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AEN ARIA, an island off the coast of Campania, at the cntrance of the Bay of Naples. Properly speaking, there are two islands, and hence the plural form of the name which the Greeks applied to them, at IIthkovaat (Pithecusa). This latter appellation, according to Pliny (3, 6); was not derived from the number of apes (truthskol) which the islands were supposed to contain, but from the earthen casks or barrels (truthukuov, doliolum) which were made there. The Romans called the largest of the two islands AEnaria, probably from the copper which they found in it. AEnaria was a volcanic island, and Virgil (Æn., 9, 716) gives it the name of Inarime, in accordance with the old traditions which made the body of Typhoeus to have been placed under this island and the Phlegraan plain. Homer, however (Il., 2, 783), describes Typhoeus as lying in Arima (eiv 'Aptuous). The modern name of Ænaria is Ischia. AENEA or AENEIA, a town of Macedonia, on the coast of the Sinus Thermaicus, northwest from Olynthus, and almost due south from Thessalonica. It was founded by a colony of Corinthians and Potidaeans. The inhabitants themselves, however, affected to believe that Æneas was its founder, and consequently offered to him an annual sacrifice. AEnea was a place of some importance in the war between the Macedonians and Romans. Soon afterward, however, it disappeared from history. (Scymnus, v. 627. —Liv., 40, 4, and 44, 10–Strabo, epit. 7.) AENEADAE, I. the companions of Æneas, a name iven them in Virgil. (AEm., 1, 157, &c.)—II. The escendants of Æneas, an appellation given by the poets to the whole Roman nation. Hence Venus is called by Lucretius (1,1), AEneadlim genetriz. AENEAs, a celebrated Trojan warrior, son of Anchises and Venus, whose wanderings and adventures form the subject of Virgil's AEneid, and from whose final settlement in Italy the Romans traced their o He was born, according to the poets, on Mount Ida, or, as some legends stated, on the banks of the Simois, and was nurtured by the Dryads until he had reached his fifth year, when he was brought to Anchises. The remainder of his early life was spent under the care of his brother-in-law Alcathous, in the city of Dardanus, his father's place of residence, at the foot of Ida. He first took part in the Trojan war when Achilles had despoiled him of his flocks and herds. Priam, however, gave him a cold reception, either because the eat Trojan families were at variance with each other, #. the influence of ambitious feelings, or, what is more probable, because an oracle had declared that AEneas and his posterity should rule over the Trojans. Hence, although he married Creusa, the daughter of Priam, he never lived, according to Homer (Il., 13, 460), on very friendly terms with that monarch. AEneas was regarded as the bravest and boldest of the Trojan leaders after Hector, and is even brought by Homer in contact with Achilles. (Il., 20, 175, seqq.) He was also conspicuous for his piety and justice, and was therefore the only Trojan whom the otherwise angry Neptune protected in the fight. The posthomeric bards assign him a conspicuous part in the scenes that took place on the capture of Troy, and Virgil, taking these for his guides, has done the same in his AEneid. AEneas fought manfully in the midst of the blazing city until all was lost, and then retired with a large number of the inhabitants, accompanied by their wives and children, to the neighbouring mountains of Ida. It was on ;" occasion that he signalized his piety, by 8

bearing away on his shoulders his aged parent Anchises. His wife Creusa, however, was lost in the hurried flight. From this period the legends respecting ACneas differ. While, according to one tradition, of which there are traces even in the Homeric poems, he remained in Troas, and ruled over the remnant of the Trojan population, he wandered from his native land according to another account, and settled in Italy. This latter tradition is adopted by the Roman writers, who trace to him the origin of their nation, and it forms the basis of the AEneid, in which poem his various wanderings are related, until he is brought to the Italian shores. Following the account of Virgil and the poets from whom he has copied, as far as any remains of these last have come down to us, we find that AEneas, in the second year after the destruction of Troy, set sail, with a newly-constructed fleet of twenty vessels, from the Trojan shores, and visited, first Thrace, and then the island of Sicily. From this latter island he proceeded with his ships for Italy, in the seventh year of his wanderings, but was driven by a storm on the coast of Africa, near Carthage. After a residence of some time at the court of Dido, he set sail for Italy, and reached eventually, after many dangers and adventures, the harbour of Cumae. From Cumae he proceeded along the shore and entered the mouth of the Tiber. After a war with the neighbouring nations, in which he proved successful, and slew Turnus, the leader of the foe, Æneas received in marriage Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus, and built the city of Lavinium. The Trojans and native inhabitants became one people, under the common name of Latini. The flourishing state of the new community excited, however, the jealousy of the neighbouring nations, and war was declared by them against the subjects of Æneas, Mezentius, king of Etruria, bein

