Obrazy na stronie

or, as it is called by the natives, Birs Nemroud (“The hill of Nimrod”). “If any building,” says he, “may be supposed to have left any considerable traces, it is certainly the pyramid or tower of Belus ; which, by its form, dimensions, and the solidity of its construction, was well calculated to resist the ravages of time; and, if human force had not been employed, would in all probability have remained to the present day in nearly as perfect a state as the pyramids of Egypt. Even under the dilapidations which we know it to have undergone at a very early period, we might reasonably look for traces of it after every other vestige of Babylon had vanished from the face of the earth. The whole height of the Birs Nemroud above the plain, to the summit of the brick wall on its top, is 235 feet. The brick wall itself, which stands on the edge of the summit, and was undoubtedly the face of another stage, is 37 feet high. In the side of the pile, a little below the summit, is very clearly to be seen part of another brick wall, precisely resembling the fragment which crowns the summit, but which still encases and supports its part of the mound. This is clearly indicative of another stage, of greater extent. The masonry is infinitely superior to anything of the kind I have ever seen ; and, leaving out of the question any conjecture relative to the original destination of this ruin, the first impression made by the sight of it is, that it was a solid pile, composed in the interior of unburned brick, and perhaps earth or rubbish; that it was constructed in preceding stages, and faced with fine burned bricks, having inscriptions on them, laid in a very thin layer of lime cement; and that it was o violence to its present ruinous condition. The upper stories have been forcibly broken down, and fire has been employed as an instrument of destruction, though it is not easy to say precisely how or why. The facing of fine bricks has partly been removed, and partly covered by the falling down of the mass which it supported and kept together. The Birs Nemroud is in all likelihood at present pretty nearly in the state in which Alexander saw it; if we give any credit to the report that 10,000 men could only remove the rubbish, preparatory to repairing it, in two months. If indeed it required one half of that number to disencumber it, the state of dilapidation must have been complete. The immense masses of vitrified brick which are seen on the top of the mount, appear to have marked its summit since the time of its destruction. The rubbish about its base was probably in much greater quantities, the weather having dissipated much of it in the course of so many revolving ages; and possibly portions of the exterior facing of fine brick may have disappeared at different periods.” (Second Memoir on the Ruins of Babylon, p. 165, seqq., Lond., 1839.)—The account of Sir Robert Ker Porter is also exceedingly interesting.—As regards the opinion

enerally entertained, that all traces of the walls of

abylon had disappeared, it may be remarked, that Buckingham considers the hill or mound of Al Hheimar to be a portion of the ancient wall. This mound is about ten miles east of Hillah. It appears to consist of a solid mass of brickwork, and is of an oval form, its length being from north to south. It is from 80 to 100 feet thick at the bottom, and from 70 to 80 high. On the summit is a mass of solid wall, about 30 feet in length by 12 to 15 in thickness, bearing marks of being broken and incomplete on every side.—The bricks obtained from the ruins of Babylon are celebrated among antiquaries for the inscriptions stamped upon them. These inscriptions are in the cuneiform or Babylonian character: some four, and even seven lines. Grotefend, Burnouf, and Lassen have done much towards deciphering these. (Heeren, Ideen, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 325, seqq. Mansford's Script. Gazetteer, p. 58, seqq.)—II. A city of

