Obrazy na stronie

lion against the state. At Ariminum he met the fugitive tribunes, introduced them without delay to his army, and, working upon the feelings of the latter by a powerful harangue, soon made himself master of Italy without striking a blow, as Pompey, taken by surprise through the suddenness of Caesar's hostile operations, and destitute of troops to meet him, had left the city with the senators, consuls, and other magistrates. Levying an army thereupon, with the treasures of the state, Caesar hastened into Spain, which he reduced to submission, without coming to a pitched battle with Pompey's generals. He next conquered Massilia (Marseille), and then, returning to Rome, was appointed dictator by the praetor M. Aemilius Lepidus. Meanwhile Pompey had collected an army in the East, and his rival hastened to Epirus, with five legions, by land. After various operations, which our limits prevent us from detailing, the rival commanders met in the plain of Pharsalia, and Caesar gained a decided victory. Pompey, fleeing to Egypt, was basely murdered there, while his more fortunate antagonist, hastening likewise to the East, came just in time to give an honourable burial to the body of his opponent. After settling the differences between Ptolemy and his sister Cleopatra, Caesar marched against Pharmaces, king of Pontus, son of Mithradates the Great, and finished the war so rapidly as to have announced the result to his friends at home in those well-known words, “pent, ridi, vici” (“I have come, I have seen, I have conquered"), so descriptive of the celerity of his movements. Returning to Rome, after having thus composed the affairs of the East, Caesar granted an amnesty to all the followers of Pompey, and gained by his clemency a strong hold on the good feelings of the people. He had been appointed, meanwhile, consul for five years, dictator for a year, and tribune for life. When his dictatorship had expired, he caused himself to be chosen consul again, and, without changing the ancient forms of government, ruled with almost unlimited authority. Then came the campaign in Africa, where the friends of the republic had gathered under the standard of Cato and other leaders. Crossing over against them, Caesar engaged in several conflicts against these new antagonists, and at last completely defeated them at the battle of Thapsus. Fresh honours awaited him at Rome. The dictatorship was again bestowed on him for the space of ten years, he was appointed censor for life, and his statue was placed by that of Jupiter in the Capitol.—From the date of Caesar's return from Africa to the period of his assassination, there is an interval of somewhat less than two years, and even of this short time nine months were engrossed by the renewal of the war in Spain, which obliged him to leave Rome once more, and contend for the security of his power against the sons of Pompey at the point of the .# (Vid. Munda.) He enjoyed the sovereignty, therefore, which he had so dearly purchased, during little more than one single year; from the end of }. A.U.C. 707, to the middle of the winter, a period of between seven and eight months, owing to the reformation of the calendar which he introduced during this interval; and again from October, 708, to the Ides of March in the following spring. When Caesar again entered Rome after conquering the sons of Pompey, he was made perpetual dictator, and received the title of imperator with powers of sovereignty. The appellation also of “Father of his Country” was voted him; the month in which he was born, and which had till then been called Quintilis, was now named Julius (July), in honour of him; money was stamped with his image, and a guard of senators and citizens of equestrian rank was appointed for the security of his person. He was allowed also to wear, on all public festivals, the dress worn by victorious generals at their triumphs, and at all times to have a crown of laurel on his

head. He continued, meanwhile, to conciliate his enemies, and to heap favours on his friends. Largesses were also distributed among the populace, shows of various kinds were exhibited, and everything, in fact, was done to call off their attention from the utter prostration of their liberties which had so successfully been achieved. The gross and impious flattery of the senate now reached its height. The statues of Caesar were ordered to be carried, along with those of the gods, in the processions of the circus; temples and i. were dedicated to him, and priests were appointed to superintend his worship. These things he received with a vanity which affords a stri. king contrast to the contemptuous pride of Sylla. Caesar took a pleasure in every token of homage, and in contemplating with childish delight the gaudy honours with which he was invested. It was a part of the prize which he had coveted, and which he had committed so many crimes to gain; nor did the possession of real power seem to give him greater delight, than the enjoyment of these forced, and, therefore, worthless flatteries.—We now come to the closing scene, his assassination. Various causes seemed to hurry this event. Caesar had given offence to the senate by receiving them without rising from his seat when the

