Obrazy na stronie

num, having by his tyranny rendered himself odious to his subjects, was by them expelled from his dominions, and forced to take refuge from their fury in the lonely woods. Here he bred up the infant Camilla, the sole companion of his flight; and, having dedicated her to the service of Diana, he instructed her in the use of the bow and arrow, and accustomed her to the practice of martial and sylvan exercises. She was so remarkable for her swiftness, that she is described by the poets as flying over the corn without bending the stalks, and skimming over the surface of the water without wet; ting her feet. Attended by a train of warriors, she led the Volscians to battle against Eneas. Many brave chiefs fell by her hand ; but she was at length herself killed by a soldier of the name of Aruns, who, from a place of concealment, aimed a javelin at her. Diana, however, who had foreseen this fatal event, had commissioned Opis, one of her nymphs, to avenge the death of Camilla, and Aruns was slain in his flight from the combat by the arrows of the goddess. (Virg., AEm., 7, 803, seqq. Id. ib., 11, 532, seqq. Id. ib., 11, 848, seqq.) fo, has applied this story of Camilla to Clorinda (B. 12, stanza 20, &c.). CAMILLUs (L. Furius), a celebrated Roman, called a second Romulus, from his services to his country. After filling various important stations, and, among other achievements, taking the city of Veii, which had for the space of ten years resisted the Roman arms, he encountered at last the displeasure of his countrymen, and was accused of having embezzled some of the plunder of this place. Being well aware how the matter would terminate, Camillus went into voluntary exile, although his friends offered to pay the sum demanded of him. During this period .#separation from his country, Rome, with the exception of the Capitol, was taken by the Gauls under Brennus. Camillus, though an exile, was invited by the fugitive Romans at Veii to take command of them, but refused to act until the wishes of the Romans besieged in the Capitol were known. These unanimously revoked the sentence of banishment, and elected him dictator. The nobleminded Roman forgot their previous ingratitude, and marched to the relief of his country; which he delivered, after it had been for some time in the possession of the enemy. The Roman account says, that Camillus, at the head of an army of forty thousand men, hastened to Rome, where he found the garrison of the Capitol on the point of purchasing peace from the invaders. “With iron, not with gold,” exclaimed Camillus, “Rome buys her freedom.” An attack was instantly made upon the Gauls, a victory obtained, and the foe left their camp by night. On the morrow Camillus overtook them, and they met with a total overthrow. His triumphal entry into Rome was made amid the acclamations of thousands, who greeted him with the name of Romulus, father of his country, and second sounder of the city. After performing another equally important service, in prevailing upon his countrymen to rebuild their city and not return to Veii, and after gaining victories over the Equi, Volsci, Etrurians, and Latins, he died in the eighty-ninth year of his age, having been five times dictator, once censor, three times interrex, twice military tribune, and having obtained four triumphs. (Plut. in Vit. Liv., 5, 46, seqq.—Flor., 1, 13.−Virg., AEn., 6, 825.)—We have touched merely on a few of the events connected with the history of Camillus, in consequence of the strong suspicion which attaches itself to the greater part o the narrative. In no instance, perhaps, have the family-memorials of the Roman aristocracy more com

pletely usurped the†. of true history than in the

case of Camillus. The part relative to the overthrow of the Gauls appears to be all a pure fiction. “For a long time past,” observes Niebuhr, “no one has perused, with any degree of faith, Livy's narrative of the arrival of the dictator Camillus in the city during the

payment of the ransom-money to the Gauls, his break. ing off the compact as invalid, his expelling the Gauls from the city, and then gaining a victory over them on the road to Gabii, from which no messenger escaped to carry home the tidings. Polybius, a more ancient witness, and of much greater validity, who is never partial towards the Romans, and could not be so to the Gauls, assures us that the conquerors returned home with the booty (2, 18). The story, however, was common among the Romans, that the gold which had been paid was recovered, and it is said to have been kept in the Capitol, in the sanctuary of Jupiter (Plun., 33, 5), until the time of Crassus's sacrilege, and increased to double the amount by the addition of plunder. Yet, even according to Livy himself (5, 50), this Capitoline gold was no proof of it, and was rather collected from the treasures of