Obrazy na stronie

AGATHöcles, I. one of the boldest adventurers of antiquity. His history is principally drawn from Diodorus Siculus (books nineteen and twenty, and fragments of book twenty-one), and from Justin (books twenty-two and twenty-three). They derived their accounts from different sources, and differ, therefore, especially in the history of his youth. Agathocles was the son of Carcinus, who, having been expelled from Rhegium, resided at Therma in Sicily. On account of a mysterious oracle, he was exposed in his infancy, but was secretly brought up by his mother. At the age of seven years the boy was again received by his repentant father, and sent to Syracuse to learn the trade of a potter, where he continued to reside, being admitted by Timoleon into the number of the citizens. He was drawn from obscurity by Damas, a noble Syracusan, to whom his beauty recommended him, and was soon placed at the head of an army sent against Agrigentum. By a marriage with the widow of Damas, he became one of the most wealthy men of Syracuse. Under the dominion of Sosistratus, he was obliged to fly to Tarentum, but returned after the death of the latter, usurped the sovereignty, in which he established himself by the murder of several thousand of the principal inhabitants, and conquered the greater part of Sicily (317 B.C.). He maintained his power twenty-eight years, till 289 B.C. To strengthen his authority in his native country, and to give employment to the people, he endeavoured, like Dionysius, to drive the Carthaginians from Sicily. Having been defeated by them, and besieged in Syracuse, he boldly resolved to pass over into Africa with a portion of his army. Here he fought for four years, till 307, generally with success. Disturbances in Sicily compelled him to leave his army twice, and at his second return into Africa he found it in rebellion against his son Archagathus. He appeased the commotion by promising the troops the booty they should win; but, being defeated, he did not hesitate to give up his own sons to the vengeance of his exasperated soldiery, and expose these latter, without a leader, to the enemy. His sons were murdered; the army surrendered to the Carthaginians. He himself restored quiet to Sicily, and concluded a peace 306 B.C., which secured to both parties their former possessions. He then engaged in several hostile expeditions to Italy, where he vanquished the Bruttii and sacked Crotona. His latter days were saddened by domestic strife. His intention was, that his youngest son, Agathocles, chould inherit the throne. This stimulated his grandson Archagathus to rebellion. He murdered the intended heir, and persuaded Maenon, a favourite of the king's, to poison him. This was done by means of a feather, with which the king cleaned his teeth after a meal. His mouth, and soon his whole body, became a mass of corruption. Before he was entirely dead he was thrown upon a funeral pile. According to some authors, he died at the age of seventytwo years; according to others, at that of ninety-five. Before his death, his wife Texena and two sons were sent to Egypt. His son-in-law, Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, inherited his influence in Sicily and Southern Italy. Agathocles possessed the talents of a general and a sovereign. He was proud of his ignoble descent. His cruelty, luxury, and insatiable ambition, however, accelerated his ruin. (Justin, 22, 1, seqq.—Id., 23, 1, seqq.—Polyb., 12, 15–1d., 15, 35.—Id., 9, 23, &c.)—II. A son of Lysimachus, taken prisoner by the Getae. He was ransomed, and married Lysandra, daughter of Ptolemy Lagus. His father, in his old . married Arsinoë, the eldest sister of Lysandra, who, fearful lest her offspring by Lysimachus might, on the death of the latter, come under the power of Agathocles, and be destroyed, planned, and succeeded in bringing about, the death of this prince. After the destruction of Agathocles she fled to Seleucus. Another account makes Agathocles to have lost his life

through the resentment of Arsinoe, in consequence of his refusing to listen to certain dishonourable proposals made by her. (Pausan., 1, 9.—Id., 1, 10.)— III. A brother of Agathoclea, and minister of Ptolemy Philopator. (Vid. Agathoclea.)—IV. A Greek historian, a native of Samos, who wrote a work on the government of Pessinus. (Vossius, de Hist. Grac., 3, p. 158. – Ernest, Clar. Cic. Ind. Hist., s. v.)—W. An archon at Athens, Ol. 105, at the period when the Phocians undertook to plunder Delphi.