Obrazy na stronie

tum is said to have been given it on account of its unhealthy atmosphere. The more auspicious appellation of Beneventum was substituted when the Romans sent a colony thither (A.U.C. 483). Tradition ascribed the foundation of this city to Diomede (Solinus, c. 8. —Steph. Byz., s. v.), but other accounts would lead us to believe that it was first possessed by the Ausones. (Festus, s. v. Auson.) o: remained in the possession of the Romans during the whole of the second Punic war, and obtained the thanks of the senate for its firm attachment to the republic at that critical period. (Lat., 27, 10.) We subsequently hear of its being a second time colonized by the veteran soldiers of . Augustus, and also a third time under Nero. (Front. de Col.-Compare Tacitus, Annal., 15, 34.—Ptol., p. 66.) The account which Horace gives of the fare he there met with in his journey to Brundisium, will occur to every reader. #. was situated near the junction of the Sabatus and Calor, now Sabbato and Calore. Its position was a very important one, since here the main roads intersected each other from Latium into Southern Italy, and from Samnium into Campania. Under the Lombards Beneventum became the capital of a powerful dukedom. It abounds in remains of ancient sculpture above any other town in Italy. The most beautiful relic of former days, at this place, is the arch of Trajan, which forms one of the entrances into the city. Near Beneventum Pyrrhus was defeated by Dentatus, A.U.C. 479. It is now Bencrento. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 246.-Mannert, Geogr., vol. 9, pt. 1, p. 791, scqq.) BERecy NTIA, a surname of Cybele, from Mount Berecyntus in Phrygia, where she was particularly worshipped. (Stat., }. 4, 782–Virg., AEn., 9, 82.) §.y. a Phrygian tribe, celebrated by the poets in connexion with Cybele, so often styled “Berecynta Mater.” Pliny places the Berecyntian district on the borders of Caria, about the Glaucus and Maeander. (Plin., 5, 29) BEREcyNTUs, a mountain in Phrygia Major, on the banks of the river Sangarius. It was sacred to Cybele, who is hence styled Berecyntia Mater, “The Berecynthian mother.” (Serr., ad AEm., 9, 82.) BERENIce (less correctly BeroNice, a name common to several females of antiquity. It is of Greek origin, and means “victory-bringing,” or “bearer of victory,” the initial 3 being written, according to Macedonian usage, for the letter 9, or, in other words, Bepevikm being put for Pepevikm, just as the Macedonians said Bížurrog for p(Avitrog. (Maittarc, Dial., p. 184, ed. Sturz.) — The most remarkable of this name were the following: I, the granddaughter of Cassander, brother of Antipater. She married Philip, a Macedonian, probably one of the officers of Alexander, and became by him the mother of many children, among whom were Magas, king of Cyrene, and Antione, whom she married to Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. §. followed into Egypt Eurydice, daughter of Antipater, who returned to that country to rejoin her husband Ptolemy I. Berenice j this prince with so strong a passion that he put away Eurydice, although he had children by her, and married the former. He also gave the preference, in the succession to the throne, to her son Ptolemy, notwithstanding the better claims of his offspring by Eurydice. Berenice was remarkable for her beauty, and her portrait often appears on the medals of Ptolemy I., along with that of the latter. —II. Daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus and Arsinoë. She followed her mother into exile, and retired with her to the court of Magas, at Cyrene, who married Arsinoë, and adopted Berenice. This will serve to explain why Polybius and Justin make Berenice to have been the daughter of Magas, while Callimachus gives Ptolemy Philadelphus and Arsinoë as her parents. After the death of Magas, Arsinoë engaged her daughter in marriage to Demetrius, son of

Demetrius Poliorcetes; but, on the young prince's having come from Macedonia to Cyrene, she became attached to him herself. Demetrius, conducting himself insolently, was slain in a conspiracy, at the head of which was Berenice. The latter thereupon married her brother Ptolemy (Euergetes) III. A short time after the nuptials, ..". obliged to go on an expedition into Syria, and Berenice made a vow that she would consecrate her beautiful head of hair to Venus if her husband returned safe to Egypt. Upon his return she fulfilled her vow in the temple of Venus Zephyrites. On the following day, however, the hair was not to be found. As both the monarch and his queen were greatly disquieted at the loss, Conon the Samaritan, an eminent astronomer of the day, in order to conciliate the royal favour, declared that the locks of Berenice had been removed by divine interposition, and translated to the skies in the form of a constellation. Hence the cluster of stars near the tail of the Lion is called Coma Berenices (“Berenice's hair”). Callimachus wrote a piece on this subject, now lost, but a translation of which into Latin verse by Catullus has reached our time. (Catull., Carm., 66–Compare Hygin., Poet. Astron., 2, 24. —Doering, ad Catull., l.c.