different temples, which it was impossible to separate in order to restore them; and even the duplication might prove a replacing, according to custom, for the payment of the war-taxes. Livy thought it shocking and insufferable that the existence of Rome should have been purchased with gold; hence his narration, according to which the arrival of Camillus arrested the payment, is poetically consistent. Besides the bitter truth of Polybius, there are two other series of traditions, which do not deny the departure of the Gauls with the gold, but do not allow them to have derived any advantage thereby. Of the first class apparently is that of Pliny, already adduced; it is found most distinctly in Diodorus. According to him, Camillus recovered the ransom, and almost all the remaining booty, when relieving one of the allied towns which was besieged by the Gauls. (Diod., 14, 117.) The other story seems to have deemed it sufficient for the honour of Rome if the Gauls did not carry home the gains of their victory. It deposes as a witness to the unpalatable truth revealed by Polybius. On its authority Strabo relates of the Caeritians, that they defeated the Gauls on their return from Rome. and wrested from them the booty which they were carrying off (Strabo, 220.) Diodorus has also the story of a victory gained by this nation over the Gauls that were returning from Apulia ; he blends the two ac counts together.” (Niebuhr's Rom. Hist., vol. 2, p. 282, Walter's transl. Compare the remarks of Armold, Hist. of Rome, vol. 1, p. 547, seqq.) CAMIR Us, a town of the island of Rhodes, on the western coast. It derived its name from a son of Cercaphus, one of the Heliadae. We learn from Diodorus Siculus (5, 57), that Juno Telchinia was worshipped here. Pisander, the epic poet, was a native of Camirus. The place retains the name of Camiro. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 237.) CAMPRNIA, a district of Italy, below Latium, and for some time separated from it by the river Liris. All ancient writers who have treated of Italy bear witness to the frequent change of inhabitants which Campania has more particularly undergone in the course of its history. Attracted by the fertility of its soil, the beauty *Pio climate, and the commodiousness of its havens, successive invaders poured in and dispossessed each other, until the superior ascendency of '. left her the undisputed mistress of this garden of Italy. From these repeated contentions arose, as Strabo asserts, the fiction of the battle between the gods and giants in the Phlegraan plains. The true solution of this tradition, however, it may be observed in passing, refers itself to some early and tremendous volcanic eruption, since it would seem that there is a source of volcanic fire, at no great distance from the surface, in the whole of Southern Italy. (Consolations in Travel, p. 123, Am. ed.)—It is universally agreed that the first settlers in Campania with whom history makes us acquainted are the Oscans. (Antioch. Syrac. ap. Strab., 234—Plin., 3, 5.) Even when the Oscan name had disappeared from the rest of Italy, the Oscan language was retained by the inhabitants of Campania, though mingled with the dialects of the various tribes which successively obtained possession of that muchprized country. Of these, the next to be mentioned are the Tuscans, who are stated to have extended their dominion at an early period both to the north and south of that portion of Italy, which is considered as more properly belonging to them. When they had effected the conquest of Campania, that province became the seat of a particular empire, and received the federal form of a government, centred in twelve principal cities. (Strabo, 242. – Liv., 4, 37–Polyb., 2, 17.) Wealth and luxury, however, soon produced their usual effects on the conquerors of Campania, and they in their turn fell an easy prey to the attacks of the Samnites, and were to: to admit these hardy warriors to share with them the possession and enjoyment of these sunny plains. This observation, however, applies more particularly to Capua and its district, which was surprised by a Samnite force, A.U.C. 331. (Lat., 4, 44.) It is from this period that we must date the origin ofthe Campanian nation, which appears to have been thus composed of Oscans, Tuscans, Samnites, and Greeks, the latter having formed numerous colonies on these shores. About eighty years after, the Romans gladly seized the opportunity of adding so valuable a portion of Italy to their dominions, o: the pretence of defending the Campanians against their former enemies the Samnites. From this time Campania may be regarded as subject to Rome, if we except that short interval in which the brilliant successes of Hannibal withdrew its inhabitants from their allegiance; an offence which they were made to expiate by a punishment, the severity of which has few examples in the history, not of Rome only, but of nations. (Liv., 26, 14, seqq.) — The natural advantages of Campania, its genial climate and fertile soil, so rich in various productions, are a favourite theme with the Latin writers, and elicit from them many an eloquent and animated tribute of admiration. Pliny, in particular, styles it, “Felix illa Campania . . . . certamen humana voluptatis.” (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 143, seqq.) CAMPAspe, a beautiful female whom Alexander bestowed upon Apelles. (Wid. Apelles.) CAMPI, I. CANIN1, plains situate in the country of the Mesiates, in Cisalpine Gaul, whose territory corresponded to the modern Val di Musocco. (Amm. Marcell., 15, 10.)