-VI. An historian. (Vid. Supplement.) AGAthod AEMon, or the Good Genius, I. a name applied by the Greeks to the Egyptian Cneph, as indicative of the qualities and attributes assigned to him in the mythology of that nation. (Compare Eusebius, Prap. Ev., 1, 10, p. 41–Jablonski, Panth. Ægypt., 1, p. 86.) It is the same with the Noic, and Poemander, of the Alexandrean school ; and the hieroglyphic which represents this deity is the circle, or disk, having in the centre a serpent with a hawk's head, or else a globe encircled by a serpent, the symbol of the spirit, or eternal principle, male and female, that animates and controls the world, as well as of the light, which illumines all things. (Creuzer's Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 1, p. 824.) — II. A name applied by the Greeks to the serpent, as an image of Cneph, the good genius. (Plut., de Is. et Os., p. 418.) The serpent here meant is of a harmless kind, and was also called Uratus (Oipaioc), or the royal serpent (Zorga, Num. AEgypt., p. 400–Id., de Obelisc., p. 431, n. 41), and hence it is also the symbol of royalty, and appears on the heads of kings as well as of gods. (Compare remarks under the article Cleopatra.) The term Agathodaemon is said to be nothing more than a translation of the Egyptian term Cneph. (Jablonski, Vocc., p. 112. —Ourarcs, Essai sur les Myst, d'Eleusis, p. 106, seqq.—Creuzer’s Symbolik, vol. 1, p. 505, of the German work.-Champollion, Precis, &c., p. 91.)—III. A name given by the Greek residents in Egypt to the Canopic arm of the Nile. (Ptol., 4, 5.) The native appellation was Schetnowphi, i.e., “the good arm of the river;” from Schet, “the arm of a river,” and mouphi, “good,” and was used in opposition to the Phatnetic, or evil arm of the Nile. (Champollion, l'Egypte sous les Pharaons, vol. 2, p. 23.) The words Cneph (Cnuphi) and Canobus (Canopus) were, in fact, the same; and we have in the following, also, merely different forms of the same appellation: Chnophi, Anubis, Mneris, &c.—III. (Wid. Supplement.) Agathotycus. Vid. Supplement. Agathon, I. (Vid. Agatho.)—H., III. (Vid. Supplement.) Agathy RNA, or Agathyrnum, a city of Sicily, on the northern coast, between Tyndaris and Calacta. It appears to have been originally a settlement of the Siculi, and, owing to this circumstance probably, as well as to its remote position, would seem to have escaped the notice of the Greek geographers. Its name appears, for the first time, in the history of the second Punic war, where Livy (26,40) states, that the Roman consul Laevinus carried away from the place a motley rabble, four thousand in number, consisting of abandoned characters, and brought them to the coast of Italy near Rhegium, the people of which place wanted a band trained to robberies, for the purpose of ravaging Bruttium. Livy writes the name Agathyrna, of the first declension: the more common form is Agathyrnum ("Aydoğupvov). The modern St. Agatha stands near the site of the ancient city. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 411.) Ag Athyrsi, a nation respecting whom the accounts of ancient writers are greatly at variance. (Compare Vossius, Annot. in Hudson, Geog. Min., vol. 1, p. 79.) Herodotus (4,49) places them in the vicinity of the Maris, the modern Marosch, in what is now Transylvania, and most writers agree in placing them in this country and in upper Hungary. (Compare Rennell, Geogr. of Herod., p. 83, seqq.—Mannert, 4, p. 102. — Niebuhr, Verm. Schrift.; 1, p. 377, &c.) Scymnus of Chios, however, makes them to have dwelt on the Palus Maeotis. The name perhaps, after all, is a mere appellative, and may have been applied by different authors to different tribes. What serves to strengthen this opinion is the fact, that the latter half of the term Agathyrsi frequently occurs in other national designations, such as Idanthyrsa Thyrsageto, Thyssagett, Thyrsi, &c. The reference probably is to the god Tyr, another name for the sun. What Herodotus (4, 104) states respecting this race, that they were accustomed to array themselves in very handsome attire, to wear a great number of golden ornaments, to have their women in common, and to live, in consequence of this last-mentioned arrangement, like brethren and members of one family, is received with great incredulity by many. (Compare Valckenaer, Herod., ed. Wessel., p. 328, n. 31.) All this, however, clearly shows their Asiatic origin, and connects them with the nations in the interior of the eastern continent. The community of wives seems to have been a remnant, in some degree, of an early Buddhistic system. The civilized habits of the Agathyrsi are, at all events, worthy of notice, and favour the theory of those who see in them a fragment of early civilization, emanating from some highly cultivated race, and subsequently shattered by the inroads of the Scythians and other barbarous tribes. (Ritter, Vorhal., 286, seqq.) AGAUE ('Ayavis), or, with the Reuchlinian pronunciation, AGKve, I. daughter of Cadmus, and wife of Echion, by whom she had Penthens. Her son succeeded his grandfather in the government of Thebes. While he was reigning, Bacchus came from the east, and sought to introduce his orgies into his native city. The women all gave enthusiastically into the new religion, and Mount Cithaeron rang to the frantic yells of the Bacchantes. Pentheus sought to check their fury; but, deceived by the god, he went secretly and ascended a tree on Cithaeron, to be an ocular witness of their revels. While here, he was descried by his mother and aunts, to whom Bacchus made him appear to be a wild beast, and he was torn to pieces by them. This adventure of Pentheus has furnished the groundwork of one of the finest dramas of Euripides, his Bacchae. (Apollod., 3, 4, 4.