placed at the head of the coalition. The arms of AEneas proved successful, but he lost his life in the conflict. According to another account, he was drowned during the action in the river Numicus. Divine honours were paid him after death by his subjects, and the Romans also in a later age regarded him as one of the Dii Indigetes. The tale of Æneas and his Trojan colony is utterly rejected by Niebuhr, but he thinks it a question worth discussion, whether it was domestic or transported. Having shown that several Hellenic poets had supposed Æneas to have escaped from Troy, and that Stesichorus had even expressly represented him as having sailed to Hesperia, i. e., the west; and then j the general belief among the Greeks, of Trojan colonies in different parts, he still regards all this as quite insufficient to account for the belief in a Trojan descent becoming an article of state-faith, with so proud a people as the Romans. The fancied descent must have been domestic, like that of the Britons from Brute and Troy, the Hungarians from the Huns, &c., all of which have been related with confidence by native writers. The only difficulty is to account for its origin, on which Niebuhr advances the following hypothesis: Everything contained in mythic tales respecting the affinity of nations indicates the affinity between the Trojans and those of the Pelasgian stem, as the Arcadians, Epirotes, CEnotrians, and especially the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians. Such tales are those of the wanderings of Dardanus from Corythus to Samothrace and thence to the Simois, the coming of the Trojans to Latium, of the Tyrrhenians to Lemnos. Now, that the Penates at Lavinium, which some of the Lavinians told Timaeus were Trojan images, were the Samothracian gods, is acknowledged, and the Romans recognised the affinity of the people of that island. From this national as well as religious unity, and the identity of language, it may have happened that various branches of the nation may have been called Trojans, or have claimed a descent from Troy, and have boasted the ssession of relics which Æneas was reported to have saved. Long after the original natives of Italy nad overcome them, Tyrrhenians may have visited Samothrace; Herodotus may there have heard Crestonians and Placianians conversing together; and Lavinians and Gergithians may have met there, and accounted for their affinity by the story of AEneas. “We have,” the Lavinians may have said, “the same language and religion with you, and we have clay images at home, inst like these here.” “Then,” may the others have replied, “you must be descended from AEneas and his followers, who saved the relics in Troy, and sailed, our fathers say, away to the west with them.” And it requires but a small knowledge of human nature to perceive how easily such reasoning as this would be embraced and propagated. (Nichuhr's Rom. Hist, 2d ed., vol. 1, p. 150, seqq., Cambridge transl.—Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 4, p. 533.)—II. Silvius, a son of AEneas and Lavinia, said to have derived his name from the circumstance of his having been brought up in the woods (in silris), whither his mother had retired on the death of Æneas. *Wid. Lavinia.) Virgil follows the account which makes him the foil; of the Alban line of kings. (AEn, 6, 766.) According to others, he was the son and successor of Ascanius. Others again give a different statement. (Compare Llr., 1, 3–Aurel. Vict, 16, 17–Dion. Hal., 1, 70.-Orid, Fast., 4, 41, and consult Heyne, ad Virg., l.c.)—III. An ancient writer, surnamed Tacticus. By some he is supposed to have flourished about 148 B.C.; others, however, make him anterior to Alexander the Great. Casaubon suspects that he is the same with Æneas of Stymphalus, who, according to Xenophon (Hist. Gr., 7,3), was commander of the Arcadians at the time of the battle •f Mantinea, about 360 B.C. (Compare Sar. Onom., 1, p. 73.) Of his writings on the military art (STDarmyuka 3.62.1a) there remains to us a single book, entitled Taxruków re kai IIożtopkmruköv iTóuvmua, &c. This work is not only of great value on account of the number of technical terms which it contains, but serves also to elucidate various points of antiquity, and makes mention of facts which cannot elsewhere be found. The best edition is that of Orellius, Lips., 1818, 8vo, published as a supplement to Schweighauser's edition of Polybius–IV. A native of Gaza, a disciple of Hierocles, who flourished during the latter part of the 5th century of our era, or about 480 A.C. He abjured paganism, and was an eyewitness of the persecution which Huneric, king of the Wandals, instituted against the Christians, 484 A.C. Although a Christian, he professed Platonism. We have a dialogue of

his remaining, entitled 6eóðpaaroo, which treats of the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body. The interlocutors are AEgyptus an Alexandrean, Axitheus a Syrian, and Theophrastus an Athenian. AEneas exhibits and illustrates the Christian do rines in the person of Axitheus, and Theophrastus conducts the argument for the heathen schools, while Ægyptus now and then interrupts the grave discussion by a specimen of Alexandrean levity. AEneas defends the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body against the philosophers who deny it. He explains how the soul, although created, may be-, come immortal, and proves that the world, being material, must perish. In conducting this chain of argument, he mingles the Platonic doctrine of the Logos and Anima mundi with that of the Christian Trinity. He then refutes the objections urged against the resurrection of the body: this leads him to speak of holy men who have restored dead bodies to life, and to relate as an eyewitness the miracle of the confessors, who, after having had their tongues cut out, were still able to speak distinctly. This piece is entitled to high praise for the excellence of the design, and the