—Heyne, de genio sacculi Ptolematorum, Opusc., vol. 1, p. 177.) Berenice was put to death B.C. 216, by the orders of Ptolemy Philopator, her son.—III. A daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, given by him in marriage to Antiochus Theos, king of Syria, in order to cement a peace between the two countries. After the death of her father, Antiochus put her aside and recalled his former wife Laodice. This last, having taken of Antiochus by poison, sought to destroy Berenice also as well as her son. This son was surprised and carried off by an emissary of Laodice's, and shortly after put to death; and Berenice, in searching for him, was entrapped and slain, B C 246–IV. Called by some authors Cleopatra, was the only legitimate child of Ptolemy Lathurus, and ascended the throne after the death of her father, B.C. 81. Sylla, who was at that time dictator, compelled her to marry, and share her throne with, her cousin, who took the name of Ptolemy Alexander. She was poisoned by the latter only nineteen days after the marriage—V. Daughter of Ptolemy Auletes. The people ef Alexandrea having revolted against this prince, B.C. 58, drove him out, and placed upon the throne his two daughters, Tryphena and Berenice. The former died soon after, and Berenice was given in marriage to Seleucus, surnamed Cybiosactes. His personal deformity, however, and vicious character soon rendered him so odious to the queen, that she caused him to be strangled. Berenice then married Archelaus ; but, Ptolemy Auletes having been restored by Gabinius, the Roman commander, she was put to death by her own father, B.C. 55–VI. A native of Chios, and one of the wives of Mithradates or Pontus. On the overthrow of this monarch's power by Lucullus, Berenice, in obedience to an order from her husband, took poison along with his other wives, but this not proving effectual, she was strangled by the eunuch Bacchus, B.C. 71. — VII. Daughter of Agrippa I., king of Judaea, and born A.D. 28. She was at first affianced to Marcus, son of Alexander, but this young man having died, Agrippa gave her in marriage to his brother É. king of Chalcis, b

whom she became the mother of two sons, Berenicianus and Hyrcanus. Having lost her husband when she was at the age of twenty, she went to live with her brother Agrippa, a circumstance which gave rise to reports injurious to her character. To put an end to these rumours, she made proposals to Polemo, kin

of Cilicia, and offered to become his wife if he woul

embrace Judaism. Polemo consented, but she soon left him, and returned, in all probability, to her brother, for she was with the latter when St. Paul was arrested at Jerusalem, A.D. 63. The commerce between the guilty pair became now so public, that the rumour even reached Rome, and we find Juvenal alluding to the affair in one of his satires (6, 155). She followed Agrippa when he went to join Vespasian, whom Nero i. charged to reduce the Jews to obedience. A new scene now opened for her; she won the affections of Titus, and, at a subsequent period, when Wespasian was established on the throne, and Titus returned home after terminating the Jewish war, she accompanied him to Rome along with her brother Agrippa. At Rome she lived openly with Titus, and took up her abode in the imperial palace, as we learn from Dio Cassius, who states also that she was then in the flower of her age. Titus, it is said, intended even to acknowledge her as his wife; but he was compelled by the murmurs of his subjects to abandon this idea, and he sent her away from the city soon after his accession to the throne. Such, at least, is the account given by Suetonius (Tit., 7), who appears more entitled to belief than Dio Cassius, according to whom Titus sent Berenice away before his accession to the throne, and refused to receive her again, when she had returned to Rome a short time after the commencement of his reign. (Duo Cass., 66, 15 et 18.) —There is a great difficulty attending the history of this Berenice as regards her intimacy with Titus. She must, at least, have been forty-two years of age when she first became acquainted with the Roman prince, and fifty-one years old at the period of the celebrated scene which forms the subject of Racine's tragedy. Many are inclined to believe, therefore, that the Berenice to whom Titus was attached was the daughter of Mariamne and Archelaus, and, consequently, the niece of the Berenice of whom we have been speaking; she would be twenty-five years old when Titus came into Judea. (Clavuer, on Biogr. Unir., vol. 4, p. 241, seqq.)