—Id., 3, 5, 1–0 vid, Met., 3, 514, seqq.—Hygin.., F., 184. — Keightley's Mythology, p. 298.)—II. A tragedy of Statius, now lost. (Jun., 7, 87.)—III. A daughter of Danaus. She slew her husband Lycus, in obedience to her father's orders. (Apollod, 2, 1, 5.)—IV. A Nereid. (Apollod., 1, 2, 7.) Agdestis. I. a genius or deity mentioned in the legends of Phrygia, and connected with the mythus of Cybele and Atys. An account of his origin, as well as other particulars respecting him, may be obtained from Pausanias (7, 17). He was an androgynous deity, and appears to be the same with the Adagous of the ancient writers. (Creuzer, Symboluk, vol. 2, p. 48.—Compare the note of Guignaut.)—II. One of the summits of Mount Dindymus in Phrygia, on which Atys was said to have been buried. (Pausan., 1,4.) AGELKnAs, I. an excellent statuary, and illustrious also as having been the instructer of Phidias, Polycletus, and Myron. His parents were inhabitants of Argos, according to Pausanias (34, 8), and he himself was born there, probably about B.C. 540. The particular time, however, when he lived, has given rise to m'ich discussion. Sillig, after a long and able argum- it, comes to the conclusion that Ageladas, the instructer of Phidias, attained the height of his renown about Olymp. 70, or 500 B.C. (Dict. Art... s. n.)—II. Another artist, probably a nephew of the former, assigned by Pliny to Olymp. 87, or 432 B.C., which can hardly be correct. He was thinking, perhaps, of the elder Ageladas. (Sillig, Dict. Art, s. v.)

Agelastus ('Ayážaotoc), an appellation given to M. Crassus, father of the celebrated orator, and grands. ther of Crassus the rich, from his extraordinary gravity. Lucilius said of him, that he laughed only once in the course of his life, while Pliny informs us that he was reported never to have laughed at all. Hence the name 'Ayāzaaroc, “one that does not laugh,” or “that never laughs.” (Cic, de Fun., 5, 30.—Douza, ad Lucil, Fragm., p. 20–Plin., 7, 18.) Agel.Kus, I. a king of Corinth, son of Ixion.—II. A son of Hercules and Omphale, from whom Croesus was descended. (Apollod, 2, 7, 8.) Diodorus Siculus (4, 31) gives the name of this son as Lamus. Herodotus, on the other hand, deduces the royal line of Lydia from a son of Hercules and a female slave belonging to Jardanus, the father of Omphale. (Herod., I, 7.) This last is generally considered to be the more correct opinion (Consult Bahr, ad Herod., l.c. —Creuzer, Hist. Graec. antiquiss., &c., p. 186.)—-III. A servant of Priam, who preserved Paris when exposed on Mount Ida. (Vid. Paris–Apollod., 3, 12, 5, and Heyne, ad loc., not, cr.) AGENdicum, Agedincum, or Agedicum ("A) soukov, Ptol.), a city of Gaul, the metropolis of Senonia, or Lugdunensis Quarta. Its later name was Senones, now Sens. (Cas., B. G., 6, extr.---outrop., 10, 7– Amm. Marcell., 15, 27.) Ag|Nor, I. a son of Neptune and Libya, king of Phoenicia, and twin-brother of Belus (Apollod, 2, 1, 4); he married Telephassa, by whom he became the father of Cadmus, Phoenix, Cylix, Tharsus, Phineus, and, according to some, of Europa also. (Schol, ad Eurip., Phan., 5–Hugon., Fab., 178.-Paus., 5, 25, 7. Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod, 2, 178; 3, 1185.) Af. ter his daughter Europa had been carried off by Jupiter, Agenor sent out his sons in search of her, and en{. on them not to return without their sister. As uropa was not to be found, none of them returned, and all settled in foreign countries. (Apollod., 3, 1, 1. —Hygin., Fab., 178.) Virgil (Æn., 1,338) calls Carthage the city of Agenor, by which he alludes to the descent of Dido from Agenor. Buttmann (Mytholog. 1, p. 232, seq.) points out that the genuine Phoenician name of Agenor was Cnas, which is the same as Canaan, and upon these facts he builds the hypothesis, that Agenor or Cnas is the same as the Canaan in the Books of Moses.—II. A son of Iasus, and father of Argus Panoptes, king of Argos. (Apollod., 2, 1, 2.) ño. (Fragm., p. 47, ed. Sturz.) states that Agenor was a son of Phoroneus, and brother of Iasus and Pelasgus, and that, after their father's death, the two elder brothers divided his dominions between themselves in such a manner, that Pelasgus received the country about the river Eracinus, and built Larissa, and Iasus the country about Elis. After the death of these two, Agenor, the youngest, invaded their dominions, and thus became King of Argos.