waited upon him to communicate the decrees o they had passed in honour of him. He had given equal offence to numbers in the state by assuming so openly not only the patronage of the ordinary offices, but the power of bestowing them in an unprecedented manner, in order to suit his own policy. On one occasion, too, as he was sitting in the rostra, Marc Antony offered him a royal diadem. He refused it, however, and his refusal drew shouts of applause from the people. The next morning his statues were adorned with diadems. The tribunes of the people took them off, and imprisoned the persons who had done the act, but they were deposed from their office by Caesar. These .other acts, that declared but too plainly the ambitious feelings of the man, and his hankering after the bauble of royalty, gave rise to a conspiracy, of which Caius Cassius was the prime mover. Caesar, having no suspicion of the danger which threatened him, was forming new projects. He resolved to subdue the Parthians, and then to conquer all Scythia from the Caucasus to Gaul. His friends gave out, that, according to the Sibylline books, the Parthians would be conquered only by a king, and the plan proposed therefore was, that Caesar should retain the title of dictator with regard to Italy, but should be saluted with that of king in all the conquered countries. For this purpose a meeting of the senate was appointed for the 15th (the Ides) of March; and this was the day fixed upon by the conspirators for the execution of their plot. Caesar, it is said, had been often warned by the augurs to beware of the Ides of March (Plut. in Vit., c. 63. —Sueton. in Vit., c. 81), and these predictions had probably wrought upon the mind of his wife Calpurnia, so that, on the night which preceded that dreaded day, her rest was broken by feverish dreams, and in the morning her impression of fear was so strong that she earnestly besought her husband not to stir from the house. He himself, we are told, felt a little unwell, and being thus more ready to be infected by superstitious fears, was inclined to comply with Calpurnia's wishes. His delay in attending the senate alarmed the conspirators; Decimus Brutus was sent to call on him, and, overcome by his persuasions, he proceeded to the Capitol. On his way thither, Artemidorus of Cnidus, a Greek sophist, who had been admitted into the houses of some of the conspirators, and had there become acquainted with some facts that excited his suspicions, approached him with a written statement of the information which he had obtained, and, putting itinto his hand, begged him to read it instantly, as it was of the last importance. Caesar, it is said, tried to look at it, but was prevented by the crowd that pressed around him as he passed along, and he still held it in his hand when he entered the senate-house. When Caesar had taken his seat, the conspirators gathered more closely around him, and L. Tillius Cimber approached him as if to offersome petition. Caesar seemed unwilling to grant it, and appeared impatient of further importunity, when Cimber took hold of his robe and pulled it down from his shoulders. This was the signal for attack. The dagger of Casca took the lead, when Caesar at first attempted to force his way through the circle that surrounded him. But when all the conspirators rushed upon him, and were so eager to share in his death that they wounded one another in the confusion of the moment; and when, moreover, he saw Junius Brutus among the number, Caesar drew his robe closely around him, and, having covered his face, fell withouta struggle or a groan. He received three-and-twenty wounds, and it was observed that the blood, as it streamed from them, bathed the pedestal of Pompey's statue. No sooner was the murder finished than Brutus, raising his gory dagger, turned round to the assembled senate, and calling on Cicero by name, congratulated him on the recovery of their country's liberty. But to preserve order was hopeless, and the senators fled in dismay. (For an account of the events immediately subsequent, cud. Antonius and Brutus.)—Caesar died in the 56th year of his age.—In his intellectual character he deserves the highest rank among the men of his age; as a general, moreover, it is needless to pronounce his eulogy. But if we turn from his intellectual to his moral physiognomy, the whole range of history can hardly furnish a picture of greater deformity. Besides being excessively addicted to gross sensualities, never did any man occasion so large an amount of human misery with so little provocation. In his campaigns in Gaul he is said to have destroyed one million of men in battle {Plut., Wit. Caes., c. 15. — Compare Plin., 7, 25), and to have made prisoners a million more, many of whom were destined to perish as gladiators, and all were torn from their country and reduced to slavery. The slaughter which he occasioned in the civil wars cannot be computed; nor can we estimate the degree of suffering caused in every part of the empire by his spoliations and confiscations, and by the various acts of oppression which he tolerated in his followers.-Was, then, his assassination a lawful act 1 Certainly not. The act of assassination is in itself so hateful, and involves in it so much of dissimulation and treachery, that, whatever allowance may be made for the perpetrators, when we consider the moral ignorance of the times in which they lived, their conduct must never be spoken of without open condemnation. (Encyc. Metropol., Div. 3, vol. 2, p. 156, seqq. Encyc. Amer., vol. 2, p. 379.)—As an historical writer Caesar has been compared to Xenophon. Simplicity is the characteristic of both, though in Caesar perhaps it borders on severity. We have from the pen of the Roman commander seven books of commentaries on the Gallic war, and three of the civil contest. His style is remarkable for clearness and ease, and its most distinguishing characteristic is its perfect equality of expression. It has been affirmed, by some critics, that Caesar did not write the three books of the civil war, and even that Suetonius was the author of the seven books on the Gallic war. But Vossius has vindicated Caesar's title to the authorship of the Commentaries as they stand in the editions, though he does not vouch for his accuracy or veracity on all occasions. The opinion that the extant commentaries are not Caesar's may possibly have arisen from a confusion of circumstances between two works. It is believed that he wrote Ephemerides, containing a journal of his life; but they are lost. Servius quotes them, as does also Plutarch. Frontinus likewise seems to refer to them, since he relates many of Caesar's stratagems not men

