this usage it is equivalent to kvvnyerukň, 3mpevrtkoff, “the huntress.” Its primitive meaning, however, is the same as # opeta, “she that frequents the mountains.” (Compare Heyne, ad Hom., Il., 21, 471.) Agvieus, an appellation given to Apollo. The term is of Greek origin ('Ayvueño), and, if the common derivation be correct, denotes “the guardian deity of streets” (from dyvtá, “a street”), it being the custom at Athens to erect a small conical cippi, in honour of Apollo, in the vestibules and before the doors of their houses. Here he was invoked as the Averter of evil (19eoc drospóratoc, “Deus averruncus"), and the worship here offered him consisted in burning perfumes before these pillars, in adorning them with myrtle garlands, hanging fillets upon them, &c. We must not suppose, however, that this custom originated in Athens. It appears to have been borrowed from the Dorians, and introduced into this city in obedience to an oracle. (Schol. in Aristoph., Vesp., 870–Pausan., 8, 53.-Muller, Gesch. Hellen. Stamme, &c., vol. 2, p. 299, seqq.) As respects the pillars erected at Athens, the ancients seem to have been at a loss whether to regard them as altars, or as a species of statues. (Compare, on this point, the scholiast on Aristophanes, Vesp., 870, and Thesm., 496–Barpocration, s. v.–Sundas, s. v.–Helladius, ap. Phot, Cod., 279, vol. 2, p. 535, ed. Bekker. Plautus, Merc., 4, 1, 9 Zoega, de Obeliscis, p. 210.) Müller states, that this emblem of Apollo appears on coins of Apollonia in Epirus, Aptera in Crete, Megara, Byzantium, Oricum, Ambracia, &c. (Mül. ler, Gesch. Hellen. Stamme, l.c.) Agyll A. Vud. Caere. Agyrium, a city of Sicily, northeast of Enna, and in the vicinity of the river Symaethus. It would seem to have been one of the oldest settlements of the Siculi, and was remarkable for the worship of a hero, whom a later age confounded with the Grecian Hercules. (Diod. Suc., 4, 25.) The place is noted as having given birth to Diodorus Siculus. The modern town of San Filippo d'Argiro is supposed to correspond to the ancient city; the site of the latter, however, would appear to have been two miles farther east. (Mannert, vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 418.) Agyrrhius. Vid. Supplement. AHRLA. Vid. Supplement. Ahenobarbus. Wid. Supplement. AJAx (Alac), I. son of Telamon by Periboea, daughter of Alcathous, was, next to Achilles, the bravest of all the Greeks in the Trojan war, but, like him, of an imperious and ungovernable spirit. In other peculiarities of their history, there was also a striking resemblance. At the birth of Ajax, Hercules is said to have wrapped him in the skin of the Nemean lion, and to have thus rendered him invulnerable in every part of his body, except that which was left exposed by the aperture in the skin, caused by the wound which the animal had received from Hercules. This vulnerable part was in his breast, or, as others say, behind the neck. (Lycophr, 454. — Tzetz., ad loc. Schol. ad Il., 23, 821.) To Ajax fell the lot of opposing Hector, when that hero, at the instigation of Apollo and Minerva, had challenged the bravest of the Greeks to single combat. The glory of the antagonists was equal in the engagement; and, at parting, they exchanged arms, the baldric of Ajax serving, most singularly, as the instrument by which Hector was, after his fall, attached to the car of Achilles. In the games celebrated by Achilles in honour of Patroclus, Ajax (as commentators have remarked) was unsuccessful, although he was a competitor on not less than three occasions: in hurling the quoit; in wrestling; and in single combat with arms. After the death of Achilles, Ajax and ". disputed their claims to the arms of the hero. hen they were given to the latter, Ajax became so infuriated, that, in a fit of delirium, he slaughtered all the sheep in the camp, under the delusion that his rival and the Atridae, who had favoured the cause of the former, were the objects of his attack. When reason returned, Ajax, from mortification and despair, put an end to his existence, by stabbing himself to the heart. The sword which he used as the instrument of his death had been received by him from Hector in exchange for the baldric, and thus, by a singular fatality, the present mutually conferred contributed to their mutual destruction. The blood which ran to the ground from the wound produced the flower hyacinthus, of a red colour, and on the petal of which may be traced lines, imitating the form of the letters Al, the first and second of the Greek name AIAX (Ajax). The flower here meant appears to be identical with the Lilium Martagon (“Imperial Martagon”), and not the ordinary hyacinth. (Fée, Flore de Virgile, p. lxvii.)—Some authorities give a different account of the cause of his death, info the Palladium to have been the subject of dispute between Ajax and Ulysses, and state also that Ulysses, in concert with Agamemnon, caused Ajax to be assassinated. The Greeks erected a tomb over his remains on the promontory of Rhoeteum, which was visited in a later age by Alexander the Great. Sophocles has made the death of Ajax the subject of one of his tragedies. According to the plot of this piece, the rites of sepulture are at first refused to the corpse of Ajax, but afterward allowed through the intercession of Ulysses. Ajax is the Homeric type of great valour, unaccompanied by any corresponding powers of intellect. Ulysses, on the other hand, typifies great intellect, unaccompanied by an equal degree of heroic valour, although he is far, at the same time, from being a coward. (Hom., II, passim. —Apollod., 3, 12, 7 - Orld, Met., 13, 1, seqq.)—II. The son of Oileus, king of Locris, was surnamed Locrian, in contradistinction to the son of Telamon. The term Narycian was also applied to him from his birthplace, the Locrian town Narycium, or Naryx. He went with forty ships to the Trojan war, as being one of Helen's suitors. Homer describes him as small of size, particularly dexterous in the use of the lance, but as remarkable for brutality and cruelty. The night that Troy was taken, he offered violence to Cassandra, who had fled into Minerva's temple; and for this offence, as he returned home, the goddess, who had obtained the thunders of Jupiter, and the power of tempests from Neptune, destroyed his ship in a storm. Ajax swam to a rock, and said that he was safe in spite of all the gods. Such im