Egypt, north of Memphis, supposed to hove been found. ed by the Persians during the reign of Cambyser. A quarter, retaining the name of Baboul cr Babilon, in the town of Old Cairo, marks its position. (Ptol., 4, 5–Strab., 555–Joseph., Ant. Jud., 2, 5.) Babylonia, a large province of Upper Asia, of which Babylon was the capital. It was bounded on the north by Mesopotamia and Assyria; on the west by Arabia Deserta; on the south by the Sinus Persicus; and on the east the Tigris. According to Ptolemy (5, 20), it co-prised Chaldea, Amordacia, and, at the most flourishing period, a part of Mesopotamia and Assyria. The modern name is Irak Arabi, or Babeli. Babylonia is a dry steppe or tableland, but enjoys a delightful climate. It was and still is one of the most fruitful lands in the world. Herodotus (+r-193) gives the following account of its fertility. & All the country about Babylon is, like Egypt, divided by frequent canals; of which the largest is navigable, and beginning, at the Euphrates, has a southeastern i; and falls into the river Tigris, on which the city of Nineveh formerly stood. No part of the known world produces so good wheat; but the vine, the olive, and the fig-tree, they do not even attempt to cultivate. Yet, in recompense, it abounds so much in corn, as to wield at all times two hundred fold, and even three hundred fold when it is most fruitful. Wheat and barley carry a blade full four digits in breadth; and though I well know to what a surprising height millet and sesame grow in those parts, I shall be silent in that particular; because I am well assured that what has already been related concerning other fruits, is far more credible to those who have never been at Babylon. They use no other oil than such as is drawn from sesame. The palm-tree grows over all the plain; and the greater part bears fruit, with which they make bread, wine, and honey;. The products are nearly the same now as they were in ancient times. The southwestern part of Babylonia was called Chaldea. In the more extensive sense of the word, Babylonia was the most important satrapy, of the Persian empire, and comprised both Assyria and Mopotamia. (Plin. 5, 12.-Ill., 6, 26.—Id., 18, 45–Strab., 358, &c.) Babyrsa, a fortified castle near Artaxata, where. were kept the treasures of Tigranes and Artabanus. (Strab., 364.) "... Bacchae, the priestesses of Bacchus. (Wid. Bacchantes.) Bacchanalia, festivals in honour of Baccho, at Rome, the same as the Dionysia of the Greeks (Wid. Dionysia.) \,, , , Bacchantes. The worship of Bacchus prevailed in almost all parts of Greece. Men and women joined in his festivals dressed in Asiatic robes and bonnets; their heads, wreathed with vine and ivy leaves, with fawnskins (vetpióec) flung over their shoulders, and thyło, or blunt spears twined with vine-leaves, in their hands, they ran through the country, shouting Io Bacch!! Euois Iacches &c., swinging their thyrsi, beatio on drums, and sounding various instruments. Ind cent emblems were carried in procession, and the ce emonies often assumed a most immoral character al tendency. The women, who bore a chief part in thes! frantic revels, were called Bacchae, Manades, Thyia, des, Euades, &c. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 216.) Bacchius and B1thus, two celebrated gladiators of equal age and strength, who, after conquering man competitors, engaged with each other and died of mu tual wounds; whence the proverb to express equality Bithus contra Bacchium. (Horat., Serm., 1, 7, 20. —Porphyrion, Schol, ad Horat., l.c.) t Bacchus, son of Jupiter and Semele daughter of Cadmus. Jupiter, enamoured of the beauty of Semele visited her in secret. Juno's jealousy took the alara, and, under the form of an old woman, she came to

Semele, and, by exciting doubts of the real character of her lover, induced her, when next he came, to exact a promise that he would visit her as he was wont to visit Juno An unwary promise was thus drawn from the god before he knew what he was required to perform; and he therefore entered the bower of Semele, with the lightning and thunder flaming, flashing, and roaring around him. Overcome with terror, Semele, who was now six months gone with child, expired in the flames, and Jupiter, taking the babe, thus prematurely born, sewed it up in his thigh In due time it came forth, and Jupiter, then naming it Bacchus (in Greek Dionysus), gave it to Mercury to convey to Ino, the sister of Semele, with directions to rear it. Juno, whose revenge was not yet satiated, caused Athamas, the husband of Ino, to go mad; and Jupiter, to save Bacchus from the machinations of his spouse, changed him into a kid, under which form W., conveyed him to the Nymphs of Nysa, by whom he was reared. When he grew up, he discovered the culture of the vine, and the mode of extracting its precious liquor; but Juno struck him with madness, and he roamed through great part of Asia. In Phrygia Rhea cured him, and taught him her religious rites, which he now resolved to introduce into Greece. While passing through Thrace, he was so furiously attacked by Lycurgus, a prince of that country, that he was obliged to take refuge with Thetis, in the sea. But he inflicted on the monarch severe retaliation. (Vid. Lycurgus.) When Bacchus reached Thebes, the women readily received the new rites, and ran wildly through the woods of Cithaeron. Pentheus, the ruler of Thebes, however, set himself against them; and Bacchus caused him to be torn to pieces by his mother and his aunts. He next proceeded to Attica, where he taught Icarius the culture of the vine. (Wud. Icarius, Erigone.) At Argos the rites of Bacchus were received, as at Thebes, by the women, and opposed by Perseus, son of Jupiter and Danaë. Jove, however, reduced his two sons to amity, and Bacchus thence passed over to Naxos, where he met Ariadne. On his way to this island he fell into the hands of Tyrrhenian pirates, who bound him with cords, intending to sell him as a slave. But the cords fell from his limbs, vines with clustering grapes spread over the sail, and ivy, laden with berries, ran up the masts and sides of the vessel. The god, thereupon assuming the form of a lion, seized the captain of the ship, and the terrified crew, to escape him, leaped into the sea and became dolphins. The pilot alone, who had taken the of Bacchus, remained on board; the god then declared to him who he was, and took him under his protection. The expedition of Bacchus into the East is also celebrated. In the Bacchae of Euripides the od describes himself as having gone through Lydia, hrygia, Persia, Bactria, Media, Arabia, and the coast of Asia, inhabited by-mingled Greeks and barbarians, diroughout all which he had established his dances and religious rites. India, in particular, was the scene of his conquests. He marched at the head of an army composed of both men and women, all inspired with divine fury, and armed with thyrsi, clashing cymbals, and other musical instruments, and uttering the wildest cries. His conquests were easy and without bloodshed ; the nations readily submitted, and the god taught them the use of the vine, the cultivation of the earth, and the art of making honey. Bacchus was also fabled to have assisted the gods in their wars against the giants, having assumed on that occasion the form of a lion. He afterward descended to Erebus, whence he brought his mother, whom he now named Thyone, and ascended with her to the abode of the gods. (Apollod., 3, 5, 3.—Diod. Suc., 3, 62.Id, 4, 25.—Horat., Od., 2, 19, 29.)—Like every other portion of the Grecian mythology, the history of the