although, as the author was of the school of Plato, there is something in it, of course, that savours of the Academy. (An able analysis of its contents is given in the N. Y. Churchman, vol. 9, No. 4, by an anonymous writer.) There also remain of his writings twenty-five letters. These last are contained in the epistolary collections of Aldus and Cujas. The latest edition is that of Bath, Lips., 1655, 4to. AENETA. Wid. AEnea. AENE1s, the celebrated epic poem of Virgil, com. memorating the wanderings of Eneas after the fall of Troy, and his final settlement in Italy. (Wid. Virgilius.) AENEsinemus, a philosopher, born at Gnossus in Crete, but who lived at Alexandrea. He flourished, very probably, a short period subsequent to Cicero, AEnesidemus revived the scepticism which had been silenced in the Academy, with the view of making it aid in re-introducing the doctrines of Heraclitus. For in order to show that everything has its contrary, we must first prove that opposite appearances are presented in one and the same thing to each individual. To strengthen, therefore, the cause of scepticism, he extended its limits to the utmost, admitting and defending the ten topics attributed to Fo to justify a suspense of all positive opinion. He wrote eight books on the doctrines of Pyrrho (IIvsjøviov Záyot 7), of which extracts are to be found in Photius, cod. 212. (Tennemann, Gesch. Phil., ed. Wendt, p. 196.) AENIXNEs, or Enienes, a Thessalian tribe, apparently of great antiquity, but of uncertain origin, whose frequent migrations have been alluded to by more than one writer of antiquity, but by none more than Plutarch in his Greek Questions. He states them to have occupied, in the first instance, the Dotian plain (compare Gell's Itinerary, p. 242); after which they wan. dered to the borders of Epirus, and finally settled in the upper valley of the Sperchius. Their antiquity and importance are attested by the fact of their belonging to the Amphictyonic council... (Pausan, 10, 8– Harpocrat., s. v. 'Auotkräovec.—Herod., 7, 198.) At a later period we find them joining other Grecian states against Macedonia, in the confederacy which gave rise to the Lamiac war. (Diod. Suc., 17, 11.1.) But in Strabo's time they had nearly disappeared, having been almost exterminated, as that author reports, by the AEtolians and Athamanes, upon whose territories they bordered. (Straho, 427.) Their principal town was Hypata, on the river Sperchius. AEN1öchi. Vid. Heniochi. AENobARBU's, or AHENob ARht's, the surname of L. Domitius. When Castor and Pollux acquainted him, with a victory, he discredited them; upon which they touched his chin and beard, which instantly became of a copper colour, whence the surname given to himself and . descendants. This fabulous story is told by Plutarch, in his life of Paulus Frnilius (c. 25); by Suetonius, in his biography of Nero (c. 1), that emperor being descended from Enobarbus; by Livy (45, 1); and by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (6,13). Many of the descendants of Enobarbus are said to have beer, marked by beards of a reddish hue. (Sueton., I, c.) The victory mentioned above was that at the Lake Regillus. For an account of the members of this family, rid. Supplement. AENos, a city on the coast of Thrace, at the mouth of the estuary formed by the river Hebrus, and where it communicates by a narrow passage with the sea. Scymnus of Chios ascribes its |. to Mytilene (Scymn., p. 696–Compare Eustath, ad Dionys. Pericg., p. 538, and Gail, ad Scymn., l.c.) Stephanus Byzantinus, however, makes Cumae to have been the parent-city. Apollodorus (2, 5, 9) and Strabo (319) inform us, that its more ancient name was Poltyobria (“City of Poltys”), from a Thracian leader. The adHomer enumerates among the allics of the Trojans. Virgil supposes AFneas to have landed on this coast aster quitting Troy, and to have discovered here the tomb of the murdered Polydorus (AEn., 3, 22, seqq.): he also intimates that he founded a city in this quarter, which was named after himself. Pliny (4, 11) likewise states, that the tomb of Polydorus was at AEnos. But it is certain, that, according to Homer (Il., 4, 520), the city was called Enos before the siege of Troy. AEnos first makes its appearance in history about the time of the Persian war. It fell under the power of Xerxes, and, after his expulsion from Greece, was always tributary to that state which chanced to have the ascendency by sea. The Romans declared it a free city. This place is often mentioned by the Byzantine writers. The modern town, or, rather, village of Eno occupies the site of the ancient city, but the harbour is now a mere marsh. The climate of Ænos, it seems, was peculiarly ungenial, since it was observed by an ancient writer, that it was cold there during eight months of the year, and that a severe frost prevailed for the other four. (Athenaeus, 8, 44—vol. 3, p. 295, cd. Schuccigh.)—II. A small town in Thessaly, near Mount Ossa, situate on a river of the same name. :Steph. Byz., s. v. Alvoc.)