—II. DioMEDIs, the plains in Apulia on which the battle of Cannae was fought. (Sil. Ital., 8, 242.—Liv., 25, 11.—Strab., 283.)—III. LABorini, a name applied to the district between Cumae and Puteoli, now Terra di Lavoro. The modern name is probably derived from the ancient. (Plin., 3, 5.)— IV. Raudii. (Vid. Raudii Campi.)—V. TAURAsīNI, a name given to the territory of Taurasium, in Samnium. #. was defeated here by Dentatus. The name is often incorrectly given as Campi Arusini. (Flor., 1, 18.-Frontin., Strateg., 4, 1.—Oros., 4, 2.) CAMPUs MARTIus, a large plain at Rome, without the walls of the city, where the Roman youths performed their gymnastic exercises. Public assemblies were often held here, magistrates chosen, and here, too, audience was given to such ambassadors as the senate did not choose to admit within the city. The bodies of the dead were also burned here. The Campus Martius, as we learn from Livy (2,5), was land which belonged formerly to Tarquin, but which, being confiscated with the remaining property of that king after his expulsion, was dedicated to Mars. But Dionysius of Halicarnassus affirms (5, 13) that it had been consecrated before, but, having been seized by Tarquin, was recovered afterward by the people. And this account is more probable, as Festus quotes a law of Numa in which mention is made of the Campus Martius (s. v. Solitauril.), and Livy himself seems to allow the name to be as ancient as the reign of Ser

vius Tullius (1,44). In the Latin poets we generally find it designated under the simple name of Campus. The Campius Martius is the principal situation of modern Rome. In the reign of Augustus, when the city had extended itself far beyond the lines of Servius Tullius, a great part of the Campius Martius was enclosed and occupied by public buildings, more especially by the great works of Agrippa. A considerable expanse of meadow was left open, however, at that time, as we learn from Strabo (237), who has accurately described its situation and appearance. It was here that the Roman youths engaged in martial sports and exercises, while the neighbouring waters of the Tiber afforded them a salutary refreshment after their fatigue. Strabo also informs us, that the Campus Martius was surrounded by many porticoes and sumptuous buildings. These were principally the structures erected by Agrippa. In times posterior to the age of the geographer, we find that Nero constructed baths in this part of the city. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 436.) CANARIA, the largest of the cluster of islands called by the ancients Beata and Fortunata Insulae, and now Canary Islands. Pliny says, that this island derived its name from the number of very large-sized dogs which it contained, and that two of these were brought over to Africa for King John. (Plin., 6, 32. —Wud. Fortunatae Insulae.) CANDXce, a name given to the queen-mothers in Meroë, in AEthiopia. Some females of this name appear in history, but they seem to have been merely queen-regents, governing during the minority of their sons. Some ancient authors, however, state, that it was customary for the AEthiopians to be governed by queens called each by the name of Candace. (Compare Plin., 6, 29, but especially Eusebius, Hist, Eccl., 2, 1: kata Túrptov ibog iro Yvvaukës toū oth ovg eigéri vöv Baat?evouévov.) Suidas speaks of a Candace who was made prisoner by Alexander the Great; but this appears to be a mere fable.—A Candace, blind of one eye, made an irruption into Egypt during the reign of Augustus, B.C. 30. She took and pillaged several cities, but Petronius, the prefect of É. pursued her, penetrated into her dominions, which he pillaged in turn, until she restored the booty which *ś carried off from Egypt, and sued for peace. (Dio Cass., 54, 5.