—VIII. A city of Egypt, on the coast of the Sinus Arabicus, from which a road was made across the intervening desert to Coptos on the Nile, by Ptolemy Philadelphus, 258 miles in length. From this harbour the vessels of Egypt took their departure for Arabia Felix and India. It was through the medium of Berenice also, and the caravan route to Coptos, that the principal trade of the Romans with India was conducted. By this line of communication, it is said that a sum not less than what would now be £400,000, was remitted by the Roman traders to their correspondents in the East, in payment of merchandise which ultimately sold for a hundred times as much. (Plin., 6, 23.−1d., 6, 29—Strab., 560–Agathemer., 2, 5.) The ruins of the ancient Berenice are found at the modern port of Habest. (Murray, Hist. Account, &c., vol. 2, p. 187.)—IX. A city of Cyrenaica, called also Hesperis. In its vicinity the ancients placed the gardens of the Hesperides. It is now Bengazi, a poor and filthy town. Few traces of the ancient city remain above ground, although much might be brought to light by excavation. “When we reflect,” remarks Captain Beechey, “that Berenice flourished under Justinian, and that its walls underwent a thorough repair in the reign of that emperor, it will be thought somewhat singular, that both the town and its walls should have disappeared so completely as they have done.” Of the latter, scarcely a vestige remains above the surface of the plain. (Modern Traveller, part 49, p. 98.) BERöE, I. an old woman of Epidaurus, nurse to Semele. Juno assumed her shape when she persuaded Semele not to receive the visits of Jupiter if he did not aro in the majesty of a god. (Ovid, Mct., 3, 278.)—II. The wife of Doryclus, whose form was assumed by Iris, at the instigation of Juno, when she advised the Trojan women to burn the fleet of Æneas in Sicily. (Virg., AEm., 5, 620.) Berde A or BERRHQEA, a large and populous city of Macedonia, south of Edessa. It was a place of great

antiquity, and is often mentioned by the early writers. Its situation, as is generally agreed, answers to that of the present Kara Veria. Some interesting circumstances respecting Beroea are to be found in the Acts of the Apostles (17, 11. — Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 232). BERJsus, a Babylonian historian, rendered much more famous by the mention of others than from anything which is known of his own performances. He was priest of the temple of Belus in the time of Alexander, and, having learned the Greek language from the Macedonians, he removed to Greece, and opened a school of astronomy and astrology in the island of Cos, where his productions acquired him great same with the Athenians. The ancients mention three books of his, relative to the history of the Chaldeans, of which Josephus and Eusebius have preserved fragments. As a priest of Belus, he possessed every advantage which the records of the temple, and the learning and traditions of the Chaldeans, could afford, and seems to have composed his work with a serious regard for truth. Annius of Viterbo published a work under the name of Berosus, which was soon discovered to be a forgery. (Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. viii., Praf.) BERYTUs (Berotha, Eccl., 47, 16. – Bmp,007, Joseph., Ant. Jud., 5, 1. — Berothai, 2 Sam., 8, 8), an ancient town of Phoenicia, about twenty-four miles south of Byblus, famous in the age of Justinian for the study of law, and styled by the emperor “the mother and nurse of the laws.” The civil law was taught there in Greek, as it was at Rome in Latin. It had also the name of Colonia Felix Julia, from Augustus Caesar, who made it a Roman colony, and named it in honour of his daughter. (Plin., 5, 20.) The modern appellation is Beirout. The adjacent plain is renowned as the place where St. George, the patron saint of o slew the dragon ; in memory of which, a small chapel was built upon the spot, dedicated at first to that Christian hero, but now changed to a mosque. It was frequently captured and recaptured during the crusades. It is now the seat of one of the most interesting missionary stations in the world, and possesses many important advantages for such a purpose. It is situated on the Mediterranean, at the foot of Mount Lebanon, within three days of Damascus, two days' sail of Cyprus, two from Tyre, and three from Tripoli. Its present population is about 10,000. (For interesting notices of this place, consult Jewett's Researches, vols. I and 2.