AFNUs. Vid. OEnus.

AEöles, or Æolii, one of the main branches of the great Hellenic race (vid. Hellenes), who are said to have derived their name from AEolus, the eldest son of Hellen. The father reigned over Phthiotis, and particularly over the city and district then called Hellas. To these dominions AEolus succeeded, and his brothers Dorus and Xuthus were compelled to look for settlements elsewhere. (Strabo, 383.-Conon, Narrat., 27–Pausan., 7, 1–Herod., 1,56.) According to Apollodorus (1, 7, 2), AEolus ruled over all o ; this, however, is contradicted by the authority of Herodotus, from whom it appears (1, 56) that the Dorians held Histiaotis under their sway. From AEolus, the Hellenes, in Hellas properly so called, and the Phthiotic Pelasgi, who became blended with them into one common race, received the appellation of Æolians, (Compare Herod., 1, 57-Id., 7, 95.) The sons and later descendants of AEolus spread the name of Æosia beyond these primitive seats of the AEolic tribe. Cretheus, the eldest son of AEolus, reigned at first over the territories of his parents, Phthiotis and Hellas; subsequently, however, he led a colony to Iolcos (Apollod, 1, 9, 11), and from this latter place, Pheres, his son, colonized Pherae, on the Anaurus. (Apollod., 1, 9, 14.) Magnes, the second son of AEolus, founded Magnesia of..." 1, 9, 6), and his own sons Polydectes and Dictys led a colony to Seriphus. Another son, Pierus, settled in Pieria. (Apollod, l.c.) Sisyphus, the third son of Æolus, founded Corinth (Apollod., 1, 9, 13), whose AEolic population, previous to the irruption of the Dorians into the Peloponnesus, is acknowledged even by Thucydides (4,42). Athamas led an Eolic colony into Boeotia (Apollod., 1, 9, 1), and, as Pausanias informs us, to Orchomenus, and to the district where Haliartus and Coronea were afterward built. (Pausan., 9,34.—Compare the scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, 2, 1190, who calls the Orchomenians & Tolkot Töv Oeqaaždiv.) Hence Apollodorus calls Orchomenus an AEolic city, although it existed long before this, in the time of Ogyges, under the name of Athenae. (Steph. By:... s. v. 'Atival.) Thucydides mentions the AEolic origin of the Boeotians (Thucyd., 3, 2.—Id, 7, 57), and we see from Pausanias (9, 22), that the language of the Boeotians was more Æolic than Doric The name of Athamas may be traced in that of the Athamantian field, between Mount Acraephnium and the sea (Pausan., 9, 24), and which was called af. ‘er the Athamantian field, in the primitive AEolic settlements in Thessaly, where Athamas had killed his own son. (Etym. Mag., s. v. 'Affauávrtov.–Raoul

Rochette, Col. Gr., vol. 2, p. 26, calls this “un canton de la Boeotie" merely, but the words of the etymologist are express : *art 68 Teótag #1: 6tagazia kažovuévy, 'Affauaytía, dud &Keiae, K. T. 2.) Even Thebes itself, built at the foot of the Phoenician mountain Cadmea, would seem, from the remark of the scholiast on Pindar (Nem, 3, 127), and from the analogy between its name and that of Phthiotic Thebes, to have been an AEolian settlement. From the sons of Athamas the city of Schoenus and Mount Ptous received their appellations. (Steph. Byz., s, r. Xaoivoi ç.—Pausan., 9, 23.) The name, too, of the Boeotian national goddess, the Itonian Minerva, at Orchomenus, is, most probably, not to be derived from a fabulous hero Itonus (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Act 276ww.