-III. The son and successor of Triopas in the kingdom of Argos. He belonged to the house of Phoroneus, and was father of Crotopus. (Paus., 2, 16, 1–Hygin.., Fab., 145.)— IV. A son of Pleuron and Xanthippe, and grandson of AEtolus. Epicaste, the daughter of Calydon, became by him the mother of Porthaon and Demonice. (Apollod., 1, 7, 7.) According to Pausanias (3, 13, 5), Thestius, the father of Leda, is likewise a son of this Agenor—V. A son of Phegeus, king of Psophis, in Arcadia. He was brother of Pronous and Arsinoë, who was married to Alcmaeon, but was abandoned by him. When Alcmaeon wanted to give the celebrated necklace and peplus of Harmonia to his second wife, Callirrhoë, the daughter of Achefous, he was slain by Agenor and Pronous at the instigation of Phegeus. But when the two brothers came to Delphi, where they intended to dedicate the necklace and peplus, they were killed by Amphoterus and Acarnan, the sons of Alcmason and Callirrhoe. (Apollod., 3, 7, 5.) Pausanius (8, 24, 4} who relates the same story, calls the children of Phegeus Temenus, Axion, and Alphes:boea. —VI. A son of the Trojan Antenor, and of Theano, a priestess of Minerva. (Il, 6, 298.) He appears as one of the bravest of the Trojans, and as leader in the storming of the Grecian encampment. He hastens with other Trojans to the assistance of Hector when prostrated by Ajax, and, being encouraged by Apollo, he engages in combat with Achilles, whom he wounds. As, however, danger threatened him in this conflict, Apollo assumed Agenor's form, in order that, while Achilles turned against the god, the Trojans might be able to escape to the city. (Il., 21, sub fin.—Hygin., Fab., 112.) According to Pausanias (10,27, 1), Agenor was slain by Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, and was represented by Polygnotus in the great painting in the }. of Delphi. AGENorines, a patronymic of Agenor, designating a descendant of an Agenor, such as Cadmus, Phineus, and Perseus. Ages.ANDER, I. or Agesil Rus, from dyetv and dump or Aaoc, a surname of Pluto or Hades, describing him as the god who carries away all men. (Callim., Hymn. in Pallad., 130. —Spanh., ad loc. Hesych., s. v. — AEschyl, ap. Athen., 3, p. 99.) Nicander (ap. Athen., 15, p. 684) uses the form 'Hyeaížaoc.—II. A sculptor, a native of the island of Rhodes. His name occurs in no author except Pliny (H. N., 36, 5, 4), and we know of but one work which he executed; it is a work, however, which bears the most decisive testimony to his surpassing genius. In conjunction with Apollodorus and Athenodorus, he sculptured the group of Laocoon. (Vid. Laocoon.) This celebrated grou was discovered in the year 1506, near the baths of Titus on the Esquiline Hill: it is now preserved in the Museum of the Vatican. A great deal has been written about the age when Agesander flourished, and various opinions have been formed on the subject. Winckelmann and Müller, forming their judgment from the style of art displayed in the work itself, assign it to the age of Lysippus. Müller thinks the intensity of suffering depicted, and the somewhat theatrical air which pervades the group, show that it belongs to a later age than that of Phidias. Lessing and Thiersch, on the other hand, after subjecting the passage of Pliny to an accurate examination, have come to the conclusion, that Agesander and the other two artists lived in the age of Titus, and sculptured the group expressly for that emperor; and this opinion is pretty generally acquiesced in. Thiersch has written a great deal to show that the plastic art did not decline so early as is generally supposed, but continued to flourish in full vigour from the time of Phidias uninterruptedly down to the reign of Titus. Pliny was deceived in saying that the group was sculptured out of one block, as the lapse of time has discovered a join in it. It appears from an inscription on the pedestal of a statue found at Nettuno (the ancient Antium), that Athenodorus was the son of Agesander. This makes it not unlikely that Polydorus also was his son, and that the father executed the figure of Laocoon himself, his two sons the remaining two figures. (Lessing, Laokoon.—Winckelmann, Gesch. de Kunst, 10, 1, 10.—Thiersch, Epochen der Buldkunst, p. 318, &c. — Müller, Archaeol. der Kunst, p. 152.) Agesi KNAx, a Greek poet, of whom a beautiful fragment, descriptive of the moon, is preserved in Plutarch (De facie in orb. Luna, p. 920.) It is uncertain whether the poem to which this fragment belonged was of an epic or didactic character. Agesias, one of the Iambidae, and an hereditary priest of Jupiter at Olympia. He gained the victory there in the mule-race, and is celebrated on that account by Pindar in the 6th Olympic Ode. Böckh places his victory in the 78th Olympiad. Auto son of Archestratus, an Epizephyrian 8