prevalent. Thus, Diodorus gives us, probably from the cyclograph Dionysius, the following narrative. Ammon, a monarch of Libya, was married to Rhea, a daughter of Manus; but meeting, near the Ceraunian mountains, a beautiful maiden named Amalthea, he became enamoured of her. He made her mistress of the adjacent fruitful country, which, from its resembling a bull's horn in form, was named the Western horn, and then Amalthea's horn, which last name was afterward given to places similar to it in fertility. Amalthea here bore him a son, whom, fearing the jealousy of Rhea, he conveyed to a town named Nysa, situated not far from the Horn, in an island formed by the river Triton He committed the care of him to Nysa, one of the daughters of Aristasus, while Minerva was appointed to keep guard against the assaults of Rhea. This delicious isle, which was precipitous on all sides, with a single entrance, through a narrow glen thickly shaded with trees, is described in a similar manner with Panchaia and other happy retreats of the same nature. It had verdant meads, abundant springs, trees of every kind, flowers of all hues, and evermore resounded with the melody of birds. (Compare Milton, P. L., 4, 275, seqq.) After he grew up, Bacchus became a mighty conqueror, according to this legend, and a benefactor of mankind, by whom he was finally deified.—Though the adventures of Bacchus were occasionally the theme of poets, especially of the dramatists, they do not appear to have been narrated in continuity, like those of Hercules, until after the decline of Grecian poetry. It was in the fifth century of the Christian era that Nonnus, a native of Panopolis, in Egypt, made the history of Bacchus the subject of a poem, containing forty-eight books, the wildest and strangest that can well be conceived, more resembling the Ramayuna of India than anything to be found in ancient or modern occidental literature. It forms a vast repertory of Bacchic fable. (Wid. Nonnus.)—Bacchus was represented in a variety of modes and characters by the ancient artists. The Theban Bacchus appears with the delicate lineaments of a maiden rather than those of a young man; his whole air and gait are effeminate ; his long, flowing hair is, like that of Apollo, collected behind his head, wreathed with ivy or a fillet, he is either naked or wrapped in a large cloak, and the nebris, or fawn's skin, is sometimes flung over his shoulders; he carries a thyrsus, and a panther generally lies at his feet. In some monuments Bacchus appears bearded, in others horned (the Bacchus-Sebazius), whence in the mysteries he was identified with Osiris, and regarded as the Sun. For another legend relative to the horns with which he is depicted, consult the article Ammon. He is sometimes alone, at other times in company with Ariadne or the youth Ampelus. His triumph over the Indians is represented in great pomp. The captives are chained, and placed on wagons or elephants, and among them is carried a large crater full of wine. The god himself is in a chariot drawn by elephants or panthers, leaning on Ampelus, preceded by Pan, and followed by Silenus, the satyrs, and Maenades, on foot or on horseback, who make the air resound with their crics and the clash of their instruments. The Indian Bacchus is always bearded.—It is with reason that Sophocles styles Bacchus many named (Tožvovvuoc, Antig., 1115), for in the Orphic hymns alone we meet with upward of forty of his appellations. The etymology of the most common one, Bacchus, has been variously given; it appears, however, to be only another form for Iacchus. (Wid. Iacchus.) Some make it the same with Bugis, one of the names of the Hindu deity Schiva. (Keightley's Mythology, page 212, seqq.)— Modern writers are much divided in opinion respecting the origin of the worship of Bacchus, and many arguments have been urged in support of its having

of the subject, however, will lead, we think, to the con- oing back into Egypt, under the reign of Psammetichus,

viction that the religious system of this deity is of In

along with Milesian colonies, and enriched with im

dian origin. In order, however, to reach the soil of mense developments, what the Egyptian colonies had