—Pausan., 9, 34), but from the city of Itonus, in the primitive settlements of the AEolic Baeotians. Aspledon also was founded by the same Æolians who had settled in Orchomenus. (Steph. By2., l.c.) An AEolic colony, according to Apollodorus (1, 9, 4), was also led into Phocis, under Deion, the fifth son of Æolus, and where Phccus, a later descendant of Sisyphus, gave his name to the race. (Pausan, 2, 22.) The sixth on of Æolus, called by Hesiod the “lawless Salmoneus,” remained for a long time in Thessaly (Apollod., 1, 9, 7, and 8), where his daughter Tyro married Cretheus. His departure from this country coincides, very probably, with he expulsion of Cretheus from the primitive settlements of the Hellenes. He migrated to the Peloponnesus, and settled in the district of Elis, which had not, as yet, been occupied by of. colonists. He built Salmonea, and is called by Hesiod the “lawless,” from his attempt to imitate Jove while hurling the thunderbolt. (Serp. ad Virg., 6,585.) Among his posterity we may name Neleus, who founded Pylos in the adjacent region of Messenia (Apollod., 1, 9, 9–Pausan., 4, 36), and is said to have renewed, in conjunction with his brother Pelias, the Olympic games. (Pausan, 5, 1,8.) So also Perieres, king of Messenia, is made a son of AEolus (Hesiod, Fragm., p. 75.—Apollcd., 1, 9, 3), although the Spartans claimed him as a descendant of the royal line of Laconia, and a son of Cynortas. (Apcllod., 1, 9, 3.) Besides these sons of AEolus, respecting whose origin the ancient o in general agree, and who spread the AEolic race over middle Greece, there are also mentioned, as sons of Æolus, Ceraphus (Demetrius Sceps. ap. Strab., 9, p. 438), whose son founded Ormenium, on the Sinus ..o. (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'ložkég), and Macednus or Macedo (Hellanicus ap. Const. Fort h. Them., 2, 2–Eustath. ad Dicnys. Perteg., r. 427), whose descent from Thyia, a daughter of Deucalion, is alluded to by Hesiod (Hes. ap. Const. Porph. Thom. 2, 2). The posterity of AEolus spread the dominion ard name of the AEolic race still farther. AEtolus, who was compelled to fly from the court of his father Endymion (a son-in-law of AEolus) at Elis, retired to the land of the Curetes, and gave name to Ætolia. (Wid. Acarnania.) His sons Pleuron and Calydon founded there two cities, called after them, and established two petty principalities. (Apollod., 1, 7, 7.) Epeus, another son of Endymion, gave to the Eleans the name of Epei (Pausan, 5, 1, 1), while Paeon, the third son, settled, with his AEolian followers, on the banks of the Axius, and gave to the united race of Æolians and Pelasgi in this quarter the name of Paeonians. In the Trojan war, these Paeonians fought on the side of the Trojans (Hem. Il., 2,848); whence we may infer, that, although the tribes around the Axius were Hellenized, yet the Pelasgic population still retained the numerical superiority. |. this time Pelops had taken possession of Pisa, and had driven the Epei from Olympia. (Pausan., 5, 1, 1.) Eleus, however, the son-in-law of Endymion, had received the kingdom in place of the fugitive AEtolus, and from him #. Epei were now called Elei, or, according to the Æolic mode of writing, Falei.