-Life of Rep. Pliny Fisk.-Missionary Herald, &c.) BEsippo, a seaport town of Hispania Baetica, east of Junonis Promontorium, where Mela was born. Its ruins lie in the neighbourhood of the modern Porto Barbato. (Philos. Transact, vol. 30, p. 922.) The town of Wojcr de la Frontera, which many think represents the ancient Besippo (Hardouin, ad Plin., 3, 3), lies too far from the sea. (Ukert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 343.) Bessi, a people of Thrace, occupying a district called Bessica, between Mons Rhodope and the northcrn part of the Hebrus. The Bessi belonged to the powerful nation of the Satrae, the only Thracian tribe which had never been subjugated. (Herod., 7, 110.) According to Strabo (318), they were a very lawless and predatory race, and were not conquered finally till the reign of Augustus. (Dio Cass., 54.—Flor. 4, 12.) BEssus, a governor of Bactriana, who, after the battle of Aoi. seized Darius, his sovereign, with the intention of carrying him off prisoner to his satrapy; but, being hotly pursued by the Macedonians, he left the monarch wounded and dying in the way, and effected his own escape. Being subsequently delivered into the hands of Alexander, that monarch, according to one account (Justin, 12, 5), gave him up for punishment to the brother of Darius. (Compare Curt., 5, 12, seqq.—Id., 7, 5.) Plutarch, however, states, that Alexander himself punished the offender in the following manner; he caused two straight trees to be bent, and one of his legs to be made fast to each ; then suffering the trees to return to their former posture, his body was torn asunder by the violence of the recoil. (Plut., Wit. Aler.) Arrian makes AlexanČer to have caused his nostrils to be slit, the tips of his cars to be cut off, and the offender, after this, to have been sent to Ecbatana, and put to death in the sight of all the inhabitants of the capital of Media. (Arrian, Erp. Al., 4, 7.) B1RNor, a son of the river-god Tiber, and of Manto daughter of Tiresias. Servius makes him the founder of Mantua, and identical with Ocnus. (Serp. ad Virg., Eclog., 9, 60. —Id. ad En, 10, 198.) The allusion in Virgil's ninth Eclogue is thought to be to this same Bianor; but consult the remarks of Heyne, ad loc. BIAs, I. son of Amythaon and Idomene, was king of Argos, and brother to the famous soothsayer Melampus. (Wid. Melampus.)—II. One of the seven wise men of Greece. He was son of Teutamus, and was born at Priene, in Ionia, about 570 B.C. Bias was a practical philosopher, studied the laws of his country, and employed his knowledge in the service of his friends, defending them in the courts of justice, settling their disputes. He made a noble use of his wealth. His advice, that the Ionians should sly before the victorious Cyrus to Sardinia, was not followed, and the victory of the army of Cyrus confirmed the correctness of his opinion. The inhabitants of Pricne, when besieged by Mazares, resolved to abandon the city with their property. On this occasion Bias replied to one .#. fellow-citizens, who expressed his astonishment that he made no preparations for his departure, “1 carry crerything with me.” He remained in his native country, where he died at a very advanced age. His countrymen buried him with splendour, and honoured his memory. Some of his apophthegms are still preserved. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 4, p. 455. – Encyclop Americ., vol. 2, p. 89, scq.) Bib Act Les (M. Furius), a Latin poet, born at Cremona about 103 B.C. He appears to have composed a turgid poem entitled Æthiopis, on the legend, very probably, of the AEthiopian Memnon ; and also another on the mouths of the Rhine. This last is thought to have formed part of an epic poem on Caesar's wars in Gaul. (Burmann, Anthol. Lat., lib. 2, cp. 238.) Both works are lost, and we have only a couple of fragments remaining. (Bahr, Gesch. Röm. Lit., vol. 1, p. 124.) Horace (Serm., 2, 5, 40) ridicules a laughable verse of his, in which Jupiter is represented as spitting snow upon the Alps : “Jupiter habernas cana nure conspuct Alpes.” This line occurred in the beginning of a poem which he had composed on the Gallic war. Quintilian (10, 1, 96) enumerates Bibaculus among the Roman Iambic poets, and, in another part of his work (8, 6,18), gives this same line, citing it as an instance of harsh metaphor. It is surprising that the critic did not carry his censure farther than this, and therefore Spalding well remarks of the omission, “Debebat autem noster sordium quoque incusare hanc metaphoram.” To render his parody more severe, Horace substitutes Furius himself for the monarch of the skies, and, to prevent all mistake, applies to the former a laughable species of designation, drawn directly from his personal appearance, “pungun tentus omaso,” “distended with his fat paunch.” (Horat., l.c.) BibRActs, a large town of the AEdui in Gaul, upon the Arroux, one of the branches of the Ligeris or Loire. It was afterward called Augustodunum, and is now Autun. (Cars., B. G., 7, 55, &c.) Brbülus, a son of M. Calpurnius Bibulus, by Portia, Cato's daughter. He was Caesar's colleague in the *.* finding it impossible to thwart the 2