tioned in the commentaries, and must in all prolabil. ity have read them in the journal. (Malkin's Classical Disquisitions, p. 185, seqq.)—The question, when Caesar wrote his commentaries, has been frequently agitated. Guischard (Mem. Crit., 539) is in favour of the common opinion, that they were written shortly after the events themselves, 1. Because Cicero, in his Brutus, a work written before the civil war, speaks of the commentaries of Caesar. 2. Because, if Caesar had written his commentaries after the civil war was ended, there would not have been a lacuna after the sixth book, to be supplied by Hirtius. 3. Because Caesar had little leisure at his disposal after the civil war.—Casar wrote other books, especially one on the analogies of the Latin tongue. A few fragments remain, which do not impress us with a very high opinion of this performance. It was entitled }. Analogia, and was written, as we are informed by Suetonius, while Caesar was crossing the Alps, on his return to the army from Hither Gaul, where he had been to attend the assembly of that province. (Suet., Jul, 56.) In this book, the great principle established by him was, that the proper choice of words formed the foundation of eloquence (Cicero, Brut., 72); and he cautioned authors and public speakers to avoid as a rock every unusual word or unwonted expression. (Aul. Gell., 7, 9.)—There were also several useful and important works accomplished under the eye and direction of Caesar, such as the graphic survey of the whole Roman empire. Extensive as their conquests had been, the Romans hitherto had done almost nothing for geography, considered as a science. Their knowledge was confined to the countries they had subdued, and these they only regarded in the view of the levies they could furnish and the taxations they could endure. Caesar was the first who formed more exalted views. AEthicus, a writer of the fourth century, informs us, in the preface to his Cosmographia, that this great man obtained a senatus consultum, by which a geometrical survey and measurement of the whole Roman empire was committed to three geometers. Zenodoxus was charged with the eastern, Polycletus with the southern, and Theodotus with the northern provinces. Their scientific labour was immediately commenced, but was not completed till more than thirty years after the death of him with whom the undertaking had originated. The information which Caesar had received from the astronomer Sosigenes in Egypt, enabled him to alter and amend the Roman calendar. The computation he adopted has been explained by Scaliger and Gassendi, and it has been since maintained, with little farther alteration than that of the style introduced by Pope Gregory. When we consider the imperfections of all mathematical instruments in the time of Caesar, and the total want of telescopes, we cannot but view with admiration, not unmixed with astonishment, that comprehensive genius which, in the infancy of science, could surmount such difficulties, and arrange a system that experienced but a trifling derangement in the course of sixteen centuries.—Although Caesar wrote with his own hand only seven books of the Gallic campaigns, and the history of the civil wars till the death of his great rival, it seems highly probable that he revised the last or eighth book of the Č. war, and communicated information for the history of the Alexandrean and African expeditions, which are now usually published along with his own commentaries, and may be considered as their supplement or continuation. The author of these works, which nearly complete the interesting story of the campaigns of Caesar, was Aulus Hirtius, one of his most zealous followers and most confidential friends. The eighth book of the Gallic war contains the ac. count of the renewal of the contest by the states of Gaul after the surrender of Alesia, and of the different ba”les that ensued, at most of which Hirtius was per sonally present, till the final pacification, when