piety offended Neptune, who struck the rock with his

trident, and Ajax tumbled into the sea with part of the rock, and was drowned. His body was afterward found by the Greeks, and black sheep offered on his tomb. According to Virgil's account, Minerva seized him in a whirlwind, and dashed him against a rock, where he expired consumed by the flame of the lightning. (Hom., Il., 2, 527, &c. — Virg., AEn., 1,43, seqq.—Hygun., Fab., 116, &c.) AndúNeus, ("Atóovetic), I. a surname of Pluto. It is only another form for 'Atómo, “the invisible one.” —II. A king of the Thesprotians in Epirus, who defeated the forces of Theseus and Pirithous, when the two latter had marched against him for the purpose of carrying off his wife Proserpina. Pirithous was torn to pieces by Cerberus, the monarch's dog, while Theseus was made prisoner and loaded with fetters. Hence, according to Pausanias (1, 17), who relates this story, arose the fable of the descent of Theseus and Pirithous to the lower world. This explanation has met with the approbation of many of the learned, and, among the rest, of Wesseling and Perizonius.

bolik, vol. 4, p. 168.) Plutarch calls Aidoneus king of the Molossians in Epirus. (Wit. Thes, 30.) Aius Locutius, a deity to whom the Romans erected an altar from the following circumstance one of the common people, called Ceditius, informed the tribunes, that, as he passed one night through one of the streets of the city, a voice more than human, issuin from above Vesta's temple, told him that Rome .# soon be attacked by the Gauls. His information was neglected, but, as its truth was subsequently confirmed by the event itself, Camillus, after the departure of the Gauls, built a temple to that supernatural voice which had given Rome warning of the approaching calamity, under the name of the Aius Locutius. (Lip., 5, 50.— Plut., Wit. Camill., 30.) Thus much for the story itself. We have here an instance of the imposition practised by the patricians, the depositaries of religion, upon the lower orders of the state. The commonlyreceived narrative respecting the Gallic invasion and the taking of Rome, is abundantly supplied with the decorations of fable, the work of the higher classes. The object of the patricians, in the various legends which they invented on this point, seems to have been a wish to impress on the minds of the people the conviction, that divine vengeance had armed itself against them, for having dared to injure an individual of senatorian rank. It was to avenge the banishment of Camillus that the gods had brought the Gauls to Rome, and to Camillus alone did they assign the honour of removing these formidable visitants. (Compare Leresque, Hist. Crit. de la Rep. Romaine, vol. 1, p. 287.) ALABANDA, a city of Caria, one of the most important of those in the interior of the country. It was situate a short distance to the south of the Maeander. Strabo (14, p. 660, ed. Casaub.) describes its position between two hills, and compares the appearance thus presented to that of a loaded ass. He speaks of the inhabitants as addicted to the pleasures of the table and a luxurious life. From Pliny (5, 29) we learn that it was a free city, and the seat also of a Conventus Juridicus. Hierocles incorrectly names the place Alapanda. This city was said to have