—Plin., 6, 29.) — Mention is also made in the sacred writings of a queen of Æthiopia named Candace. (Acts, 8, 27. — Consult Kuinoel, ad loc.) There is a gloss given by Alberti (Gloss. N. T., p. 213), in which it is said that the AEthiopians had no particular or individual name for their kings, but styled them all “sons of the Sun,” whereas the queen-mother they called Candace, as above. Now in the Lydian language Candaules was an appellation for Hercules, or the Sun. (Bahr, ad Herod., 1, 12.) Possibly, therefore, the word Candace, in the ancient AEthiopian, may be of cognate origin with Candaules in the Lydian tongue, the root being apparently the same, and may signify “a daughter of the Sun.” CANDAvia, a district" of Macedonia, bounded on the east by the Candavian mountains, supposed by some to be the same with the Cambunii }. of Livy, and the Canalurii Montes of Ptolemy. (Strab., 323. —Lucan, 6, 331.) CANdAULEs, a monarch of Lydia, the last of the Heraclidae, dethroned by Gyges at the instigation of his own queen. (Consult Herod., 1, 7, seqq.) His true name appears to have been Myrsilus, and the appellation of Candaules to have been assumed by him as a title of honour, this latter being, in the Lydian language, equivalent to Hercules, i.e., the Sun. (Bahr, ad Herod., 1, 12.) CANEphori (Kawnpäpot), a select number of virgins of honourable birth, who formed part of the procession in the festival called Dionysia, celebrated in honour of Bacchus. They carried small baskets of gold, containing fruit and various sacred and mysterious things. (Clem. Alex, Protr., p. 19.—Aristoph., Acharn., 241, seqq.) They wore around their necks a collar of dried figs. (Compare Aristoph., Lysistr., v. 647—Sainte-Croiz, Mystères du Paganisme, vol. 2, p. 87, with the note of De Sacy.) CAN1culāres dies, certain days in the summer, preceding and ensuing the heliacal rising of Canicula, or the dog-star, in the morning. The ancients believed that this star, rising with the sun, and joining his infiuence to the fire of that luminary, was the cause of the extraordinary heat which usually prevailed in that season; and accordingly they gave the name of dogdays to about six or eight weeks of the hottest part of summer. This idea originated with the Egyptians, and was borrowed from them by the Greeks. The Romans sacrificed a brown dog every year to Canicula, at its rising, to appease its rage. (Consult remarks under the article Sirius.) CANIDIA, a reputed sorceress at Rome, ridiculed by Horace. (Epod, 5.) CANINEFXtes, a people of Germania Superior, of common origin with the Batavi, and inhabiting the western part of the Insula Batavorum. The name is written differently in different authors. (Well. Paterc., 2, 105.—Plin., 4, 15.—Tacit., Hist., 4, 15.) CANINius Rebilus, C. a consul along with Julius Caesar. Q. Fabius Maximus, the regular colleague of Caesar in the consulship, died on the last day of his official year, in the morning, and Caesar caused Caninius to be elected in his stead, although only a few hours remained for enjoying the consulship. Caninius, therefore, was chosen consul at one o'clock P.M. on the 31st December, and held office until midnight, the end of the civil year, and commencement of the kalends of January. As we may suppose that the newlyappointed consul would hardly retire to rest before midnight, we can understand the jest which Cicero uttered on this occasion, that Rome had in Caninius a most vigilant consul, since he had never closed his eyes during the period of his consulship. This mode of conferring office was intended to conciliate friends, for the individual thus favoured enjoyed, after his brief continuance in office, all the rights and privileges, together with the honorary title, of a man of consular rank. (Cic., Ep. ad Fam., 7, 30.) CANNAE, a small village of Apulia, situate about five miles from Canusium, towards the sea, and at no great distance from the Aufidus. It was celebrated for the defeat of the Romans by Hannibal. Polybius tells us that, as a town, it was destroyed the year before the battle was fought, which took place May 21st, B.C. 216. The citadel, however, was preserved, and the circumstance of its occupation by Hannibal seems to have been regarded by the Romans of sufficient importance to cause them considerable uneasiness and annoyance. It commanded, indeed, all the adjacent country, and was the principal southern depôt of stores and provisions on which they had depended for the approaching campaign. The ěj writers, especially Polybius, use the name in the singukar, Kávva. There is an exception to this, however, in the 15th book, c. 7 and 11, where the plural form is used by the historian just mentioned.—The decisive victory at Canna, was owing to three combined causes: the excellent arrangements of Hannibal, the superiority of the Numidian horse, and the skilful manoeuvre of Hasdrubal in opposing only the light-armed cavalry against that of the Romans, while he employed the heavy horse, divided into small parties, in repeated attacks on different parts of the Roman rear. The Roman army contained 80,000 infantry and 6000 cavalry, the Carthaginians 40,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. Hannibal drew up his forces in the form of a conver crescent, having his centre thrown forward before the