Caesar, learning the designs which were forming against him at Rome, set out for Italy. Caesar, in the conclusion of the third book of the civil war, mentions the commencement of the Alexandrean. Hirtius was not ersonally present at the succeeding events of this gyptian contest, in which Caesar was involved with the generals of Ptolemy, nor during his rapid campaigns in Pontus against Pharnaces, and against the remains of the Pompeian party in Africa, where they had assembled under Scipio, and, being supported by Juba, still presented a formidable appearance. He collected, however, the leading events from the conversation of Caesar, and the officers who were engaged in these campaigns. He has obviously imitated the style of his master; and the resemblance which he has happily attained, has given an appearance of unity and consistence to the whole series of these well-written and authentic memoirs. It appears that Hirtius carried down the history even to the death of Caesar: for in his preface addressed to Balbus, he says that he had brought down what was left imperfect from the transactions at Alexandrea to the end, not of the civil dissensions, to a termination of which there was no prospect, but of the life of Caesar. This latter part, however, of the Commentaries of Hirtius, has been lost. It seems now to be generally acknowledged that he was not the author of the book De Bello Hispanico, which relates Caesar's second campaign in Spain, undertaken against young Cneius Pompey, who, having assembled, in the ulterior province of that country, those of his father's party who had survived the disasters in Thessaly and Africa, and being joined by some of the native states, presented a formidable resistance to the power of Caesar, till his hopes were terminated by the decisive battle of Munda. Dodwell, indeed, in his Dissertation De auctore Belli Galluci, &c., maintains, that it was originally written by Hirtius, but was interpolated by Julius Celsus, a Constantinopolitan writer of the sixth or seventh century. Vossius, however, whose opinion is the one more commonly received, attributes it to Caius Oppius, who wrote the Lives of Illustrious Captains, and also a book to prove that the Egyptian Caesarion was not the son of Caesar. (Dunlop's Roman Literature, vol. 2, p. 191, seqq.) The best editions of Caesar's Commentaries are, the magnificent one by Dr. Clarke, fol., Lond., 1712; that of Cambridge, with a Greek translation, 4to, 1727; that of Oudendorp, 2 vols. 4to, L. Bat., 1737; that of the Elzevirs, 8vo, L. Bat., 1635; that of Oberlinus, Lips., 1819, 8vo; and that of Achaintre and Lemaire, Paris, 4 vols. 8vo, 1819–22–II. The name Caesar became a title of honour for the Roman emperors, commencing with Augustus, and at a later period designated also the fo. heirs to the empire. (Vid. Augustus.)— II. The twelve Caesars, as they are styled in history, were Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius. Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian. These succeeded each other in the order which we have mentioned. The true line of the Caesars, however, terminated in Nero. CAEsARAugustA, a town of Hispania Tarraconensis, now Saragossa, so called from its founder, Augustus Caesar, by whom it was built on the banks of the river Iberus, on the site of the ancient city Subduba. It was the birthplace of the poet Prudentius. (Isidor., Hisp. Etymol., 15, 1–Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 428.) CAE's AREA, I. the principal city of Samaria, situate on the coast, and anciently called Turris Stratonis, “Strato's tower.” Who this Strato was is not clearly ascertained. In the preface to the Novels it is stated that he came from Greece and founded this place; an event which took place probably under the reign of Seleucus, the first king of Syria. The first inhabitants were Syrians and Greeks. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 20, 6.) It was subsequently made a magnificent city and