Greece, it had to traverse other countries, Upper Asia, Phoenicia, Egypt, and Thrace; and, in its march, its

once carried into Greece; identifying itself with the Orphic doctrine ; but remaining always an object of

fabulous legends became enlarged and variously mod- suspicion and aversion, and contemned by the wise in

ified. It is impossible to deny the identity of Bac

the days of Xenophanes and Heraclitus, as it had been

chus with Osiris. The birth of Bacchus, drawn living a long time before proscribed by kings and rejected by from the womb of Semele, after she had perished be- communities. The fables of which Bacchus is made

neath the fires of Jove, and his strange translation to the thigh of the monarch of Olympus, bear the impress of Oriental imagery. When he escapes from his mother's womb, an ivy-branch springs forth from a column to cover him with its shade (Eurip., Phaen., 658, seqq), and the ivy was in Egypt the plant of Osiris. (Plut., de Is. et Os., p. 365-Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p 442.) In like manner, the coffin of the Egyptian deity is shaded by the plant erica, which springs suddenly from the ground and envelops it. (Plut., ibid) Bacchus and Osiris both float upon the waters in a chest or ark. They have both for their symbols the head of a bull; and hence Bacchus is styled Bougenes by Plutarch.-It is equally impossible not to recognise in Bacchus the Schiva of India, as well as the Lingam his symbol. (Compare Rhode, Religiöse Bildung, &c., der Hindus, vol. 2, p. 232.) If we wish to call etymology to our aid, we shall be struck with the resemblance which Dionysus (Atóvvooc), the Greek name of Bacchus, bears to Dionichi (Deva-Nicha), a surname of Schiva. (Langlès, Recherches Asiatiques, vol. 1, p. 278–Creuzer's Symbolik, par Guignaut, vol. 1, p. 148, in notis.) An analogy may also be traced between the Greek term umpóc, “thigh,” and the Indian Merou, the mountain of the gods. One of the symbols of Bacchus is an equilateral triangle; this is also one of Schiva's. The two systems of worship have the same obscenities, and the same emblems of the generative power. (Asiatic Researches, vol. 8, p. 50.) Schiva is represented, in the Hindu mythology, as assuming the form of a lion during the great battle of the gods. He seizes the monster that attacks him, and assails him with his teeth and fangs, while Dourga pierces him with his lance. The same exploit is attributed, in the Grecian mythology, to Bacchus, under the same form, against the giant Rhaetus. (Hor., Carm., 2, 19, 23.) The manner in which the worship of Bacchus came into Greece, probably by means of several successive migrations, through regions wildly remote, will ever remain an enigma of difficult solution. The Greeks, indeed, made Thebes the birthplace of this deity; but this proves nothing for the fact of his Grecian origin. Thebes, in Boeotia, was the centre of the CadmeanAsiatic mythology: a god, whose worship came to the rest of the Greeks out of Thebes, was for them a deity born in Thebes; and hence arose the legend of the Theban origin of Bacchus. (Buttmann's Mythologus, vol. 1, p. 5.) So, when the Greek mythology makes Bacchus to have gone on an expedition to Asia, and to have conquered India, it merely reverses the order of events, and describes, as the victorious progress of a Grecian deity, what was in reality the course which the religion of an Oriental deity took, from the East to the West. (Kanne, Mythologie der Griechen, § 31.) In the Anti-Symbolik of Voss (p. 65, seqq.), we have an excellent history of the introduction of the worship of Bacchus into Greece, and its progress in that country from the 20th to the 60th Olympiad. We find this worship making its first appearance in the mysteries of Samothrace; furnishing to the Ionion school Phoenician elements; enriching itself with ideas of Asiatic origin by means of the extension of commerce; mingling with the elements of Grecian