measures of the former, he retired from public affairs in a great degree, and during eight months (the pcriod that remained for his holding the consulship) contented himself with publishing edicts. This conduct placed his colleague in an odious light, and Caesar endeavoured, by means of the populace, whom he had excited for this purpose, to force Bibulus to leave his dwelling, and come forth and take an active part in public affairs. The attempt, however, proved unsuccessful. Bibulus was not very conspicuous for military talents. In the war between Caesar and Pompey, however, he had the chief command of the fleet of thc latter. He died at sea in the course of the civil contest. (Biogr. Unr., vol. 4, p. 463.) Bifross, a surname of Janus, because he was rep. resented with two faces. (Vid. Janus.) Billbilis, I. a city of the Celtiberi, in Hispania Tarraconensis, southeast of Numantia, and southwest of Nertobriga. It lay on the western bank of the river Bilbilis, and was a Roman municipium. The poet Martial was born here. Bilbilis was famed for the temper of the weapons manufactured in it. The ruins of the ancient city lie not far from the modern Calatayud, at a place called Bambola. (Plan., 34, 14– Mart., 10, 103. Id., 4, 55.) — II. A river of Hispania Tarraconensis, running by Bilbilis, in the country of the Celtiberi, and falling into the Iberus. It is now the Xalon. Its waters were famous for tempering iron. (Hicron., Paul. de Flum. Hisp.–Martial, 10, 103, ct ult.—Justin, 44, 8.) BIMRTER, a surname of Bacchus, which signifies that he had two mothers, because, when taken from his mother's womb, he was placed in the thigh of his father Jupiter. (Orid, Mct., 4, 12.) BINdicy, a town of Gaul, in Germania Prima, west of Moguntiacum. It lay upon the Rhine, and is now Bing cn. (Tacit., Hist., 4, 70.) BioN, I. a native of Borysthenes, of low extraction. When young, he was sold as a slave to an orator, who afterward gave him his freedom, and left him large possessions. Upon this he went to Athens, and applied himself to the study of philosophy. He had several preceptors; but chiefly attached himself to the doctrine of Theodorus, of the Cyrenaic sect, of which he was a professed advocate. He flourished about the 120th Olympiad. (Dog. Lacrt., 4, 46, seqq.)—II. An Athenian tragic poet, a son of Æschylus.--III. A Greek poet, born near Smyrna, in the district of Phlossa. He appears to have lived in Sicily, and to have died there of poison, as his pupil Moschus informs us in an elegy on his death. Some make him contemporary with Theocritus, while others suppose that he flourished a century liter, about 187 B.C. He is ranked, along with Moschus, among the bucolic poets, less on account of the subjects of his pieces, which are for the most part of a lyric or philosohpical character, than by reason of the manner in which he treats them. He is far inferior to Theocritus in simplicity and naïveté. His productions are in general too laboured; but in description he succeeds perfectly, and his writings are not wanting in elegance, and in correct and pleasing imagery. There are many good cditions of this poet's works, generally printed with those of Moschus, the best of which is that of Valckenaer, Lugd. Bat., 1810, 8vo, reprinted at Oxford in 1816, by Gaisford, in the Poeta Minores Graeci. Bisaite, a people of Macedonia, situate between the lake Bolbe and the Strymon. They were of Thracian origin. (Herodotus, 7, 115.) Theopompus, who is cited by Steph. Byz. (s. v. BlaaZría), affirmed, that almost all the hares in the country occupied by this people were found to have two livers. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 266.) BIs ANthe, a town on the Propontis, northwest of Perinthus. It was called also Roedestus, and is now Rodosto. (Herod., 7, 137.)

BistöNis, a lake of Thrace, near Abdera. It derived its name from the Bistones, who inhabited its shores, and held dominion over the surrounding district. (Herod., 7, 110.-Scymm., Ch., 673.)