Locrian, who conquered, when a boy, in boxing in the Olympic games. His victory is celebrated by Pindar in the 10th and 11th Olympic Odes. The scholiast pla: ces his victory in the 74th Olympiad. He should not be confounded with Agesidamus the father of Chromius, who is mentioned in the Nemean Odes (1,42; 9, 99). Agesilius, I. son of Dory'ssus, sixth king of the Agid line of Sparta, excluding Aristodemus, according to Apollodorus, reigned 44 years, and died 886 B.C. Pausanias makes his reign a short one, but contemporary with the legislation of Lycurgus. (Pausan., 3, 2, 3–Clinton, Fast. Hell.. 1, p. 335.)—II. Son by his second wife, Eupolia, of Archidamus II., succeeded his half-brother, Agis II., as nineteenth king of the Eurypontid line; excluding, on the ground of spurious birth, and by the interest of Lysander, his nephew, Leotychides. (Wid. Leotychides.) His reign extends from 398 to 361 B.C., both inclusive; during most of which time he was, in Plutarch's words, “as good as thought commander and king of all Greece,” and was for the whole of it greatly identified with his country's deeds and fortunes. The position of that country, though internally weak, was externaliy, in Greece, down to 394, one of supremacy acknowledged : the only field of its ambition was Persia; from 394 to 387, the Corinthian or first Theban war, one of supremacy assaulted : in 387 that supremacy was restored over Greece, in the peace of Antalcidas, by the sacrifice of Asiatic prospects; and thus, more confined and more secure, it became also more wanton. After 378, when Thebes regained her freedom, we find it again assailed, and again for one moment restored, though on a lower level, in 371 ; then overthrown forever at Leuctra, the next nine years being a struggle for existence amid dangers within and without. Of the youth of Agesilaus we have no detail, beyond the mention of his intimacy with Lysander. On the throne, which he ascended about the age of forty, we first hear of him in the suppression of Cinadon's conspiracy. In his third year (396), he crossed into Asia, and after a short campaign, and a winter of preparation, he in the next overpowered the two satraps, Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus; and in the spring of 394 was cncamped in the plain of Thebe, preparing to advance into the heart of the empire, when a message arrived to summon him to the war at home. He calmly and promptly obeyed, expressing, however, to the Asiatic Greeks, and doubtless himself indulging, hopes of a speedy return. Marching rapidly by .. route, he met and defeated at Coroneia in Boeotia the allied sorces. In 393 he was engaged in a ravaging invasion of Argolis; in 392 in one of the Corinthian territory;

in 391 he reduced the Acarnanians to submission; but .

in the remaining years of the war he is not mentioned. In the interval of peace, we find him declining the command in Sparta's aggression on Mantineia; but heading, from motives, it is said, of private friendship, that on Phlius, and openly justifying Phoebidas's seizure of the Cadmeia. Of the next war, the first two years he commanded in Boeotia, more, however, to the enemy's gain in point of experience than loss in any other; from the five remaining he was withdrawn by severe illness. In the congress of 371 an altercation is recorded between him and Epaminondas; and by his advice Thebes was peremptorily excluded from the peace, and orders given for the fatal campaign of Leuctra. In 379 we find him engaged in an embassy to Mantineia, and reassuring the Spartans by an invasion of Arcadia; and in 369 to his skill, courage, and presence of mind, is to be ascribed the maintenance of the unwalled Sparta, amid the attacks of four armies, and revolts and conspiracies of Helots, Periopci, and even Spartans. Finally, in 362, he led his countrymen into Arcadia: by fortunate information was enabled to return in time

to prevent the surprise of Sparta, and was, it seems, . joint, if not sole commander at the battle of Mantineia. o the ensuing winter must probably be referred his *mbassy to the coast of Asia, and negotiations for money with the revolted satraps, alluded to in an obscure passage of Xenophon (Agesilaus, 2, 26, 27); and, in performance, perhaps, of some stipulation then made, he crossed, in the spring of 361, with a body of Lacedæmonian mercenaries, into Egypt. Here, after displaying much of his ancient skill, he died, while preparing for his voyage home, in the winter of 361–60, after a life of above eighty years, and a reign of thirty-eight. His body was embalmed in wax, and splendidly buried at Sparta. Referring to our sketch of Spartan history, we find Agesilaus shining most in its first and last period, as commencing and surrendering a glorious career in Asia, and as, in extreme age, maintaining his prostrate country. From Coroneia to Leuctra we see him partly unemployed, at times yielding to weak