wings. He commanded in the centre in person, and here he had purposely stationed his worst troops; the best were posted at the extremities of each wing, which would enable them to act with decisive advan, tage as bodies of reserve, they being, in fact, the rear of the other forces. Hasdrubal commanded the left wing, Hanno the right. On the Roman side, want of union between the two consuls, and want of spirit among the men, afforded a sure omen of the fortune of the day. AEmilius commanded the right, Varro the left wing ; the proconsuls Regulus and Servius, who had been consuls the preceding year, had charge of the centre. . What Hannibal foresaw took place. The charge of the Romans, and their immense superiority in numbers, at length broke his centre, which, giving way inward, his army now assumed the shape of a concave crescent. The Romans, in the ardour of pursuit, were carried so far as to be completely surrounded. Both flanks were assailed by the veterans of Hannibal, who were armed in the Roman manner; at the same time the cavalry of the Carthaginians attacked their rear, and the broken centre rallying, attacked them in front. The consequence was, that they were nearly all cut to pieces. The two proconsuls, together with AEmilius the consul, were slain. Varro escaped with 70 horse to Venusia. The Romans lost on the field of battle 70,000 men; and 10,000 who had not been present in the fight were made prisoners. The Carthaginian loss amounted to 5500 infantry and 200 cavalry. Such is the account of Polybius, whose statement of the fight is much clearer and more satisfactory than that of Livy. Hannibal has been censured for not marching immediately to Rome after the battle, in which city all was consternation. But a defence of his conduct may be found under the article Hannibal, which see. o 3, 113, et seqq.—Liv., 22, 44.—Flor., 2, 6–Plut., Vit. Hannib.) CANopicum (or CANobicum) ostium, the westernmost mouth of the Nile, twelve miles from Alexandrea. Near its termination is the lake Madie or Maadić (denoting, in Arabic, a passage), which is the remains of this branch. This lake has no communication with the Nile, except at the time of its greatest increase. It is merely a salt-water lagoon. The Canopic mouth was sometimes also called Naucraticum Ostium and Heracleoticum Ostrum. (Herod., 2, 17–Diod. Sic., 1, 33.—Plin., 5, 10.—Mela, 1, 9.) CANöpus (or CANöbus), a city of Egypt, about twelve miles northeast of Alexandrea, and a short distance to the west of the Ostium Canopicum. The Greek writers give the name as Canobus (Kūva,60c); the Latin, Canopus. The form Kävotrog occurs also in Scylax (p. 43), but the reference there is to the island formed by the mouth of the Nile in this quarter— Canopus was a very ancient city, and most probably of Egyptian origin, since we are informed by Diodorus Siculus (1, 33) that each mouth of the Nile was defended by a fortified city, and since the Icnian Greeks, who came first to this quarter, were only allowed originally to enter by this arm of the river. Whence the name of the place arose is unknown. It came, very likely, from the brilliant star Canobus, which one beholds, even in the southern regions of Asia Minor, on the edge of the horizon, but which was seen to rise in full splendour by a spectator on the coast of Egypt The Greek writers, however, not knowing any better derivation for the name, deduced it from that of the pilot of Menelaus, who was fabled to have been called Canopus, and to have died and been interred here. Herodotus makes no mention of this legend, but Scylax speaks of a monument in this quarter which Menelaus, as he informs us, erected here in memory of his pilot. Previous to the founding of Alexandria, Canobus must have been a very important place, since it formed the chief centre of communication between the interior of Egypt and other countries lying to the north. It sunk, however, in importance after Alexandrea was built, and merely retained some consequence from its temple and oracle of Serapis, which latter was consulted during the night, and gave intimations of the future to applicants while sleeping within the walls of the structure. The festivals, also, that were celebrated at this temple, drew large crowds of both sexes from the adjacent country, and exercised an injurious influence on the morals of all who took part in them. Canopus, in fact, was always regarded as a dissolute place, and, even after Alexandrea arose, it was much frequented by the inhabitants of the capital for purposes of enjoyment and pleasure, the temperature of the air and the situation of the city being spoken of in high terms by the ancient writers. (Amm. Marcell., 22, 16.) The festivals of Serapis ceased on the introduction of Christianity, and from that period history is silent respecting &n. The H. Savails found some traces of the ancient city a short distance to the west of the modern Aboukir. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 541, seqq.) CANTABRI, a warlike and ferocious people of Spain, who long resisted the Roman power. Their country answers to Biscay and part of Asturias. Augustus marched in person against them, anticipating an easy victory. The desperate resistance of the Cantabrians, however, induced him to retire to Tarraco, and leave the management of the war to his generals. They were finally reduced, but, rebelling soon after, were decreed to be sold as slaves. Most of them, however, preferred falling by their own hands. The final reduction of the Cantabri was effected by Agrippa, A.U.C. 734, after they had resisted the power of the Romans in various ways for more than two hundred years. (Lip., Epit., 48.—Flor., 4, 12.—Plin., 3, 2–Horat., Od., 3, 8, 22.) CANTIUM, a country in the southeastern extremity of Britain, now called Kent. The name is derived from the British word cant, signifying an angle or corner. (Consult Adelung, Gloss. Med. et Ins. Lat., vol. 2, p. 133, s. v. canto.) CANULEIA Lex, a law proposed by C. Canuleius, tribune of the commons, A.U.C. 310, and allowing of intermarriages between the patricians and plebeians. (Lir., 4, 1.) CANUsium, a town of Apulia, on the right bank of the Aufidus, and about twelve miles from its mouth. The origin of Camusium seems to belong to a period which reaches far beyond the records of Roman history, and of which we possess no memorials but what a fabulous tradition has conveyed to us. This tradition ascribes its foundation to Diomede, after the close of the Trojan war. Perhaps, however, we should see in Diomede one of those Pelasgic chiefs, who, in a very distant age, formed settlements in various parts of Italy. Canusium appears to have been in its earlier days a large and flourishing place. It is said by those who have traced the circuit of the walls from the remaining vestiges, that they must have embraced a circumference of sixteen miles. (Pratilli, Via Appia, 4, 13. — Romanelli, vol. 2, p. 265. — Compare Strabo, 28.) The splendid remains of antiquity, discovered among the ruins of Canosa, together with its coins, establish the fact of the Grecian origin of this place. Antiquaries dwell with rapture on the elegance and beauty of the Greek vases of Canosa, which, in point of size, numbers, and decorations, far surpass those discovered in the tombs of any other ancient city, not even excepting Nola. (Millingen, Peintures Antiques es Wases, &c.)—Horace alludes to the mixed dialect of Oscan and Greek, in the expression employed by him, “Canusini more bilinguis.” (Sat., 1, 10, 30.) —It is stated, that the small remnant of the Roman army, which escaped from the slaughter of Cannae, took refuge here. Livy records the generous treatment they experienced on that occasion from Busa, a

wealthy lady of this city (22, 52). Philostratus in. forms us (Wit. Sophist.), that Hadrian colonized this place, and procured for it a good supply of water, of which it stood much in need, as we know from Horace. (Sat., 1, 5, 90.) The same poet complains also of the grittiness of the bread. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 292.) CAPANEus, an Argive warrior, son of Hipponous. He was one of the seven leaders in the war against Thebes (rid. Adrastus), and is often alluded to by the ancient poets as remarkable for his daring and impiety. Having boasted that he would take the Theban city, in despite even of Jove, this deity struck him with a thunderbolt as he was in the act of ascending the ramparts. When his body was being consumed on the funeral pile, his wife É. threw herself upon it and perished amid the flames. AEsculapius was fabled to have restored Capaneus to life. (Apollod., 3, 6, 3. Id., 3, 6, 7. Id., 37, 2.—Id., 3, 10, 3. — AEsch, Sept. c. Theb., 427, seqq.—Heyne, ad Apollod., 3, 6, 3.) CAPELLA, I. (Marcianus Mincus Felix), a poet, born, according to Cassiodorus, at Madaura in Africa: he calls himself, however, at the end of this work, “the foster-child of the city of Elissa;” whether it be that he was born at Carthage, or else received his education there, which latter is the more probable opinion of the two. The MSS., however, give him the title of “the Carthaginian.” In process of time he attained to proconsular dignity, but whether he was a Christian or not is a matter of uncertainty. About the middle of the fifth century of our era he wrote at Rome a work bearing the appellation of Satura or Satyricon, divided into nine books. It is a species of encyclopedia, half prose and half verse, modelled after the Varronian satire. The first two books form a detached and separate work, entitled De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii, and