Bithynia, a country of Asia Minor, bounded by the Euxine on the north, on the south by Phrygia and Galatia, on the east by Paphlagonia, and on the west by the Propontis and Mysia. One of the earlier names of this region, more particularly along the shores of the Propontis and Euxine, was Bebrycia, derived from the Bebryces, who are said to have been the primitive settlers in the land. Homer nowhere mentions the people of this country by the appellation of Bithynians, but invariably designates them as Mysians and Phrygians. (Il., 2,862.-Ib., 13, 792.—Strab., 565.) Strabo has also proved, that the Mysians not only occupied the shores of the Lake Ascanius and the plains of Nicata, but that they extended as far as Chalcedon and the Thracian Bosporus. (Strab., 566.) Though we cannot precisely fix the period at which the Bithyni settled in the fertile district to which they communicated their name, we can have no doubt as to the country whence they came, since the testimony of antiquity is unanimous in ascribing to them a Thracian origin. Herodotus, in particular, asserts that, according to their own traditions, they came from the banks of the Strymon, and, having been driven from their country by the Teucri and Mysi, crossed over into Asia. (Herod., 7, 75.) Thucydides also and Xenophon expressly style them ji. Thracians. (Thucyd., 4, 75 — Xen., Hist. Gr., 1, 3, 2. —Id. ib., 3, 2, 2.) Some geographers have noticed a distinction to be observed in regard to this people, namely, that the appellation of Bithyni was properly applicable to the inland population, while that of the coast took the name of Thyni. (Apollod. Rhod, 2, 462 —Fustath. ad Dionys. Perieg., 793. – Plun., 5, 32.) Dut, historically speaking, it is of little value.—The Bithynians, as Herodotus informs us (1, 28), were first subjected by Craesus. On the dissolution of the Lydian empire they passed under that of Persia, and their country became the seat of a satrapy sometimes known in history by the title of Dascylium, sometimes-of the Hellespont, but more commonly of Bithynia. The people lived principally in villages; the only considerable towns being situate on the coast, and inhabited by Greek colonists. This state of things lasted till the death of Alexander, who had taken military possession of the country after the defeat and expulsion of the Persians from the peninsula. On the decease of the King of Macedon, we find Botirus, the son of Dydalsus, a Thracian chief, seizing upon Astacus, a Greek town on the seacoast, and, after defeating Calantus, the officer who commanded the Grecian forces in that country, establishing an independent principality, which he transmitted, through his lineal descendants Bas and Xipoetes, to Nicomedes, son of the latter, who, after the death of Lysimachus, first assumed the title of King of Bithynia. He gave his name to the city of Astacus, which from henceforth was called Nicomedia, and became the capital of the new kingdom. (Memn. czccrpt, ap. Phot., p. 720, seq.—Pausan, 5, 12.) An account of the succession in this family will be found under the articles Nicomedes and Prusias. – Like other Asiatic sovereigns, the kings of Bithynia are said to have been sensual and effeminate. (Polyb., 37, 2–Cic., Verr., 5, 11.) The interior of the country was mountainous and woody (Xen., Anab., 6, 15. — Nicet., Chon, p. 128), but near the sea it was covered with rich and fertile plains, thickly spread with towns and villages. The produce consisted in grain of every sort; in wine, cheese, figs, and various kinds of wood. (Xen., Anab., 6, 4, 4.— Strab., 565. Plin., 11, 42.) The western portion of Bithynia has received from the Turks the name of Khodavendkhiar; and that situated

on the Euxine and around the Bosporus they call Ke. djali. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol.1, p. 167, scqq ) Bito N. Vid. Cleobis. Bituricum. Wid. Avaricum. Bituriges, a people of Gaul. There were two tribes of this name, the Bituriges Cubi and the Bitur#. Vivisci. The former were in Gallia Celtica, to the west of the Edui. Their capital was Avaricum, now Bourges. The Vivisci were in Aquitania, on the Atlantic coast, below the mouth of the Garumna. Their chief city was Burdigala, now Bordeaur. (Cas., B G , 8, 5, &c.—Lemaire, Inder Geograd Cas., s. c, p. 210, seq) BizYA, a city in Thrace, on the shores of the Euxine, above Halmydessus, and northwest of Byzantium. It is now Wyria. The poets fabled that it was shunned by swallows, on account of the crimes of Tereus. (Plin., 4, 11 — Solin., c. 10. — Orid, Mct., 6, 424, seqq.) BLANDUsíA, or, more properly, Bandusia, a fountain in the immediate vicinity of Horace's Sabine farm. It is supposed to be the modern Fonte Bello. (Compare the remarks of the commentators on Horace, Ode 3, 13, 1.) B1. AstophoeNices, a people of Lusitania. (Appian, de reb. Hisp., 6, 56.) U.e.: :::::::itains the identity of this people with the Bastuli Poeni. (Geogr., vol. 2, p. 309.) BLEMMYEs, a people of Æthiopia supra AEgyptum, dwelling, according to Strabo and Ptolemy, to the southeast of the Astaboras, towards the Sinus Avalites. They were fabled to be without heads, and to have the eyes and mouth placed in the breast. This fable is supposed to owe its origin to a custom prevailing among this people, of depressing their heads between their shoulders, which they forced upward, so that their necks became very short, and their heads were concealed partly by their shoulders, and partly by their long and thick hair. (Strab. 