port by Herod, who called it Caesarea in honour of Augustus; and it now began to receive Jews among its inhabitants. Frequent contentions hence arose, in consequence of the diversity of faiths that prevailed within its walls. Here the Roman governor resided, and a Roman garrison was continually kept. Vespasian, after the Jewish war, settled a Roman colony in it, with the additional title of Colonia prima Flavia. (Ulpian, 1, de cens.) In later times it became the capital of Palaestina Prima. This city is frequently mentioned in the New Testament. Here King Agrippa was smitten, for neglecting to give God the praise when the people loaded him with flattery. Here Cor. nelius, the centurion, was baptized; and also Philip, the deacon, with his four daughters; and here Agabus, the prophet, foretold to Paul that he would be bound at Jerusalem. (Acts, 8, 10.) The modern name of the place is Kaisarieh. It was the birthplace of Eusebius—II. The capital of Mauritania Caesariensis, and a place of some note in the time of the Roman emperors. It was o called Iol, but was beautified at a subsequent period by Juba, who made it his residence, and changed its name to Caesarea, in honour of Augustus. This city was situate on the coast, to the west of Saldae, and, according to D'Anville, its remains are to be found at the modern harbour of Vacur. (Plin., 5, 2. — Mela, 1, 6. – Strab., 571.)—III. Ad Argaeum, the capital of Cappadocia, called by this name in the reign of Tiberius, previously Mazaca. It was situate at the foot of Mount Argaeus, as its name indicates, and was a place of great antiquity, its foundation having even been ascribed by some writers to Mesech, the son of Japhet. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 1, 6.) Philostorgius, however, says it was first called Maza, from Mosoch, a Cappadocian chief, and afterward Mazaca. (Strab., 530.) The modern name is Kansarieh. The city, as Strabo reports, was subject to great inconveniences, being ill supplied with water, and destitute of fortifications. The surrounding country was also unproductive, consisting of a dry, sandy plain, with several volcanic pits for the space of many stadia around the town. And yet it is worthy of remark, that in modern times, travellers are struck with the great quantity of vegetables offered for sale in the market of Kaisarieh, and it is said that there is no part of Asia Minor which surpasses the neighbourhood for the quality and variety of its fruits. (Kinneir's Travels, p. 103.—Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 118.)—IV. Philippi, a town on the northern confines of Palestine, in the district of Trachonitis, at the foot of Mount Paneus, and near the springs of the Jordan. It was also called Leshem, Laish, Dan, and Paneas. The name Paneas is supposed to have been given it by the Phoenicians. The appellation of Dan was given to it by the tribe of that name, because the portion assigned to them was “too little for them,” and they therefore “went up to fight against Leshem (or Laish, Judg., 18, 29), and took it,” calling it “Dan, after the name of Dan, their father.” (Josh., 19, 47.) Eusebius and Jerome distinguish Dan from Paneas as if they were different places, though near each other; but most writers consider them as one place, and even Jerome himself, on Ezek., 48, says, that Dan or Leshem was afterward called Paneas. Philip, the tetrarch, rebuilt it, or, at least, embellished and enlarged it, and named it Caesarea, in honour of the Emperor Tiberius; and afterward Agrippa, in compliment to Nero, called it Neronias. According to Burckhardt, the site is now called Banias. (Plin., 5, 15. Joseph., Ant. Jud. 18, 3. – Id., Bell. Jud., 1, 16. — Sozom., 3, 21.)—V. Insula, now the Isle of Jersey.