treating of the apotheosis of Philology and her marriage with Mercury. We find in it, among other things, a description of heaven, which shows that the mystic notions of the Platonists of that day approximated in a very singular manner to the truths |Christianity. In the seven following books Capella treats of the seven sciences, which formed at that time the circle of human study, namely, grammar, logic, rhetoric, geometry, astrology, arithmetic, and music, which comprehends poetry. This work, written in a barbarous style, was introduced into the schools of the middle ages: hence it was frequently copied, and the text has become extremely corrupt. The best edition of Capella is that of Grotius, }*g. Bat., 1599, 8vo; although a good edition, in the strict sense of the term, is still a desideratum. The work of Grotius is generally regarded as a literary wonder, since he was only fourteen years old when he undertook the task of editing Capella, and published his edition at the age of fifteen. o was aided in it by his father, as iii.; informs us, and very probably also by Joseph Scaliger, who induced him to attempt the task. (Bahr, Gesch. Rom. Lit., vol. 1, p. 727, seqq.—Schöll, Hist. Lit. Rom., vol. 3, p. 98. — Walckenaer, in Biogr. Univ., vol. 7, |. 62.)—II. An elegiac poet, mentioned with eulogium by Ovid. (Pont., 4, 16, 36.) We have no remains of his productions. CAPENA, I. a gate of Rome, now the gate of S. Sebastian, in the southeast part of modern Rome. (Orid, Fast., 5, 192.)—II. A city of Etruria, southeast of Mount Soracte. It is frequently recorded, in the early annals of Rome, among those which opposed, though unsuccessfully, the gradual encroachments of its power. Great diversity of opinion has existed as to the modern site, but the conjecture of Galetti is now generally followed, which makes Capena to have stood at a place called Civitucula. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 1, p. 231.) &o. a king of Alba, who reigned twenty-six years. (Consult, however, the remarks under the article ALBA.) CAPHRReus, a lofty mountain and promontory at the southeastern extremity of Euboea, where Nauplius, king of the country, to avenge his son Palamedes, put to death through the false accusation brought against him by Ulysses, set a burning torch in the darkness of night, which caused the Greeks to be shipwrecked on the coast. It is now called Cape d'Oro, and, in the infancy of navigation, was reckoned very dangerous on account of the rocks and whirlpools on the coast. (Eurip., Troad., 88–1d., Hel., 1136. —Virg., AEm., 11, 260.-Ovid, Met., 14,481.-Propert., 4, 1, 115.) CAPiro, I, the uncle of Paterculus, who joined Agrippa against Cassius. (Well. Paterc., 2, 69.)— II. Fonteius, a Roman nobleman sent by Antony to settle his disputes with Augustus. (Horat., Serm., l, 5, 32.) Capitolings, I. a surname of Jupiter, from his temple on Mount Capitolinus.—II. A surname of M. Manlius, who, for his ambition in aspiring to sovereign power, was thrown down from the Tarpeian Rock, which he had so nobly defended.—III. Mons, one of the seven hills on which Rome was built, containing the citadel and fortress of the Capitol. Three ascents led to its summit from below. 1st. By the iO0 steps of the Tarpeian Rock, which was probably on the steepest side, where it overhangs the Tiber. (Compare Tacitus, Hist., 3, 71.—Lip., 5, 46.-Plut., Wit. Camill.) 2d. The Clivus Capitolinus, which began from the arch of Tiberius and the temple of Saturn, near the present hospital of the Consolazione, and led to the citadel by a winding path. (Ovid, Fast., 1, 261.) 3d. The Clivus Asyli, which, being less steep than the other two, was on that account the road by which the triumphant generals were borne in their cars to the Capitol. This ascent began at the arch of Septimius Severus, and from thence, winding to the left, passed near the ruined pillars of the temple of Concord, as it is commonly but improperly called, and from thence led to the Intermontium. The Capitoline Hill is said to have been previously called Saturnius, from the ancient city of Saturnia, of which it was the citadel. Afterward it was known by the name of Mons Tarpeius, and finally it obtained the appellation first mentioned, from the circumstance of a human head being discovered on its summit, in making the foundations of the temple of Jupiter. (Varro, L. L., 4, 8.) It was considered as forming two summits, which, though considerably depressed, are yet sufficiently apparent. That which looked to the south and the Tiber was the Tarpeian Rock or citadel; the other, which was properly the Capitol, faced the north and the Quirinal. The space which was left between these two elevations was known by the name of Intermontium.