obtained its appellation from the hero Alabandus, its founder, who was deified after death, and worshipped within its walls. (Cic., N. D., 3, 19.) Stephanus Byzantinus, however, speaks of another Alabanda, commonly called Antiochia ad Maeandrum, and makes this one to have been founded by Alabandus, son of Enippus; while he assigns as a founder to the other city, Car, a son of whose received the name of Hipponicus, from his having conquered in an equestrian conflict; which appellation, according to Stephanus, was the same with Alabandus in the Carian tongue, Ala denoting “a horse,” and Banda, “a victory.” From this son, Alabanda, as he states, took its name. (Compare the remarks of Berkel, ad loc., p. 86, and Adelung, Gloss. Man., vol. 1, p. 555.) The remains of Alabanda were discovered by Pococke (vol. 3, book 2, c. 5), and, af. ter him, by Chandler (c. 59), in the neighbourhood of the village of Karpusler or Karpuseli. The inhabitants of this place were called 'Azabavčeic, and by the Roman writers Alabandenses. The name of the city is given by the latter as neuter, but by Strabo and Stephanus as feminine. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 278, seqq.) ALABANous, I. a son of Enippus, and the founder of Antiochia ad Matandrum. (Vid. Alabanda.) — II. A son of Car, who was otherwise called Hipponicus, and who gave name to Alabanda. (Vid. Alabanda.) ALARA ("Azata or 'Azeta), a surname of Minerva, by which she was worshipped at Tegea in Arcadia. There was also a festival celebrated here in honour of the goddess, and called by the same name. (Pausan, 8,46.) Creuzer traces a connexion between the festival termed Alaea and the solar worship. (Symbolik, vol. stadia from Gerenia. temples of Bacchus and Diana. ALALA, an appellation given to Bellona, the goddesk of war and sister of Mars. It appears to be nothing more than the battle-cry personified, and occurs in what appears to be a fragment of an old war-song. (Plu..., de Frat, Am., p. 483, c.) ALAlcome N.A., I. a city of Boeotia, near the Lake Copais, and to the southeast of Chaeronea. It was celebrated for the worship of Minerva, thence surnamed Alalcomeneis. (Strab., 410 and 413–Compare Heyne, ad Hom., Il., 4, 8, and Muller, Gesch. Hellen. Stamme, &c., vol. 1, p. 70.) The temple of the goddess was plundered and stripped of its statues by Sylla. (Pausan., 9, 33.) It is said, that when Thebes was taken by the Epigoni, many of the inhabitants retired to Alalcomenae, as being held sacred and inviolable. (Strab., 413.-Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Azazkouévtov.) The ruins of this place, according to Sir W. Gell (Itin., p. 162), are observable near the village of Sulinara, on a projecting knoll, on which there is some little appearance of a small ancient establishmeat or town; and higher up may be discovered a wall or peribolus, of ancient and massive polygons, founded upon the solid rock. This is probably the site of the temple of the Alalcomenian Minerva. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 236.)—II. A town, situate on a small island off the coast of Acarnania, between Ithaca and Cephallenia. The name of the island was Asteris, and it is the place where Homer describes the suitors as lying in wait for Telemachus on his return from Sparta and Pylos.