CAEs Arion, the reputed son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra. Plutarch calls him the son of Caesar, but Dio &oiu. (47,31), throws doubt on his paternity. He was put to death by Augustus. (Sueton., Wit. Jul., c. 52.—Id., Wit. Aug., 17.)

CAEskris ARAE, placed by Ptolemy near the Tanais, in what is now called the country of the Don Cossacks. They are supposed to have been erected in honour of some one of the Roman emperors by some neighbouring rince ; perhaps by Polemo, in the reign of Tiberius. ear the source of the Tanais Ptolemy places the Alexandra Arae, which see. (Strab., 493. Tacit., Ann., 12, 15. Dio Cass., 9, 8. — Mannert, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 159.) CAEsarodüNUM, now Tours, the capital of the Turones. (Amm. Marcell., 15, 28. — Greg. Turon., 10, 19.-Sulp. Sever., Dial. 3, 8.) CAEsArox Agus, I. now Beaurals, the capital of the Bellovaci. (Anton., Itin.)—II. A city of the Trinobantes in Britain, answering, as is thought, to what is now Chelmsford. It lay 28 miles north of Londinum. (Anton., Itin.) The Peutinger Table calls it Baroinacus. CAEs1A sylva, a forest in Germany, in the territory of the Istavones and Sicambri. It is supposed to correspond to the present forest of Heserwald. (Tacit., Ann., 1, 50.-Brotier, ad Tacit., l.c.) CAEso or KAEso, a Roman praenomen, peculiar to the Fabian family. Thus we have CAEso FAbius in Livy (2, 43), and CAEso QUINtius in the same writer (3,11). In ancient inscriptions it is more commonly written with an initial K.—The latter of the two individuals just mentioned was the son of L. Quintius Cincinnatus, and opposed the tribunes in their passage of the Lex Terentilla. He was brought to trial for this, and also for the crime of homicide that was alleged against him, but escaped death by going into voluntary exile. (Livy, 3, 11, seqq.) CAicINUs, a river of Italy in Brutium, near the Epizephyrian Locri, and at one time separating the territories of Locri and Rhegium. It is noticed by ancient writers for a natural phaenomenon which was observed to occur on its banks. It was said that the cicada on the Locrian side were always chirping and musical, while those on the opposite side were as constantly silent. The Caicinus is supposed by Romanelli to correspond to the Amendolea, which falls into the sea about ten miles to the west of Cape Spartivento. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 412.) CAIcus, I. a companion of Æneas. (Virg., AEn., 1, 187.)—II. A river of Mysia, falling into the AEgean Sea, opposite Lesbos. On its banks stood the city of Pergamus, and at its mouth the port of Elaea. It is supposed by some to be the present Girmasti. According to Mannert, however, its modern name is the Mandragorai. (Pliny, 5, 30. — Mela, 1, 18.—Virg., Georg., 4, 370–Ovid, Met., 15,277.) CAIETA, a town and harbour of Latium, southeast of the promontory of Circeii, which was said to have received its name from Caieta, the nurse of AEneas, who was buried there. (Virg., AEm., 7, 1.) This, however, is a mere fable, since Æneas never was in Italy. Equally objectionable is the etymology of Aurelius Victor, who derives the name from Kateuv, to burn, because the fleet of AEneas was burned here : as if the Trojans spoke Greek Strabo (233) furnishes the best explanation. It comes, according to him, from a Laconian term (kaidorra), denoting a hollow or cavity; in allusion, perhaps, to a receding of the shore. It is now Gaeta. The harbour of Caieta was considered one of the finest and most commodious in Italy. Cicero laments on one occasion that so noble a port should be subject to the depredations of pirates even in the open day. (Proleg. Man. — Compare Florus, 1, 16.)

CAius and CAIA, a praenomen very common at

Rome to both sexes. In this word, and also in Cneius,

the C must be pronounced like G. (Quintil., 1, 7.)