—IV. An appellation said to have been given to an individual named Petilius, who had been vernor of the Capitol. (Compare the scholiast on #. Sat., 1, 4, 94.) It is also related, that he was accused of having stolen, during his office, a golden crown, consecrated to Jupiter, and that, having pleaded his cause in person, he was acquitted by the judges, in order to gratify Augustus, with whom he was on friendly terms. One part, at least, of the story is incorrect, since the Capitolini were a branch of the Petilian family long before this time. (Compare Vaillant, Num. sam. Rom., vol. 2, p. 222.) What degree of credit is to be attached to the rest of the narrative is uncertain. (Consult Wieland, ad Horat, l.c.) — W. Julius, one of those later Roman historians, whose works form what has been termed “the Augustan History.” He lived during the reign of Dioclesian and Constantine the Great, and we have from him the lives of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Verus, Pertinax, Albinus, Macrinus, the two Maximins, the three Gordians,

Maximus, and Balbinus. He wrote other lives also which have not reached us. The greater part of his biographies are dedicated to Dioclesian and Constantine. His works show carelessness and want of proper arrangement. (Bahr, Gesch, Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p., 464–Moller, Dissert. de Julio Capitol., Altdorf, 1689, 4to.) CApitolium, a celebrated temple and citadel at Rome, on the Tarpeian Rock. The foundations were laid by Tarquinius Priscus, A.U.C. 139, B.C. 615. The walls were raised by his successor Servius Tullius, and Tarquinius Superbus finished it, A.U.C. 231, B.C. 533. It was not, however, consecrated until the third year after the expulsion of the kings. This ceremony was performed by the consul Horatius. It covered 8 acres, was 200 feet broad, and about 215 long. It consisted of three parts, a nave sacred to Jupiter, and two wings or aisles, the right sacred to Minerva, and the left to Juno. The ascent to it from the forum was by a hundred steps. The magnificence and richness of this temple are almost incredible. All the consuls successively made donations to the Capitol, and Augustus bestowed upon it at one time 2000 pounds weight of gold. The gilding of the whole arch of the temple of Jupiter, which was undertaken after the destruction of Carthage, cost, according to Plutarch, 21,000 talents. The gates of the temple were of brass, covered with large plates of gold. The inside of the temple was all of marble, and was adorned with vessels and shields of solid silver, with gilded chariots, &c. The Capitol was burned in the time of Sylla, A.U.C., 670, B.C., 84, through the negligence of those who kept it, and Sylla rebuilt it, but died before the dedication, which was performed by Q. Catulus, A.U.C. 675. It was again destroyed in the troubles under Vitellius, 19th December, A.D. 69; and Vespasian, who endeavoured to repair it, saw it again in ruins at his death. Domitian raised it again for the last time, and made it more grand and magnificent than any of his predecessors had, and spent 12,000 talents in gilding it.—The ordinary derivation of the term Capitolium is deservedly ridiculed by a modern tourist: “It was in digging the foundation of the tem. ple of Jupiter Capitolinus that a human head was found, according to Roman legends; and the augurs doclared this to be emblematical of future empire. The hill, in consequence, which had been originally called Saturnus, and then Tarpeius, was now denominated Capitolius (Caput Olu), because this head, it seems, belonged to somebody called Tolius or Olius, though how they knew the man's name from his scull I never could discover.” (Rome in the Nineteenth Century, vol. 1, p. 179.) Equally unfortunate is the etymology assigned by Nork, who deduces Capitolium from caput (Toi) Tróżewo, where tróżewo is the old form for Tóżewo, and which old form, in the process of time, dropped the T instead of the T 1 (Etymol. Handwort., vol. 1, p. 128.) CAPPADocíA, a country of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by Galatia and Pontus, west by Phrygia, east by the Euphrates, and south by Cilicia. Its eastern part was called Armenia Minor. The term Cappadocia, under the Persians, had a more extended meaning than in later geography: it comprised two satrapies, Cappadocia the greater and Cappadocia on the Pontus Euxinus. The first satrap of the greater Cappadocia was a member of the royal family of Persia, and a kind of hereditary succession seems to have prevailed, which the great king probably allowed, because he could not prevent it. The founder cf this dynasty was named Anaphus, and, according to Diodorus Siculus (ap. Phot., Cod., 244, p. 1157), was one of the seven conspirators who slew the false Smerdis Datames, the grandson of Anaphus, was the first regular sovereign of this Cappadocian dynasty; and after him and his son Ariamnes, we have a long list of

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