563.-Mela, 1, 4, 8– Plin., 5, 8.-Amm. Marcell., 14, 4.—Vopisc. in Prob., c. 17.-Procop., Bell. Pers., c. 19.-Claudian, Carm. de Nil., v. 19-Nonn. Dionys., 17, crtr.) BoADIceA. Wul. Boudicea. BoAgrius, a river of the Locri Epicnemidii, watering the town of Thronium. Strabo asserts that it was known likewise by the name of Manes, and was nothing more than a torrent, which was sometimes entirely dry, though occasionally it was swollen so as to be two plethra in breadth (Compare Lycophron, v. 1145.) Bocchus, a king of Getulia, in alliance with Rome, who perfidiously delivered Jugurtha to Sylla, the lieutenant of Marius. Many of the old editions of Sallust read Jugurtha filia Boccho nupserat (Jug Bell., 80), instead of Bocchi, &c., thereby making Bocchus to have been Jugurtha's son-in-law. The Abbé Brotier, relying upon this reading and some of Sylla's medals, proposes to substitute in Plutarch's life of Marius, where mention is made of Bocchus, the term “son-in-law” for “father-in-law ;” but M. Vauvilliers more judiciously contends, from six MSS. of Sallust, and in conformity with Florus (3, 1), for the expression “father-in-law” of Jugurtha. Bouchus obtained, as the reward of his lo. the western part of Numidia, which was afterward, in the reig, of Claudius, named Mauritania Caesariensis, now Fez. (Sallust, Jug.—Paterc., 2, 12.) Bonu AGNRTUs, a leader of the Nervii, when Casar made war against them. (Cas., B G , 2, 23 ) BoedroMix, an Athenian festival, sacred to Apello Patrous, and instituted in commemoration of the assistance which the people of Athens received in the reign of Erechtheus, from Ion, son of Xuthus, when their country was invaded by Eumolpus, son of Neptune. It was celebrated in the month Boedromion, which took its name from this circumstance. The appellation given to the festival is derived drö Toi flondpoueiv, from coming to help. (Etymol Mag., s. v.– Suid., s. v.–Callim., H. in Apoll., v. 69 –Plut, Thes., c. 27.—Wachsmuth, Hellen. Alt., vol. 4, p. 143.) Boedromion, the name of one of the Attic months. It was the third in the order of the Attic year, and corresponded nearly to our September. . It derived its name from the festival called Boedromia being celebrated during it. (Vid. Boedromia.) BoeotARchA, the chief magistrates in Boeotia. They presided in the national councils, and commandad the forces. They were, in later times at least, elected annually, and rigidly restricted to their term of office. Their number is supposed to have been originally fourteen, the primitive number of the confederate Boeotian states. It was afterward reduced, and underwent many variations. Thebes appears to have had the privilege of of two, one of whom was superior in authority to the rest, and probably acted as president of the board. (Thucyd., 2, 2–Id, 4,91 — Arnold, ad Thucyd., l.c.—Thurlwall's Hist. Gr., vol. 1, p. 434 —Lir., 42, 43.) Boeotia, a country of Greece Proper, lying to the northwest of Attica, and shut in by the chains of Helicon, Cithaeron, Parnassus, and, towards the sea, Ptous ; which mountains enclosed a large plain, constituting the chief part of the country. Numerous rivers, of which the Cephissus was the most important, descending from the heights, had probably stagnated for a long time, and formed lakes, of which the Copais was the largest . These same rivers appear to have formed the soil of Boeotia, which is among the most fruitful in Greece. Boeotia was also perhaps the most thickly settled part of Greece; for no other could show an equal number of important cities. This country, as we learn from the concurrent testimony of Strabo, Pausanias, and other ancient writers, was first occupied by several barbarous clans, under the various names of Aones, Ectenes, Temmices, and Hyantes. (Straho, 401.-Pausan., 9, 5.) To these succeeded, according to the common account, Cadmus and his followers, who, after expelling some of the indigenous tribes above mentioned, and conciliating others, founded a city, which became afterward so celebrated under the name of Thebes, and to which he gave the name of Cadmea. The descendants of Cadmus were compelled, subsequently, to evacuate Boeotia, after the capture of Thebes by the Epigoni, and to seek refuge in the country of the Illyrian onchelees. (Herodotus, 5, 61.