C, in its natural position, denoted the name of the

male, and when reversed, that of the female ; thus, C

was equivalent to CAIUS ; but O to CAIA. Female

praenomina, which were marked with an inverted capi. tal, were, however, early disused among the Romans. The custom after this was, in case there was only one daughter, to name her after the gens. If there were two, to distinguish them by major and minor added to their names; if there were more than two, they were distinguished by their number, Prima, Secunda, &c. Thus we have, in the first case, Tullia, the daughter of Cicero, Julia, the daughter of Caesar; and in the second, Cornelia Major, Cornelia Minor, &c. CALABER. Vid. Quintus II. CALABRIA, the part of Italy occupied by the ancient Calabri. It seems to have been that portion of the Iapygian peninsula extending from Brundisium to the city of Hydruntum, answering nearly to what is now called Terra di Lecce. Its name is supposed to have been derived from the Oriental “Kalab” or pitch, on account of the resin obtained from the pines of this country. It was also called Messapia and Iapygia. The poet Ennius was born here. The country was fertile, and produced a variety of fruits, much cattle, and excellent honey. (Virg., G., 3, 425. Horat, Od., 1, 31 ; Epod., 1, 27, 1.—Plan., 8,48.) CALAGURR1s. There were two cities of this name in ancient Spain, both of them in the territory of the Vascones. One was called Calagurris Fibularensis, the other Calagurris Nascica. The moderns are not yet decided which of these two cities answers to the present Calahorra and which to Loharre. It is generally thought that Calagurris Fibularensis is the modern Calahorra, but Marca is in favour of Loharre, and his opinion appears confirmed by Livy. (Petr. de Marca, 2, 28. — Liv., Fragm., lib. 91, ed. Bruns., p. 27.) CALA1s and Zetes. Vid. Zetes. CALAMIs, a very celebrated statuary, and engraver on silver, respecting whose birthplace, and the city in which he exercised his profession, ancient writers have given no information. The period when he flourished appears to have been very near that of Phidias. From the account given of his works by the ancient writers, he would seem to have been one of the most industrious artists of antiquity, for he executed statues of every description, in bronze, marble, and in gold blended with ivory. Cicero and Quintilian refer to his productions as not sufficiently refined, though superior in this respect to those of his predecessors. (Cic., Brut., 18, 70.—Quintil., 12, 10. — Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) CALANus, a celebrated Indian philosopher, one of the gymnosophists. He followed Alexander from India, and, becoming unwell when they had reached Persia, he desired to have his funeral pile erected. Having offered up his prayers, poured libations upon himself, and cut off part of his hair and thrown it into the fire, he ascended the pile, and moved not at the approach of the flames. Plutarch says, that, in taking leave of the Macedonians, he desired them to spend the day in merriment and drinking with their king, “for I shall see him,” said he, “in a little while at Babylon.” Alexander died in Babylon three months after this. Calanus was in his eighty-third year when he burned himself on the funeral pile. (Cic., de Div., 1, 23. — Arrian, et Plut. in Aler. AElian, W. H., 2, 41, 5, 6–Val. Mar., 1,8.) CalAUREA, an island in the Sinus Saronicus, opposite the harbour of Troezene in Argolis. It obtained its greatest celebrity from the death of Demosthenes Before that event, however, it was a place of great note and sanctity. Neptune was said to have received it from Apollo in exchange for Delos, agreeably to the advice of an oracle. (Ephor. ap. Strab., 374.) His temple was held in great veneration, and the sanctuary accounted an inviolable asylum. Seven confederate cities here held an assembly somewhat similar to the Amphictyonic council, and joined in solemn sacrifices to the god. Strabo names Hermione, Epidaurus, AEgina, Athens, Prasiae, Nauplia, and the Minyan Orchomenus. Argos subsequently represented Nauplia, and Sparta succeeded to Prasiae. (Strab., l. c.) In this sanctuary Demosthenes, who had rendered himself obnoxious to the Macedonian sovereign, took refuge when pursued by his satellites. Here he swallowed poison and terminated his existence. (Plut., Vit. Demosth.-Pausan., 2, 33.) A monument was raised to this great orator within its peribolus, and divine honours were paid to him by the Calaureams. According to Strabo, the island of Calaurea was four stadia from the shore, and thirty in circuit. It is now called Poro, or “the ford,” as the narrow channel by which it is separated from the mainland may, in calm weather, be passed on foot. The temple of Neptune was situated at some distance from the sea, on one of the highest summits of the island. Dodwell observes (Class. Tour, vol. 2, p. 276), that not a single column of this celebrated sanctuary is standing, nor is the smallest fragment to be seen among the ruins. CalchAs, a celebrated soothsayer, son of Thestor. He had received from Apollo the knowledge of future events; and the Greeks, accordingly, on their departure for the Trojan war, nominated him their highpriest and prophet. Among the interpretation of events imputed to him, it is said he predicted that Troy could not be taken without the aid of Achilles; and that, having observed a serpent, "...; a solemn sacrifice, glide from under an altar, ascend a tree, and devour nine young birds with their mother, and afterward become itself changed into stone, he inferred that the siege of Troy would last ten years. He also foretold that the Grecian fleet, which was at that same time detained by contrary winds in the harbour of Aulis, would not be able to sail until Agamemnon should have sacrificed his own daughter Iphigenia. Calchas also advised Agamemnon, during the pestilence by which Apollo desolated the Grecian camp, to restore Chryseis, as the only means of appeasing the god. He

was consulted, indeed, on every affair of importance,

and appears to have often determined, with Agamemnon and Ulysses, the import of the oracles which he expounded. His death is said to have happened as follows. After the taking of Troy, he accompanied