hilosophy in their very cradle; presenting Lydian and

the hero, the rites which these fables elucidated, rites

bearing at one time the impress of profound sadness, at another of frantic joy, and by turns bloody and licentious, mournful and frantic, never became part of the Grecian system of religion. Wherever they announced themselves, they excited only horror and dread. The sufferings and the destruction of various dynasties attach themselves to their frightful and sudden appearance. Agave rends in pieces her son Pentheus. Ino precipitates herself into the sea, with Melicertain her arms. The daughters of Minyas, becoming furious, commit horrible murder, and undergo a hideous metamorphosis. The language of the poets who relate to us these fearful traditions, is sombre and mysterious in its character, and bears evident marks of a sacerdotal origin. The philosophic Euripides, as well as Ovid, who expresses himself with so much lightness in ref. erence to other legends, appear, in describing the death of Pentheus, to partake of the sanguinary joy, the ferocious irony, and the fanaticism of the Bacchantes. One would feel tempted to say, that the sacerdotal spirit had triumphed over these incredulous poets, and that, after the lapse often centuries, the phrensy of the ancient orgies had affected their senses and troubled their reason. In the age of Homer these mournful recitals were either unknown or treated with disdain; for he speaks only once of Bacchus, on occasion of the victory which he gained over Lycurgus (Il., 6, 130.— Compare Od., 24, 74), and the scholiasts express their surprise, that the poet, after having thus placed Bacchus among the divinities of Olympus, makes him take no part in the subjects that divide them. The Grecian spirit, therefore, renounced, at an early period, every attempt to modify this so heterogeneous a conception. (Constal , de la Religion, vol. 2, p. 419, seqq.) BAcolylic s, a lyric poet of Ceos, nephew to Simonio'cs. I e flourished about 450 B.C., and was rearded as ine of the most celebrated poets of his day. a chylides shared with Pindar the favour of King I ero at the court of Syracuse. That his poetry was but an imitation of one branch of that of Simonides, c.stivated with great delicacy and finish, is proved by he opinion of ancient critics; among whom Dionysius adduces perfect correctness and uniform elegance as the characteristics of Bacchylides. His genius and art were chiefly devoted to the pleasures of private life, love, and wine; and, when compared with those of Simonides, appear marked by greater sensual grace and less moral elevation. Among the kinds of choral songs which he employed, besides those of which he had examples in Simonides and Pindar, we find erotic ones. The elaborate and brilliant execution which is peculiar to the school of Simonides, appears also in the productions of Bacchylides, especially in the beautiful fragment in praise of peace. The structure of Bacchylides' verses is generally very simple; nine tenths of his odes, to judge from the fragments, consisted of dactylic series and trochaic dipodias, as we see in those odes of Pindar, which were written in the Doric mode. We find in his poems trochaic verses of great elegance; as, for example, a fragment, preserved by Athenaeus, of a religious poem, in which the Dioscuri are invited to a feast. (Athen., 11, p. 500, b.) Bacchylides wrote in the Doric dialect. Many fragments of his pieces occur in Plutarch, Dionysius chylides are found in the collections of Neander, H. Stephens, Orsini, and Brunck. A more complete edition of them appeared in 1822, from the Berlin press, by C. F. Neue, in 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 287.-Mohnike, Lat. der Gr, und R., p. 336–Lit. Anc. Gr., c. 14, § 13, in Libr. Us. Knowl.) BAcéNis, a wood in Germany, generally supposed to be a part of the Hercynia Silva, and to have been situate in the vicinity of the Fulda, or Vol, which flows into the Visurgis. It separated the territories of the Catti from those of the Cherusci, and appears to be the same with the Buchonia of later writers. (Caes., B. G., 6, 10–Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 183,417.) BActra, the capital of Bactria, situate on the river Bactrus, a tributary of the Oxus. It is now Balkh, in the country of the Usbeck Tatars. It was likewise called Zariaspe and Zariaspa. (Plin., 6, 16.) This place has been a rendezvous of caravans from the remotest antiquity, and at this point it is probable that commerce united Eastern and Western Asia. To this place the natives of Little Thibet, which Herodotus and Ctesias call Northern India, brought the valuable woollens of their country, and likewise the gold which they procured from the great desert of Cobi. The tales which they told to the Western Asiatics of these wonderful regions might be a little exaggerated, or perverted through the medium of an interpreter. (Long's Anc. Geogr., p. 13.—Compare Heeren, Ideen, vol. 1, pt. 3, p. 408, seqq.)—On the origin of the Bactrians and their connexion with the great Zend race, consult the remarks of Rhode, in his Heilige Sage der Baktrer, &c., p. 60, seqq. BActri A and BActriXNA, a country of Asia, bounded by Aria on the west, the mountains of Paropamisus on the south, the Emodi Montes on the east ; and Sogdiana on the north Bactriana now belongs to the kingdom of the Afghans, or Caubulistan. Its proximity to Northern India, and the possession of a large river, the Oxus, with fertile lands, made it, in very remote ages, the centre of Asiatic commerce, and the point of union for all the natives of this vast continent. (Vid. Bactra.) It would seem also, in very early times, to have been the seat of a powerful empire long prior to that of the Medes or Persians. (Compare Bahr, ad Ctes., p. 93.)—This country became remarkable at a later age for the Greek kingdom which was founded in it. The Bactrian kingdom arose almost at the same time with the Parthian, B.C. 254; yet the mode of its origin was not only different (for it was here the Grecian governor himself, who made himself independent, and therefore had Grecians for his successors), but also the duration, which was much less. Solitary fragments of the history of this kingdom have only been preserved, and yet it seems at one time to have extended to the banks of the Ganges and the borders of China. The founder of this kingdom was Diodatus or Theodotus I. (B.C. 245), as he broke from the Syrian sway in the time of Antiochus II. He appears to have been master of Sogdiana as well as Bactria. He also threatened Parthia, but after his death (B.C. 243) his son and successor, Theodotus II., closed a peace and alliance with Arsaces II., but was deprived of his throne by Euthydemus of Magnesia, about B.C. 221. The attack of Antiochus the Great, after the termination of the Parthian war, was directed against him, but ended in a peace, in which Euthydemus, on giving up his elephants, retained his crown, and a marriage between his son Demetrius and a daughter of Antiochus was agreed upon. Demetrius, although he was a great conqueror, appears not to have been king of Bactria, but of Northern India and Malabar, of which countries the history is now closely connected with that of Bactria, although all the accounts are but fragmentary. To the throne of Bactria, Menander suc