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crus (Eustath. ad Hom, Il., 2, 531), from whom the Locri Ozolae, on the borders of Ætolia, are supposed to have derived their name. The AEolic branch of Sisyphus, in Corinth, spread itself through Ornythion (Schol. ad Hom., Il, 2,517, ed. Willons), and his son Phocus, over Phocis (Pausan., 2, 1), a name first applied to the country around Delphi and Tithorea. The inter of these places was the primitive settlement of Phocus (Pausan, 2, 4), while Hiampolis was the early colony of Ornythion. (Schol. ad Eurip., cited by Kuhn, ad Pausan., l.c.) The farther settling of Phocis is ascribed by some to another Phocus, who is said to have led an Eolic colony to this quarter from the island of .Egina. (Compare Pausan., 2,29.—Id., 10, 1.—Eustath. ad Il., 2, 522–Schol, ad Apol. Rhod, 1, 507.) Raoul-Rochette, however, correctly remarks, that the murder of the young Phocus by Telamon and Peleus contradicts this tradition. (Col. Gr., vol. 2, p. 56.) The AEolic branch of Cretheus finally spread itself through Amythaon, the son of Cretheus, over Messenia (Apollod., 1, 9, 11), and through Melampus and Bias, sons of Amythaon, over the territory of Argos, and also over Acarnania, through Acarnan, a descendant of Melampus.--From the enumeration through which we have gone, it would appear that the HellenicAEolic stem, before the Trojan war, was spread, in northern Greece, over almost all Thessaly, over Pieria, Paeonia, and Athamania: in Middle Greece, over the greater part of Boeotia, Phocis, Locris, AEtolia, and Acarnania: in southern Greece, or the Peloponnesus, over Argos, Elis, and Messenia. It would appear, also, that, during this period, Leleges, Curetes, Pelasgi, Hyantes, and Lapithae became intermingled with the Hellenic-. Eolic tribes, and that a close union was formed likewise between the latter and the Phoenician Cadmaeans in Baeotia. The state of things which has here been described, continued until the Trojan war and the subsequent invasion of the Peloponnesus, by the Dorians, produced an entire change of affairs, and sent forth numerous colonies both to the eastern and western quarters of the world. For some account of these movements, consult the following articles: Achata, AEolu, Dorus, Graecia, Hellenes, and Iona. AEolia, or AEólis, a region of Asia Minor, deriving its name from the AEolians who settled there. The -Eolians were the first great body of Grecian colonists that established themselves in Asia Minor, and, not long after the Trojan war, founded several towns on different points of the Asiatic coast, from Cyzicus to the river Hermus. But it was more especially in Lesbos, which has a right to be considered as the seat of their power, and along the neighbouring shores of the ...P. Elea, that they finally concentrated their principal cities, and formed a federal union, called the .Eolian league, consisting of twelve states, with several inserior towns to the number of thirty. The AEolian colonies, according to Strabo, were anterior to the Ionian migrations by four generations. He states, that Orestes had himself designed to lead the first; but his death preventing the execution of the measure, it was prosecuted by his son Penthilus, who advanced with his followers as far as Thrace. This movement was contemporary with the return of the Heraclidae into the Peloponnesus, and most probably was occasioned by it. After the decease of Penthilus, Archelaus, or Echelatus, his son, crossed over with the colonies into the territory of Cyzicus, and settled in the vicinity of Dascylium. Gras, his youngest son, subsequently advanced with a detachment as far as the Granicus, and not long after crossed over to the island of Lesbos and took possession of it. Some years after these cvents, another body of adventurers crossed over from Locris, and founded Cyme, and other towns on the Gulf of Elea. They also took possession of Smyrna, which

became one of the twelve states of the league. But this city having been wrested from them by the Ionians, the number was reduced to eleven in the time of Herodotus. These, according to that historian (1,149), were Cyme, Larissa, Neontichos, Temnus, Cilla, Notium, AEgiroessa, Pitane, Ægoas, Myrina and Grynea. AEolis extended in the interior from the Hermus on the south, to the Caicus, or perhaps, to speak more correctly, as far as the country around Mount Ida. On the coast it reached from Cyme to Pitane. All the AEolian cities were independent of each other, and had their own constitutions, which underwent many changes. An attempt was frequently made to restore quiet, by electing arbitrary rulers, with the title of Æsymnetae, for a certain time, even for life, of whom Pittacus, in Mytilene, the contemporary of Sappho and Alcaeus, is best known. The 420lians, in common with the other Greek colonies of Asia, excepting those established in the islands, had become subject to Croesus; but, on the overthrow of the Lydian monarch by Cyrus, they submitted, along with many of the islanders, to the arms of the conqueror, and were thenceforth annexed to the Persian empire. They contributed sixty ships to the fleet of Xerxes. Herodotus observes