motives, at times joining in wanton acts of public injustice. No one of Sparta's great defeats, but some of her bad policy, belongs to him. In what others do, we miss him; in what he does, we miss the greatness and consistency belonging to unity of purpose and sole command. o doubt he was hampered at home; perhaps, too, from a man withdrawn, when now near fifty, from his chosen career, great action in a new one of any kind could not be looked for. Plutarch gives, among mumerous apophthegmata, his letter to the ephors on his recall: “We have reduced most of Asia, driven back the barbarians, made 'arms abundant in Ionia. But since you bid me, according to the decree, come home, I shall follow my letter, may perhaps be even before it. For my command is not mine, but my country’s and her allies'. And a commander then commands truly according to right when he sees his own commander in the laws and ephors, or others holding office in the state.” Also, an exclamation on hearing of the battle of Corinth : “Alas for Greece' she has killed enough of her sons to have conquered all the barbarians.” Of his courage, temperance, and hardiness, many instances are given: to these he added, even in excess, the less Spartan qualities of kindness and tenderness as a father and a friend. Thus we have the story of his riding across a stick with his children; and, to gratify his son's affection for Cleonymus, son of the culprit, he saved Sphodrias from the punishment due, in right and policy, for his incursion into Attica in 378. So, too, the appointment of Pisander. (Vid. Pisander.) A letter of his runs, “If Nicias is innocent, acquit him for that; if guilty, for my sake; any how, acquit him.” From Spartan cupidity and dishonesty, and mostly, even in public life, from ill faith, his character is clear. In person he was small, mean-looking, and lame, on | which last ground objection had been made to his accession, an oracle, curiously fulfilled, having warned Sparta of evils awaiting her under a “lame sovereignty.” In his reign, indeed, her fall took place, but not through him. Agesilaus himself was Sparta's most perfect citizen and most consummate general; in many ways, perhaps, her greatest man. (Xen., Hell., 3, 3, to the end; Agesilaus-Diod., 14, 15.-Paus., 3, 9, 10. —Plut. and C. Nepos, in Vita.-Plut., Apophthegm.) —III. A Greek historian, who wrote a work on the early history of Italy ("Iražtkū), fragments of which are preserved in Plutarch (Parallela, p. 312) and Stobarus. (Florileg., 9, 27, 54, 49, 65, 10, ed. Gaisf)— IV. A brother of Themistocles, who went into the Persian camp, and stabbed one of the body-guards instead of Xerxes, whom he intended to assassinate, but knew not. Upon being arraigned before Xerxes, he thrust his hand into the fire, and informed the monarch that all his countrymen were prepared to do the same. Plutarch cites this incident on the authority of Agatharshides, in his Parallels. (Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p.

the Roman fable of Mucius Scaevola was borrowed (Vid. Agatharchides II.) Agesipólis, I. king of Sparta, the twenty-first of the Agids beginning with Eurysthenes, succeeded his father Pausanias, while yet a minor, in B.C. 394, and reigned fourteen years. He was placed under the guardianship of Aristodemus, his nearest of kin. He came to the crown just about the time that the confederacy (partly brought about by the intrigues of the Persian satrap Tithraustes), which was formed by Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos, against Sparta, rendered it necessary to recall his colleague, Agesilaus II., from Asia; and the first military operation of his reign was the expedition to Corinth, where the forces of the confederates were then assembled. The Spartan army was led by Aristodemus, and gained a signal victory over the allies. (Xen., Hell., 4, 2, § 9.) In the year B.C. 390, Agesipolis, who had now reached his major ity, was intrusted with the command of an army for the invasion of Argolis. Having procured the sanction of the Olympic and Delphic gods for disregarding any attempt which the Argives might make to stop his march, on the pretext of a religious truce, he carried his ravages still farther than Agesilaus had done in B.C. 393; but, as he suffered the aspect of the victims to deter him from occupying a permanent post, the expedition yielded no fruit but the plunder. (Xen., Hell, 4, 7, § 2–6.—Paus., 3, 5, § 8.) In B.C. 385 the Spartans, seizing upon some frivolous pretexts, sent an expedition against Mantineia, in which Agesipolis undertook the command, after it had been declined by Agesilaus. In this expedition the Spartans were assisted by Thebes, and in a battle with the Mantineans, Epaminondas and Pelopidas, who were fighting side by side, narrowly escaped death. He took the town by diverting the river Ophis, so as to lay the low grounds at the foot of the walls under water. The basements, being made of unbaked bricks, were unable to resist the action of the water. The walls soon began to totter, and the Mantineans were forced to surrender. They were admitted to terms on condition that the population should be dispersed among the four hamlets, out of which it had been collected to form the capital. The democratical leaders were permitted to go into exile. (Xen., Hell., 5, 2, § 1–7. Paus., 8, 8, § 5.