boygian additions as a primitive basis; giving an oc- of Halicarnassus, Athenaeus, Clemens of Alexandrea, out. * to the public games at Olympia; carry- and particularly in Stobaeus. The fragments of Bac

metrius established his dominion in India, where, about this time (perhaps as a consequence of the expedition of Antiochus III., B.C. 205), there appear to have been several Greek states. Menander was followed, about B.C. 181, by Eucratidas, under whom the Bactrian kingdom acquired its greatest extent; for, after defeating the Indian king Demetrius, who had attacked him, he, with the assistance of the Parthian con. queror Mithradates (Arsaces VI.), took India from De, metrius and annexed it to the Bactrian kingdom, B.C. 148. He was, however, on his return, murdered by his son, who is probably the Eucratidas who is afterward named. This latter was the ally and chief adviser of the expedition of Demetrius II. of Syria against the Parthians, B.C. 142; and therefore, on the victorious resistance of Arsaces VI., robbed of a part of his ter. ritory, and soon after overpowered by the nomadic nations of Middle Asia; upon which the Bactrian kingdom became, as such, extinct, and Bactria itself, with the other countries on this side the Oxus, became a booty to the Parthians. (Compare Bayer, Historia regni Graecorum Bactriani, Petrop. 1738, 4to.—Heeren's Anc. History, p. 315, seqq., Bancroft's transl.) BActrus, a river of Bactria, running into the Oxus. It flowed by the capital Bactra, and is supposed to be the same with the modern Anderab. (Curt., 7, 4.— Polyan., Strat., 7, 11.) #. a river of Pannonia, in the immediate vicinity of Sirmium. It fell into the Savus or Sare. The modern name is Bosset or Bossut. (Plin., 3, 25.) BADIA, a town of Hispania Baetica, supposed to be the present Badajoz. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 1, p. 447–Cellarius, Geogr. Antiq., vol. 1, p. 67.) BADUHENNA. Lucus, a grove in the country of the Frisii, where 900 Romans were killed. (Tacit., Ann., 4, 73.) It is thought to have been situated in modern West Friesland. The name is supposed to be derived from that of the goddess Pada, and the modern name is given by some as Holt Pade. (Alting, Not. Batav. et Fris. Ant., vol. 1, p. 14.) BAEBIA LEx, I. was enacted for the election of six praetors and four during alternate years. (Lir., 40, 44.) —II. Another law by o Baebius, a tribune of the people, against largesses and bribery. (Non. Marcell., de propr. Serm., c. 7, n. 19, p. 749.-Lip., 40, 19.) BAetic A. Wid. Hispania. B.Etis, a river of Spain, from which a part of the country received the name of Baetica. (Vid. Hispania.) Its sources were surrounded by the chain of Mons Orospeda. At its mouth was the island of Tartessus, the name of which was anciently also applied to the river, previous to that of Bætis. (Strab., 148.) According to Steph. Byz., the natives called this river Perkes (TIApkmc); but according to Livy (28, 22), Certis. Bochart derives the name Baetis from the Punic Bitsi, “marshy.” So also Perkes is deduced by him from Berca, “a marsh,” in the same language. In illustration of these etymologies, he states that the Baetis forms marshes three times in its course. The appellation Certis, as found in Livy, he considers a mere corruption from Perkes. (Bochart, Geogr. Sacr., 1, 34.) Others, however, derive Certis from the Oriental Kuriath, “a town,” from the at number which it watered in its course. (Consult Oberlin., ad Vib. Sequest., p. 15.-Tzschucke, ad Mel, 3, 1, vol. 3, pt. 3, p. 15.) The modern name of the Batis is the Guadalquirer, which is a corruption from the Arabic Wadial-Kiber, or “the Great River.” (Plin., 3, 1.—Lucan, Phars, 2,589—Stat. Sylr., 7,34, &c.) BA61st XNus, a mountain of Media, southwest of Ecbatana, and sacred to Jupiter. Here Semiramic formed a park or garden of twelve stadia in circumference, and cut her image on the face of the rock. (Diod. Sic., 2, 13–Isid., Charac., p. 6.) Alexander is said to have visited the spot. (Diod. Sic., 17, 110.) rded by some as the source whence the Greek name #. is derived. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 5, pt. 2, . p. 165, seq.) BAGöAs, I. an Egyptian eunuch at the court of Artaxerxes Ochus, remarkable for his bravery and military talents. In concert with Memnon, he brought Egypt, which had revolted, under the Persian sway again. Ochus, however, having shocked his religious prejudices by his conduct towards the deified animals of #. Bagoas destroyed him (pid. Artaxerxes III.), and placed Arses, the monarch's youngest son, on the throne. He, however, soon destroyed this young prince also. He then called to the throne Darius Codomanus, whom he attempted to poison not long after. But Darius, discovering the artifice, made him drink the poison himself—It is believed that this is the same Bagoas who, during the reign of Ochus, entered the temple of Jerusalem, to avenge the brother of John, whom the latter had slain in the temple, as a competitor for the high priesthood. The name Baggas is said to be equivalent to “eunuch.” (Biogr., Univ., vol. 3, p. 216.)—II. A favourite eunuch of Alexander's. (Curt., 6, 5, 23–Plut., Wit. Aler., c. 67— Lemaire, ad Curt., l.c.) BAGRKDAs, a river of Africa, flowing between Utica and Carthage in former days, though at present their situation as regards it is materially altered. It makes encroachments on the sea like the Nile, and hence its ancient mouth is now circumscribed by mud, and become a large navigable pond. (Wid. Carthage and Utica.) The genuine form of the ancient name is thought to be found in Polybius, namely, Maxápac, Mákpag, or Múkap (Schweigh., ad Polyb., 1, 75, 5); and with this, in a measure, the Bovkapag of Strabo coincides. The origin of the name is to be traced to the Punic Macar, “Hercules,” so that Macaras will mean “the river of Hercules.” Gesenius condemns Bochart's derivation from Barca or Berca, “a marsh.” (Gesen, Monum. Phoen., p. 420.) . The modern name of the river is the Mejerda. (Ptol., 6, 4.) | BALE, a city of Campania, on a small bay west of Neapolis, and opposite Puteoli. It was originally a village, but the numerous advantages of its situation soon rendered it much frequented and famous. Its foundation is ascribed in mythology to Baius, one of the companions of Ulysses. The cause of the rapid increase of Baiae lay in the fruitfulness of the surrounding country, in the beauty of its own situation, in the rich supply of shell and other fish which the adjacent waters afforded, and, above all, in the hot mineral o flowed from the neighbouring mountains, and formed a chief source of attraction to invalids. (Compare Florus, 1, 16.—Plin., 31, 2.—Senec., Ep., 51–Josephus, Ant. Jud., 18, 14.—Cassiod., 9, ep. 6.) Baiae was first called Aquae Cumana. Numerous villas graced the surrounding country, and many were likewise built on artificial moles extending a great distance into the sea. It is now, owing to earthquakes and inundations of the sea, a mere waste compared with what it once was. The modern name is Baua. Many remains of ancient villas may be seen under the water. “The bay of Baiae,” observes Eustace, “is a semicircular recess, just opposite the harbour of Pozzuolo, and about three miles distant from it. It is lined with ruins, the remains of the villas and the baths of the Romans; some advance a considerable way out, and, though now under the waves, are easily distinguishable in fine weather. The taste for building in the waters and encroaching on the sea, to which Horace alludes, is exemplified in a very striking manner all along this coast.” (Classical Tour, vol. 2, p. 406.) The same traveller, in commenting on the insalubrity of Baiae at the present day, remarks as follows: “The present unwholesomeness of Baiae and its bay, if real, Inust ".genied partiy to the streams and sources