of .Eolis, that its soil was more fertile than that of Ionia, but the climate inferior (1, 149). In the time of Xenophon, AEolis formed part of the Hellespontine satrapy held by Pharnabazus, and it appears to have comprised a considerable portion of the country, that was known at an earlier period by the name of Troas. (Hell., 3, 18.) Wrested by the Romans from Antiochus, it was annexed to the dominions of Eumenes. (Liv., 33,38, &c.) For an account of the AEolic movements in Lesbos, consult the description of that island, s. v. Lesbos. .Eoliae, seven islands, situate off the northern coast of Sicily, and to the west of Italy. According to Mela (2,7), their names were Lipara, Osteodes, #. Didyme, Phaenicusa, Hiera, and Strongyle. Pliny (3, 9) and Diodorus (5, 7), however, give them as follows: Lipara, Didyme, Phoenicusa, Hiera, Strongyle, Ericusa, and Euonymus. They are the same with Homer's IIAaj krat, or “wandering islands.” (Od., 12,68. &c.) Other names for the group were Hephæstiades and Vulcania. Insula, from their volcanic character; and Liparea, from Lipara, the largest. The appellation of Æolia was given them from their having formed the fabled domain of Eolus, god or ruler of the wind. The island in which he resided is said by some to have been Lipara, but the greater part of the ancient authorities are in favour of Strongyle, the modern Stromboli. (Heyne, Ercurs. ad AEn., 1, 51.) A passage in Pliny (3, 9, 14) contains the germe of the whole fable respecting AEolus, wherein it is stated that the inhabitants of the adjacent islands could tell from the smoke of Strongyle what winds were going to blow for three days to come. (Wul. Lipara, Strongyle, and Eolus.) AEolides, a patronymic applied to various individuals. I. Athamas, son of Eolus. (Or., Met., 4, 511.) — II. Cephalus, grandson of AEolus. (Id. ibid., 6, 681.)—III. Sisyphus, son of AEolus. (Id. ibid., 13, 26.) —IV. Ulysses, to whom this patronymic appellation was given, from the circumstance of his mother, Anticlea, having been pregnant by Sisyphus, son of Eolus, when she married Laertes. (Virg., AEn., 6, 529, and Heyne, in War. Lect., ad loc.)—V. Misenus, the trumpeter of Æneas, called Æolides, figuratively, from his skill in blowing on that instrument. Consult, however, Heyne, Excurs. ad AEn., 6, 162. AEölus, I, the god or ruler of the winds, son of Hippotas and Melanippe, daughter of Chiron. He reigned over the AEolian islands, and made his residence at Strongyle, the modern Stromboli. (Vid. AEolia.) Homer calls him “...Eolus Hippotades (i. e., son of Hippotas), dear to the immortal gods,” from which passage we might perhaps justly infer, that Æolus was not, properly speaking, himself a god. (Od., 10, 2) His island was entirely surrounded by a wall of brass, and by smooth precipitous rocks; and here he dwelt in continual joy and festivity, with his wife and his six sons and as many daughters. The island had no other tenants. The sons and daughters were married to each other, after the fashion set by Jupiter (kato 6 kai 6 Zewg avvoxel T. “Hoa, Eustath ad loc.), and are nothing more than a poetic type of the twelve months of the year. (Compare Eustäth. ad loc.) The office of directing and ruling the winds had been conferred on .Eolus by Jupiter (Od., 10, 21, seqq —Vurg, Æn., 1, 65); but his great protectress was Juno (Virg., AEm., 1, 78, seqq.), which accords very well with the ideas of the earlier poets, who made Juno merely a type of the atmosphere, the movements of which produce the winds.-Ulysses came in the course of his wanderings to the island of. Eolus, and was hospitably entertained there for an entire month. On his departure, he received from .H.olus all the winds but Zephyrus, tied up in a bag of ox-hide. Zephyrus was favourable for his passage homeward. During nine days and nights the ships ran merrily before the wind: on the tenth they were within sight of Ithaca, when Ulysses, who had hitherto held the helm himself, fell asleep : his comrades, who fancied that Eolus had given him treasure in the bag, opened it: the winds rushed out, and hurried them back to Eolia. Judging from what had befallen them, that they were hated i. the gods, the ruler of the winds drove them with reproaches from his isle (Keightley's Mythology, p. 240.)—The name Æolus has been derived from alozoc, “rarying,” “unsteady,” as a descriptive epithet of the winds.-II. A son of Hellen, father of Sisyphus, Cretheus, and Athamas, and the mythic progenitor of the great Æolic race.