—Diod., 15, 5, &c.—Plut., Pelop., 4, − Isocr., Paneg., p. 67, a, De Pace, p. 179, c.) Early in B.C. 382, an embassy came to Sparta from the cities of Acanthus and Apollonia, requesting assistance against the Olynthians, who were endeavour. ing to compel them to join their confederacy. The Spartans granted it, but were not at first very successful. After the defeat and death of Teleutias in the second campaign (B.C. 381), Agesipolis took the command. He set out in 381, but did not begin operations till the spring of 380. He then acted with great vigour, and took Torone by storm; but in the midst of his successes he was seized with a fever, which carried him off in seven days. He died at Aphytis, in the peninsula of Pallene. His body was immersed in honey, and conveyed home to Sparta for burial. Though Agesipolis did not share the ambitious views of foreign conquest cherished by Agesilaus, his loss was deeply regretted by that prince, who seems to havo had a sincere regard for him. (Xen., Hell., 5, 3, § 8–9, 18–19.-Diod., 15, 22.-Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece, 4, p. 405, 428, &c.; 5, p. 5, &c., 20.)—II. Son of Cleombrotus, was the 23d king of the Agid line. He ascended the throne B.C. 371, and reigned one year. (Paus., 3, 6, § 1.—Diod., 15, 60.)—III. The 31st of the Agid line, was the son of Agesipolis, and grandson of Cleombrotus II. After the death of Cleomenes he was elected king while still a minor, and placed under the guardianship of his uncle Cleomenes. (Polyb., 4. 35.) He was, however, soon deposed by his colleague him next in B.C. 195, when he was at the head of the Lacedæmonian exiles, who joined Flamininus in his attack upon Nabis, the tyrant of Lacedæmon. (Lic., 34, 26.) He formed one of an embassy sent about B.C. 183 to Rome by the Lacedæmonian exiles, and, with his companions, was intercepted by pirates and killed. (Polyb., 24, 11.) Agesistrate. Wid. Agis IV. AGETor (Aystop), a surname given to several gods: for instance, to Jupiter at Lacedæmon (Stob., Serm., 42); the name seems to describe Zeus as the leader and ruler of men; but others think that it is synonymous with Agamemnon (vid. Agamemnon): to ApolAo (Eurip., Med., 426), where, however, Elmsley and others prefer dystop : to Mercury, who conducts the souls of men to the lower world. Under this name Mercury had a statue at Megalopolis. (Paus., 8, 31, § 4.) AggéNus Urbicus, a writer on the science of the Agrimensores. (Dict of Ant., p. 38.) It is uncertain when he lived; but he appears to have been a Christian, and it is not improbable, from some expressions which he uses, that he lived at the latter part of the fourth century of our era. The extant works ascribed to him are: “Aggeni Urbici in Julium Frontinum Commentarius,” a commentary upon the work “De Agrorum Qualitate,” which is ascribed to Frontinus; “In Julium Frontinum Commentariorum Liber secundus qui Diazographus dicitur:” and “Commentariorum de Controversiis Agrorum Pars prior et altera.” The last-named work Niebuhr supposes to have been written by Frontinus, and in the time of Domitian, since the author speaks of “praestantissimus Domitianus;” an expression which would never have been applied to this tyrant after his death. (Hist. of Rome, vol. 2, p. 621.) AGGRAMMEs, called XANDRAMEs (Eavópounc) by Diodorus, the ruler of the Gangaridae and Prasii in India, was said to be the son of a barber, whom the queen had married. Alexander was preparing to march ainst him, when he was compelled by his soldiers, who had become tired of the war, to give up farther conquests in India. (Curt., 5, 2.—Diod., 17, 93, 94. ~Arrian, Anab., 5, 25, &c.—Plut., Alez., 60.) Agias ('Aytaç), I. a Greek poet, whose name was formerly written Augias, through a mistake of the first editor of the Excerpta of Proclus. It has been corrected by Thiersch in the Acta Philol. Monac., 2, p. 584, from the Codex Monacensis, which in one passage has Agias, and in another Hagias. The name itself does not occur in early Greek writers, unless it be supposed that Egias or Hegias (Hytaç) in Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom., 6, p. 622) and Pausanias (1, 2, § 1) are only different forms of the same name. He was a native of Troezen, and the time at which he wrote appears to have been about the year B.C. 740. His poem was celebrated in antiquity, under the name of Nógrot, i. e., the history of the return of the Achaean heroes