-Pausanias, 9, 5.) They regained, however, possession of their former territory, but were once more expelled, as we learn from Strabo, by a numerous horde of Thracians and others. On this occasion, having withdrawn into Thessaly, they united themselves with the people of Arne, a district of that province, and for the first time assumed the name of Boeotians. (Strabo, 401.) After a lapse of some years, they were compelled to abandon #. !, when they once more succeeded in re-establishing themselves in their original abode, to which they now communicated the name of Boeotia. This event, according to Thucydides, occurred about sixty years after the capture of Troy; but, in order to reconcile this account with the statement of Homer, who distinctly names the Boeotians among the Grecian forces assembled at that memorable siege, the historian admits that a Boeotian division (dTodaguóc) had already settled in this province prior to the migration of the great body of the nation (1,12). The government of Boeotia remained under the monarchical form till the death of Xanthus, who sell in single combat with Melanthus the Messenian, when it was determined to adopt a republican constitution. This, though imperfectly known to us, appears to have been a compound of aristocratic and democratic principles, the former being apparent in the appointment of eleven annual magistrates named

Boeotarchs, who presided over the military as well as civil departments (Thucyd., 2, 2–1d., 4, 92.-Id., 5, 37); the latter in the establishment of four councils, which were possessed, in fact, of the sovereign authority, since all measures of importance were to be submitted to their deliberation. The general assembly of the Boeotian republic was held in the temple of the Itonian Minerva. (Pausan., 9, 34.) From the extent and population of their territory, the Boeotians might have placed the first part in Greece, if they had not been prevented } the bad government of the cities, by the jealousy of Thebes, and the consequent want of union. And yet the example of Epaminondas and Pelopidas afterward showed that the genius of two men could outweigh all these defects.-The Boeotians were regarded by their neighbours, the Athenians, as naturally a stupid race. Much of this, however, was wilful exaggeration, and must be ascribed to the national enmity, which seems to have existed from the earliest times between these two nations. Besides, this country produced, in fact, many illustrious men, such as Hesiod, Pindar, Plutarch, Epaminondas, Pelopidas, &c. In Boeotia, too, Mount Helicon was sacred to the Muses, to whom also many of the fountains and rivers of the country were consecrated.—The modern name of Boeotia is Stramulipa, in Liradia, which last comprehends within its soil. the ancient Baeotia, as one of its component parts—In Boeotia are several celebrated ancient battle-fields, the former glory of which has been increased by late events; namely, Plataea (now the village Kokla), where Pausanias and Aristides established the liberty of Greece by their victory over Mardonius; Leuctra (now the village Parapogna), where Epaminondas triumphed over i. Spartans; Coronea, where the Spartan Agesilaus defeated the Thebans; and Chaeronea, where Philip founded the Macedonian greatness on the ruins of Grecian freedom.—Near Tanagra, the birthplace of Corinna, the best wine was produced ; here also cocks were bred, of remarkable size, beauty, and courage, with which the Grecian cities, passionately fond of cock-fighting, were supplied. — The Boeotians were particularly fond of music, and excelled in it. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 189, scqq. Heeren's Politics of Anc. Greece, p. 32, Bancroft's transl. Encyclop. Americ., vol. 2, p. 151, scqq.) Boethius, Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus, a man celebrated for his virtues, services, honours, and tragical end. He was born about A D. 470, in Rome or Milan, of a rich, ancient, and respectable family; was educated in Rome, in a manner well calculated to develop his extraordinary abilities; afterward went to Athens, which was still the centre of taste and science, and studied philosophy under Proclus and others. Returning to Rome, he was graciously received by Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, then master of Italy, loaded with marks of favour and esteem, and soon raised to the first offices of the empire. He exerted the best influence on the administration of this monarch, so that the dominion of the Goths promoted the welfare and happiness of the people who were subject to them. He was long the oracle of his sovereign and the idol of the people. The highest honours were thought inadequate to reward his virtue and his services. But Theodoric, as he grew old, became irritable, jealous, and distrustful of those around him. The Goths now indulged in all sorts of oppression and extortion, while Boëthius exerted himself in vain to restrain them. He had already made many enemies by his strict integrity and vigilant justice. These at last succeeded in prejudicing the king against him, and rendering him suspicious of Boëthius. The opposition of Boëthius to their unjust measures was construed into a rebellious temper, and he was even accused of a treasonable correspondence with the court of Constantinople. He was arrested, imprisoned, and

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