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however, speaks of Alalcomenae as being in Ithaca. (Istr. Alex., ap. Plut., Quast. Gratc.) Stephanus Byzantinus writes it Alcomenae. ALALcome NIA. Wid. Supplement. Al Alia, a city of Corsica. Wid. Aleria. ALAMANNI. Wrd. Alemanni. ALKN, a Scythian race, occupying the regions between the Rha and the Tanais. Their name and manners, however, would appear to have been also diffused , over the wide extent of their conquests. (Compare Balbi, Introduction à l'Atlas Ethnographique, vol. 1, p. 116. The Agathyrsi and Geloni were numbered among their vassals. Towards the north their power extended into the regions of Siberia, and their southern inroads were pushed as far as the confines of Persia and India. They were conquered eventually by the Huns. A part of the vanquished nation thereupon took refuge in the mountains of Caucasus. Another band advanced towards the shores of the Baltic, associated themselves with the northern tribes of Germany, and shared the spoil of the Roman provinces of Gaul and Spain. But the greatest part of the Alani united with their conquerors, the Huns, and proceeded along with them to invade the limits of the Gothic empire. (Amm. Marcell., 21, 19.—Id., 23, 4.—Ptol., 6, 14.) ALARicus, in German Al-ric, i.e., all rich, king of the Visigoths, remarkable as being the first of the barbarian chiefs who entered and sacked the city of Rome, and the first enemy who had appeared before its walls since the time of Hannibal. His first appearance in history is in A.D. 394, when he was invested by Theodosius with the command of the Gothic auxiliaries in his war with Eugenius. In 396, partly from anger at being refused the command of the armies of the Eastern Empire, partly at the instigation of Rufinus, he invaded and devastated Greece, till by the arrival of Stilicho, in 397, he was compelled to escape to Epirus. He was elected king by his countrymen in 398, having been previously; by the weakness of Arcadius, appointed prefect of Eastern Illyricum. The rest of his life was spent in the two invasions of Italy. The first (400–403), apparently unprovoked, brought him only to Raven; and, after a bloody defeat at Pollentia, in 6

Pausanias (3,26) notices its sterly retreat to Verona, was ended by the treaty with ing, and before the lake swelled.to a ruinous height in Dacia Ripensis, at the confluence of the Danube and consequence of obstructions in clefts of the rock, it the Saavus, or Saave. It is now Belgrade.

Stilicho, which transferred his services from Arcadius to Honorius, and made him prefect of the Western instead of the Eastern Illyricum. The second invasion (408–10) was occasioned by delay in fulfilling his demands for pay, and for a western province as the future home of his nation, as also by the massacre of the Gothic families in Italy on Stilicho's death. It is marked by the three sieges of Rome, in 408,409, and 410. The first of these was raised by a ransom; the second ended in the unconditional surrender of the city, and in the disposal of the empire by Alaric to Attalus, till, on discovery of his incapacity, he restored it to Honorius. The third was ended by the treacherous opening of the Salarian Gate, on August 24th, and the sack of the city for six days. It was immediately followed by the occupation of the south of Italy, and the design of invading Sicily and Africa. This intention, however, was frustrated by his death, after a short illness, at Consentia, where he was buried in the bed of the adjacent river Busentinus, and the place of his interment was concealed by the massacre of all the workmen employed on the occasion. The few personal traits that are recorded of him are in the true savage humour of a barbarian conqueror. But the impression left upon us by his general character is of a higher order. The real military skill shown in his escape from Greece, and in his retreat to Verona; the wish at Athens to show that he adopted the use of the bath, and the other external forms of civilized life; the moderation and justice which he observed towards the Romans in time of peace; the humanity which distinguished him during the sack of Rome, indicate something superior to the mere craft and lawless ambition which he seems to have possessed in common with other barbarian chiefs. So, also, his scruples against fighting on Easter-day when attacked at Pollentia, and his reverence for the churches during the sack of the city, imply that the Christian faith had laid some hold at least on his imagination. ALĀzoN, a river of Albania, rising in Mount Caucasus, and flowing into the Cyrus. Now the Alozon or Alason. (Plan., 6, 10.) Alba, I. Sylvius, one of the pretended kings of Alba, said to have succeeded his father Latinus, and to have reigned 36 years.—II. LoNGA, one of the most ancient cities of Latium, the origin of which is lost in conjecture. According to the common account, the place was built by Ascanius, B.C. 1152, on the spot where AEneas found, in conformity with the prediction of Helenus (Virg., AEm., 3,390, seqq.) and of the god of the river (AEm., 8,43), a white sow with thirty young ones. Many, however, have been led to conjecture, that Alba was founded by the Siculi, and, after the migration of that people, was occupied by the Aborigines and Pelasgi. (Compare Dion. Hal., 2, 2.) The word Alba appears to be of Celtic origin, for we find several places of that name in Liguria and ancient Spain; and it is observed that all were situated on elevated spots; from which circumstance it is inferred that Alba is derived from Alp. (Bardetti dell. Ling. dei Prim. Abit, &c., p. 109.) As Alba was entirely destroyed by Tullus Hostilius (Liv., 1, 29), and no vestiges of it are now remaining, its exact position has been much discussed by modern topographers. If we take Strabo for our guide, we shall look for Alba on the slope of the Mount Albanus, and at a distance of twenty miles from Rome. (Strab., 229.) This position cannot evidently agree with the modern town of Albano, which is at the foot of the mountain, and only twelve miles from Rome. Dionysius also informs us (1, 66), that it was situated on the declivity of the Alban Mount, midway between the summit and the lake of the same name, which protected it as a wall. This description and that of Strabo agree sufficiently well with the position of Palazzolo, a village belonging to the Colonna family, on the eastern side of the lake, and some distance above its margin. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 37, seqq.) “The site,” observes Niebuhr, “where Alba stretched, in a long street, between the upper part of the mountain and the lake, is still distinctly marked: along this whole extent the rock is curt away under it down to the lake. These traces of man's ordering hand are more ancient than Rome. The surface of the lake, as it has been determined by the tunnel, now lies far beyond the ancient city; when Alba was stand