from Troy, and consisted of five books. The poem began with the cause of the misfortunes which befell the Achaeans on their way home and after their arrival, that is, with the outrage committed upon Cassandra and the Palladium ; and the whole poem filled up the space which was left between the work of the poet Arctinus and the Odyssey. The ancients themselves appear to have been uncertain about the author of this poem, for they refer to it simply by the name of Nóatot, and when they mention the author, they only call him 6 touc Nāarovc yptopac. (Athen., 7, p. 281. — Paus., 10, 28, § 4; 29, § 2; 30, § 2. — Apollod, 2, 1, § 5. — Schol. ad Odyss., 4, 12. — Schol. ad Aristoph., Equit., 1332. Lucian, De Saltat., 46.) Hence some writers attributed the Nóatot to Homer (Suid., s. v. v6orot. Anthol. Planud., 4, 30), while others call its author a Colophonian. (Eustath. ad Odyss., 16, 118.) Similar poems, and with the same

title, were written by other poets also, such as Eumelus of Corinth (Schol. ad Pund., Ol., 13, 31), Anticlei. des of Athens (Athen., 4, p. 157; 9, p. 466), Cleidemus (Athen., 13, p. 609), and Lysimachus. (Athen., 4, p. 158.-Schol, ad Apollon. Rhod., 1,558.) Where the Nôarot is mentioned without a name, we have generally to understand the work of Agias.-II. A comic writer. (Polluz, 3, 36.-Meineke, Hust. Comic. Graec., p. 404, 416.) He is by some considered as the same person with the writer of the 'Apyožukd, mentioned below. Casaubon, however, in his remarks on Athenaus, thinks that this is an error. (Ad Athen., 3, 10, p. 169.)—III. The author of a work on Argolis ('ApyoAtkū, Athen., 3, p. 86, f), mentioned in connexion with Dercylus. Clemens of Alexandrea quotes him under the name of Aigias (Strom., 1, p 236), which is written Agis in Eusebius, who has also given Kerkylus incorrectly for Dercylus. (Casaub. ad Athen., lib. 3, c. 10, p. 169.) He is called 6 movauxóg in another passage of Athenaeus (14, p. 626, f), but the musician may be another person.—IV. Brother of Tisamenus, the renowned seer of the Spartans, who took part in the battle of Plataea. Both of these were of the race of the Iamidae, and received the right of citizenship at Sparta. Another Agias, son of Agelochus, grandson of Tisamenus, was the seer of Lysander, and predicted the victory of that commander over the Athenians at Ægospotami. (Paus., 3, 11, § 5, 6.)—W. The Arcadian, one of the Grecian commanders in the army of Cyrus the Younger, when he marched against his brother Artaxerxes. He was entrapped, along with the other Grecian leaders, by Tissaphernes, and put to death by that treacherous satrap, together with his fellow-officers. Xenophon praises his courage and fidelity. (Anab., 2, 5, 31; 2, 6, 30.) AGIAtis. Vid. Agis IV. Agidae, or Eurysthenidae, descendants of Agis, king of Sparta and son of Eurysthenes. This family shared the throne of Lacedæmon along with the Proclidae, or, as they were more commonly called, the Eurypontidae. According to Pausanias, the line of the Agidae became extinct in the person of Leonidas, son of Cleomenes. (Pausan., 3, 2–Id., 3, 6–Id., 3, 7.) AGINNUM or AGINUM, also written Agennum (Hieron., De Script. Eccles. in Sabadio, al. Pharbadio), a city of the Nitiobriges, who were the same as the Aginnenses, in Gallia Aquitania. It lay on the river Garonne, between Fines and Ercisum. (Ptol., Itin., p. 461. – Tab. Peut. Segm., 1. — Auson., Ep., 24, 79.) There was a road leading from this city to Lactura, which was situated at the distance of 15 miles, mentioned in the Itiner. Antonini, for an account of which consult the remarks of Chaudruc de Crazanes, l. l., p. 392. Numerous remains of ancient works of art, inscriptions, &c., have been found at this place, which are described in a dissertation published in the moires de la Societé Royale des Antiq. de France, tom. 2, p. 368. It was the birthplace of Jos. Scaliger, who has written about it in his Lect. Auson., l. 2, c. 10. Agis ("Aytc), I. king of Sparta, son of Eurysthenes, began to reign, it is said, about B.C. 1032. (Muller, Dor, vol. 2, p. 511, transl.) According to Eusebius (Chron., 1, p. 166), he reigned only one year; according to Apollodorus, as it appears, about 31 years. During the reign of Eurysthenes, the conquered people were admitted to an equality of political rights with the Dorians. Agis deprived them of these, and reduced them to the condition of subjects to the Spartans. The inhabitants of the town of Helos attempted to shake off the yoke, but they were subdued, and gave rise and name to the class called Helots. (Ephor, ap. Strab., 8,364.) To his reign was referred the colony which went to Crete under Pollis and Delphus. (Conom., Narr., 36.) From him the kings of that line were called 'Ayudat. His colleague was Sous. (Paus., 3, 2, § 1.)—II. The 17th of the Eurypontid line (be.

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