is an appellation of the Hindoo Schira, and is also re- once collected on the hills behind it in aqueducts and

reservoirs, now spreading and oozing down the declivities, and settling in the hollows below. In a warm climate all stagnant water becomes putrid during the hot months. (Vol. 3, p. 14, in notis.) BALA, a surname of Alexander, king of Syria. (Justin, 35, 1.) BALANEA, a town of Syria, north of Aradus, now Belnias. (Plin., 5, 20.) Balbisus, I. a Roman alluded to by Horace, who speaks of his singular taste in admiring a female named Agna, deformed by a polypus in the nostrils (Horat., Serm., 1, 3, 40.)—II. Decimus Caelius, a Roman, proclaimed emperor by the senate with Pupienus, on the death of the Gordians, A.D. 237. He was murdered by his own soldiers after a year's reign. (Jul., Capitol. in Gord—Herodian, 7, 10, 6, &c.) BALEKREs, a name applied anciently to the islands of Majorca and Minorca, off the coast of Spain. The name Baleares is of Greek origin, derived from 347Žeuv, “to throw” or “cast,” and it alludes to the remarkable skill of the inhabitants in using the sling. According to Florus (3, 8), this was their only weapon, and they were taught to use it from early boyhood, their daily food being withheld from the young until they had hit a certain mark pointed out to them. The same writer describes them as an uncivilized race, addicted to piratical habits. The Romans drew from these islands their best slingers. Each Balearian went to battle supplied with three slings. (Flor, l.c. —Id., 3, 22.—Lts., Epit., 60.) The Greeks also called these islands Gymnesia (I'vuvmata), either because, according to #. the inhabitants were Yvuvoi, naked, in summer, or because, according to Hesychius, they went to battle armed only with a sling, Yvuvâtec being used in Greek to denote lightarmed troops. By many, Ebusus, now Irica, is ranked with the Baleares, according to the authority of Vitruvius. The larger of these islands was called Balearis Major, hence Majorca, and the smaller Balearis Minor, hence Minorca. In the former was Palma, which still retains the name. In the latter was Portus Magonis, so called by the Carthaginians from Mago, one of their generals, now slightly corrupted into Port Mahon. (Strab., 450–Diod. Sic., 5, 17. —Pliny, 3, 5.) Q. Caecilius Metellus conquered these islands for the Romans, and hence obtained the surname of Balearicus. They were thereafter considered as forming part of Hispania Tarraconensis. (Flor., 3,8.) Balius, a horse of Achilles. (Hom., Il., 16, 146.) Wid. Achilles. BALNEA (baths) were very numerous at Rome, private as well as public. It was under Augustus that baths first began to assume an air of magnificence, and were called Thermat, or “hot baths,” although they also contained cold ones. An incredible number of these were built throughout the city. Authors reckon above 800, many of them built by the emperors with the greatest splendour. The chief were those of Agrippa, near the Pantheon, of Nero, of Titus, of Domitian, of Caracalla, Antoninus, Dioclesian, &c. Of these splendid vestiges still remain. The Romans began their bathing with hot water, and ended with cold. The cold bath was in great repute after Antonius Musa restored Augustus to health by its means, when he was attacked by a dangerous malady; but it fell into discredit after the death of the young Marcellus, which was occasioned by the very injudi

cious application of the same remedy. (Sueton., Aug.,

59.—Id. ib., 81.-Plin., 29, 1.—Dio Cass., 53, 30.) —In the magnificent Thermae erected by the emperors, not only were accommodations provided for humdreds of bathers at once, but spacious porticoes, rooms for athletic games and playing at ball, and halls for the public lectures of philosophers, for rhetoricians and

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