north of Italy. It was the birthplace of the Emperor Pertinax. (Dio Cass., 83. — Zon. Ann., 2.)—VI. A city of Spain, in the territory of the Warduli, eight geographical miles to the west of Pamplona, and as many to the east of the Iberus. It was about two geograph|ical miles, therefore, to the west of the modern Estel|la. (Mannert, vol. 1, p. 375.)—VII. Augusta, a city of the Helvii, in Gaul, near the Rhone, and answering to the modern Aps. Pliny (14, 3) names the place Alba Helvorum, and praises the skill of the inhabitants in the cultivation of the vine.—WIII. Graeca, a city of

must have lain yet lower; for in the age of Diodorus Alb ANIA, a country of Asia, between the Caspian and Dionysius, during extraordinary droughts, the re- | Sea and Iberia, bounded on the north by the chain of mains of spacious buildings might be seen at the bot- Caucasus, and on the south by the Cyrus and an arm

tom, taken by the common people for the palace of an impious king which had been swallowed up. (Nuebuhr's Rom. Hist., vol. 1, p. 168, seqq., Cambridge transl.)—The line of the Alban kings is given as follows: 1. Ascanius, reigned 8 years; 2. Sylvius Posthumus, 29 years; 3. AEneas Sylvius, 31 years; 4. Latinus, 5 years; 5. Alba Sylvius, 36 years; 6. Atys or Capetus, 26 years; 7. Capys, 28 years; 8. Calpetus, 13 years; 9. Tiberinus, 8 years; 10. Agrippa, 33 years; 11. Remulus, 19 years; 12. Aventinus, 37 years; 13. Procas, 13 years; 14. Numitor and Amulius. The destruction of Alba took place, according to the common acount, 665 B.C., when the inhabitants were carried to Rome. “The list of the Alban kings,” remarks Niebuhr, “is a very late and extremely clumsy fabrication; a medley of names, in part quite unItalian, some of them repeated from earlier or later times, others framed out of geographical names; and having scarcely anything of a story connected with them. We are told that Livy took this list from L. Cornelius Alexander the Polyhistor (Serp. ad Virg., AEn., 8,330); hence it is probable that this client of the dictator Sylla introduced the imposture into history. Even the variations in the lists are not very important, and do not at all prove that there were several ancient sources. Some names may have occurred in older traditions: kings of the Aborigines were also mentioned by name (Stercenius, for instance, unless it be a false reading.—Serv. ad Virg., AEn., 11, 850), entirely different from those of Alba. In the case of the latter, even the years of each reign are numbered ; and the number so exactly fills up the interval between the fall of Troy and the founding of Rome, according to the canon of Eratosthenes, as of itself to prove the lateness of the imposture.” (Niebuhr's Rom. Hist., vol. 1, p. 170, Cambridge transl.) — III. Docilia, a city of Liguria, now Albizzola.-IV. Fucentia or Fucensis, a city of the Marsi, near the northern shore of the Lake Fucinus, whence its name. It was a strong and secluded place, and appears to have been selected by the Roman senate, after it became a colony of Rome, A.U.C. 450, as a fit place of residence for captives of rank and consequence, as well as for notorious offenders. (Strab., 241.-Compare Lip., 10, 1, and Well. Paterc., 1, 14.) Syphax was long detained here, though finally he was removed to Tibur (Liv., 30, 45); as were also Perses, king of Macedon, and his son Alexander. (Lir., 45, 52—Well. Paterc., 1, 11. — Val. Mar., 5, 1.) At the time of Caesar's invasion of his country, we find Alba adhering to the cause of Pompey (Caes., Bell. Cir., 1, 15), and subsequently repelling the attack of Antony; on which occasion it obtained a warm and eloquent eulogium from Cicero. (Phil. 3, 3. — Appian, Bell. Civ. 3, 45.) The ruins of this city, which are said to be considerable (Romanelli, vol. 3, p. 211), stand about a mile from the modern Alba (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 330).—V. Pompeia, a city of Liguria, on the river Tamarus, now Alba. It probably owed its surname to Pompeius Strabo, who colonized several towns in the