Asia. (Vitruv., l.c.) According to a modern author. ity, the same kind of bricks are made in Italy, “de una singolarissima specie di mattone.” (Fabron, Dissert., Venezia, 1797, 8vo.) CALEs, a city of Campania, to the south of Teanum, now Calvi. According to Livy (8, 16), it formerly belonged to the Ausones, but was conquered by the Romans, and colonized (A.U.C. 421). The Ager Calenus was much celebrated for its vineyards. (Wid. Falernum.) CALEtes, a Belgic tribe in Gaul, north of the mouth of the Sequana, and inhabiting the peninsula which that river makes with the sea. Their territory is now le pays de Cauz, forming a part of Normandy, in the department de la Seine-Inférieure. Their capita; was Juliobona, now Lillebonne. Strabo calls them Kažeroí, and hence, on D'Anville's Map of Ancient Gaul, they are named Caloti. Ptolemy, on the other hand, gives Kažňrec. They appear to have been ranked by Caesar among the Armoric states, if in one part of his Commentaries (B.G., 7, 75) we read Caletes for Cadetes. They could easily have been connected with the Armoric tribes by commercial relations and affinity, and yet have belonged, by their position, to the Belgic race. (Lemaire, Ind. Geogr. ad Caes., p. 220. —Op., vol. 4.) CaligüLA, Caius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, son of Germanicus and Agrippina, was born A.D. 12, in the camp, probably in Germany, and was brought up among the legions. (Sueton., Vit. Calig., 8.) Here he received from the soldiers the surname of Caligula, from his being arrayed, when quite young, like a common soldier, and wearing a little pair of caligae, a kind of shoe or covering for the feet used chiefly by the common soldiers. This was done in order to secure towards him the good-will of the troops. Caligula himself, however, disliked the appellation in after days, and preferred that of Caius Caesar, which is also his historical name. Upon his father's death he returned from Syria, and lived with his mother till her exile, when he removed to the residence of Livia Augusta, his great grandmother, whose funeral oration he delivered in public, while he still wore the praeterta. He afterward remained in the family of his grandmother Antonia until his twentieth year, when, being invited to Capreo by the emperor,

Amphilochus, son of Amphiaraus, to Colophonin Ionia. he assumed the dress proper to manhood, but with

It had been predicted that he should not die until he out the customary ceremonies.

In the court of his

found a prophet more skilful than himself: this he ex- grandfather, his naturally mean and vicious temper

perienced in the person of Mopus.

He was unable appeared in a servile compliance with the caprices of

to tell how many figs were on the branches of a cer- those in power, in a wanton love of cruelty towards tain fig-tree; and when Mopus mentioned the exact the unfortunate, and in the most abandoned and un: number, Calchas retired to the wood of Claros, sacred principled debauchery; so that, Tiberius observed

to Apollo, where he expired of grief and mortification. —Calchas had the patronymic of Thestorides. (Hom., Il., 1, 69, &c.—AEsch, Agam.—Eurip., Iphig.—Pausan., 1, 43.) CALEdoNIA, a country in the north of Britain, now called Scotland. The ancient Caledonia comprehended all those countries which lay to the north of the Forth and Clyde. It was never completely subdued by the Romans, though Agricola penetrated to the Tay, and Severus into the very heart of the country. The Caledonians are supposed to have derived their name from the Celtic words Gael Dun, implying “the Gael (Gauls) of the mountains,” i. e., “Highlanders.” These Gallic tribes were driven into Scotland, from Britain, by the conquests of the Belgic or Kimric race. (Compare Adelung's Mithridates, vol. 2, p. 78.) CALENTUM, a city of Spain, in the country of Baetica, supposed to correspond to the modern Cazalla. The ancient place was famed for making bricks of so much lightness that they floated upon the water. (Plin., 35, 49.—Vitrup., 2, 3.) This was also done at Massilia (Marseille) in Gaul, and at Pitane in

that he was breeding a second Phaethon for the destruction of the world. (Sueton., Cal., c. 10.) Tiberius had, by his testament, appointed his two grandsons, Caius Caesar and Tiberius Gemellus, the latter the son of Drusus, joint heirs of the empire. The first act of Caligula, however, was to assemble the senate for the purpose of declaring the invalidity of the will; and this being readily effected, and Tiberius Gemellus being declared too young to rule, Caius Caesar Caligula was immediately proclaimed emperor. This appointment was received with the most unbounded joy both at Rome and in ..". and the conduct of the new prince seemed at first to promise one of the most auspicious of reigns. But this was all dissimulation on his part; a dissimulation which he had learned under his wily predecessor; for Caligula esteemed it prudent to assume the appearance of moderation, liberality, and justice, till he should be firmly seated on the throne, and freed from all apprehension lest the claims of the young Tiberius might be revived on any offence having been taken by the senate. He interred, in the most honourable manner, the remains of his mother and of his brother Nero, set free all state

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