—III. A son of Neptune and the nymph Arne. (Eustath. ad Od., 10, 2) AEöNEs (assover), or AEons, a term occurring frequently in the philosophical speculations of the Gnostics. The Gnostics conceived the emanations from Deity to be divided into two classes; the one comprehended all those substantial powers which are contained within the Divine Essence, and which completes the infinite plenitude of the Divine Nature: the other, existing externally with respect to the Divine Essence, and including all finite and imperfect natures. Within the Divine Essence, they, with wonderful ingenuity, imagined a long series of emanative principles, to which they ascribed a real and substantial existence, connected with the first substance as a branch with its root, or a solar ray with the sun. When they began to unfold the mysteries of this system in the Greek language, these Substantial Powers, which they conceived to . comprehended within the Tržňpoua, or Divine Plenitude, they called atovec, Æons. # ficliff's History of Philosophy, vol. 2, p. 142.) AEPEA, or AEpeia, a town in the island of Cyprus. Wid. Soloe. AEpol.IRNUs, an engraver on precious stones, who flourished in the second century of our era. One of his gems, with the head of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, is still extant. (Bracci, P. 1, tab. 3–Sillig, Dict. Art., s. r.) AEPytus, I, king of Messenia, and son of Cresphontes. His father and his two brothers were put to death by Polyphontes, who usurped, upon this, the throne of the country. Epytus, however, was saved by his mother, Merope, who had been compelled to marry the murderer of her husband, and was sent by her to the court of her father Cypselus, king of Arcadia, to be there brought up. On attaining to manhood, he slew Polyphontes, and recovered the throne. His descendants were called AEpytidae. (Apollod, 2, 8, 5. —Heyne, ad Apollod., l. c.)—II. A king of Arcadia, and son of Elatus. He was killed, in hunting, by a small *; of scrpent, called offi!. (Pausan., 8,4,4) 2

– III A king of Arcadia, son of Hippothous, and contemporary with Orestes, son of Agamemnon, who, in obedience to the Delphic oracle, migrated into Arcadia from Mycenae during this monarch's reign. AEpytus having, on one occasion, boldly entered the temple of Neptune, near Mantinea, which no mortal was allowed to do, is said to have been deprived of sight by a sudden eruption of salt water from the sanctuary, and to have died soon after. (Pausan., 8, 10.) This story, if true, points of course to some artifice on the part of the priests of the temple. The “salt water” was probably some strong acid. (Compare Sal, verte, Scuences Occultes, vol. 1, ch. 15.)—IV. A monarch who ruled in the southern part of Arcadia, and who brought up Evadne, daughter of Neptune and the Laconian Pitane. (Pind, Ol., 6, 54.—Compare Böckh, ad loc.)

Aoti or AEquickli, a people of Italy, distinguished in history for their early and incessant hostility against Rome, more than for the extent of their territory or their numbers. Livy himself (7, 12) expresses his surprise, that a nation, apparently so small and insignificant, should have had a population adequate to the calls of a constant and harassing warfare, which it carried on against the city of Rome for so many years. But it is plain, from the narrow limits which must be assigned this people, that their contests with Rcme cannot be viewed in the light of a regular war, but as a succession of marauding expeditions, made by these hardy but lawless mountaineers on the territory of that city, and which could only be effectually checked by the most entire and rigid subjection. (Lar, 10, 1) The AEqui are to be placed next to the Sabines, and between them and the Marsi, chiefly in the upper valley of the Anio, which separated them from the Latins They are said at one time to have been possessed of forty towns; but many of these must certainly have been little more than villages, and some also were subsequently included within the boundaries of Latium. The only cities of note, which all geographers agree in assigning to the AEqui, are Varia and Carseoli, on the Via Valeria. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 322.) “Almost inseparable from the Volscians in Roman story,” observes Niebuhr (Rom. Hist, vol. 1, p. 58, Cambridge transl), “we find the AEqui or AEquiculi, who are described as an ancient people, and threatening Rome. They are so often confounded with the Volscians, that the fortress on the Lake Fucinus, which the Romans took in the year of the city 347, may with probability be called Æquian; and when Livy says that the Volscian wars had lasted from the time of Tarquinius Superbus for more than two hundred years, he considers the Volscians and AEqui as one people.” This remark of Niebuhr's, however, admits of some modification, as will appear from what precedes. The AEqui and Volsci should undoubtedly be kept distinct, though originating evidently from the same parent-race.

AEQUIMELIUM, a place at Rome, in the Vicus Jugarius, at the base of the Capitoline Hill, where once had stood the mansion of Spurius Melius. This individual, having aspired to supreme power, was slain by Ahala, master of the horse to the dictator Cincinnatus, and his dwelling was razed to the ground. Hence, according to Varro (L. L., 4, 32), the etymology of the term AEquimelium, “quod solo aquata sit Melu domus.” (Compare Liv., 4, 16.) Cicero and Valerius Maximus, however, assign another, but less correct, derivation, from the just nature of the punishment inflicted upon Melius (“ex aquo seu justo supplicio Melu."—Consult Cic. pro Dom., c. 38, and Val. Max., 6, 3).

AERIAs, an ancient king of Cyprus, who built the temple of Venus at Paphos. A later tradition made this temple to have been founded by Cinyras. (Tacit., Hist., 2, 3.)

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