of the Araxes. The Romans were best acquainted with the southern part, which Strabo describes as a kind of paradise, and in fertility and mildness of climate gives it the preference to Egypt. Trajan's expeditions made the northern and mountainous part better known. The inhabitants approached nearer a barbarous than a civilized race. They cultivated the soil, it is true, but with great carelessness, and yet it af. forded them more than sufficed for their wants. The forces of the nation were respectable, and they brought into the field against Pompey an army of 60,000 infantry and 22,000 horse. As regards the origin of this people, all is uncertainty. The common account is unworthy of a moment's attention, according to which they were from Alba in Latium, having left that place, under the conduct of Hercules, after the defeat of Geryon. (Dion. Hal., 1, 15. — Justin, 42, 3, 4.) It is more likely that they belonged to the great race which occupied the whole extent of the Tauric range along the southern shores of the Caspian. Mannert makes them Alani, and progenitors of the European Alani. (Vol. 4, p. 410.)—What was ancient Albania is now divided into innumerable cantons, but which modern geography comprehends under two denominations, Daghestan, which includes all the declivities of Caucasus towards the Caspian Sea, and Lesghistan, containing the more elevated valleys towards Georgia, and the country of the Kistes. (Malte-Brun, vol. 2, p. 23, Brussels ed.) The Lesghians appear to be the same with the Lega of the ancients. (Malte-Brun, l.c.— Reineggs, 1, 183.)


ALBXNus, I. Mons, a mountain of Latium, about twelve miles from Rome, on the slope of which stood Alba Longa. It is now called Monte Capo. This mountain is celebrated in history, from the circumstance of its being peculiarly dedicated to Jove, under the title of Latialis. (Lucan, 1, 198–Cic. pro Mil., 31.) It was on the Alban Mount that the Feria Latina, or holydays kept by all the cities of the Latin name, were celebrated. The Roman generals also occasionally performed sacrifices on this mountain, and received there the honours of a triumph when refused one at home. This appears, however, to have occurred only five times, if we may credit the Fasti Capitolini, in which the names of the generals are recorded. (Vulp. Wet. Lat., 12, 4.) Some vestiges of the road which led to the summit of the mountain are still to be traced a little beyond Albano.—II. Lacus, a lake at the foot of the Alban Mount. (Compare remarks under the article Alba.) This lake, which is doubtless the crater of an extinct volcano, is well known in history from the prodigious rise of its waters, to such an extent, indeed, as to threaten the whole surrounding country, and Rome itself, with an overwhelming inundation. The oracle of Delphi, being consulted on that occasion, declared, that unless the Romans contrived to carry off the waters of the lake, they would never take Veii, the siege of which had already lasted for nearly ten years This led to the construction of

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