Obrazy na stronie

laid waste everything with fire and sword, and encountered the Roman forces in Syria. Macrinus had succeeded Caracalla. A bloody battle ensued, which lasted for two days. On the third day, a herald from the Romans announced the fact of Caracalla's being dead, and that Macrinus was his successor, and also roposed a treaty of peace between the two empires. he Romans accordingly restored the prisoners they had taken, paid the expenses of the war, and Artabanus returned to his capital. His prosperity, however, was of short duration. Ardshir Babegan, or Artaxerxes, excited the Persians to revolt, and Artabanus was defeated, taken prisoner, and put to death. With him ended the Parthian dynasty of the Arsacidae. The family itself, however, was not extinct in the person of Artabanus, but continued to reign in Armenia, as tributary to the new Persian dynasty, until the time of Justinian. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 540.) ARTABXzus, I. son of Pharnaces, commander of the Parthians and Chorasmians in the army of Xerxes. He escorted this monarch through Europe to Asia,

after the battle of Salamis, at the head of sixty thousand

men, and rejoined Mardonius before the battle of Plataea. He endeavoured to dissuade him from engaging in this conflict, but to no purpose; and, after the death of Mardonius, succeeded in retreating to Asia with the residue of his own forces, having obtained a safe passage through Thessaly by assuring the inhabitants that Mardonius had defeated the Greeks. (Herod., 7, 66

—Id., 8, 126.—Id., 9, 41–Id, 9, 89.)—II. A general of Artaxerxes Longimänus. He remained faithful to this prince as long as he reigned, and did everything

in his power to conquer Datames, who had revolted

against the king. He himself subsequently revolted against Ochus, but, after fleeing into Macedonia, was pardoned by that prince. He fought in the battle of Arbela, on the side of Dárius, and after the death of that prince surrendered himself to Alexander, who made him satrap of Bactriana. He had a large number of sons, to whom Alexander assigned governments. His daughters were married, one to Ptolemy, son of Lagus; another to Eumenes, of Cardia; and a third to Seleucus. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 542.) ARTKBRUM ProMontorium, a promontory on the northwestern coast of Spain, now Cape Finisterre, in Gallucia. It was sometimes called Celticum Promontorium (Plin., 4, 22), and also Nerium. (Strab., 106.) ARTAcosNA, the capital of Aria, now Herat, situate on the river Arius, now the Heri. (Arrian, 3, 25Strab., 350.) ARTAGERAs or ARTAGIceRTA, a town of Armenia Major, northeast of Amida, where Caius Caesar, a nephew of Augustus, was dangerously wounded by one Addruus. It is now probably Ardis. (Well. Paterc., 2, 103.) ARTApher Nes, I. a brother of Darius, and son of Hystaspes, governor of Sardis. (Herodot., 5, 25.)— II. A son of the preceding, whom Darius sent into Greece with Datis. He was conquered at the battle of Marathon by Miltiades. (Wid. Datis-Herod., 4, 153.−1d., 5, 55.) ARTAvaspes or Artap Rzus, king of Armenia, the son and successor of Tigranes, began to reign about 70 B.C. It was principally through his treacherous advice, as to the mode of entering Parthia, that Crassus failed in his expedition against that country. He was subsequently taken by Antony, to whom he had also acted a treacherous part in his Parthian expedition, who led him in triumph at Alexandrea. He was put to death, after the battle of Actium, by Cleopatra, who wished to obtain succours from the King of Media, and therefore sent him the head of Artavasdes, his enemy. The prince appears to have been a very well educated man. He wrote in Greek two historical works, some tragedies, discourses, &c. (Plut., Wit. Anton., c. 50, seqq.)

| ArtaxxtA, a strongly fortified town of Upper Ar. menia, the capital of the empire, built upon a plain which Hannibal recommended as a proper site for the | capital to King Artaxias. Near it ran the Araxes. It was burned by Corbulo, and rebuilt by Tiridates, who called it Neronea, in honour of Nero. It is now Ardesh. (Plun., 6, 9.-Flor., 3, 5.—Tacit., Ann., 13, 39, et 41.-Id. ab., 14, 23.−Id. ib., 15, 15.--Strab., 363.) | Artaxerxes, I. a name common to some of the kings of Persia, and the meaning of which will be considered at the close of this article. The first of the name succeeded his father Xerxes, who had been assassinated by Artabanus, . of the royal guards. After discovering and punishing the murderer of his father, and bringing to a close a war in Bactria, occasioned by the revolt of a satrap, he reduced to obedience the Egyptians, who had revolted under Inarus, and who had been aided by the Athenians. Though severe in the earlier part of his reign, he became conspicuous afterward for mildness and moderation. This Artaxerxes was called Makpółelp (Longimanus), from the extraordinary length of his arms, according to Strabo, which, on his standing straight, could reach his knces; but, according to Plutarch, because his right hand was longer than his left. He reigned thirty years, and died B.C. 425. (Ctes., Pers., c. 30, seqq., p. 71, seqq., cd, Bahr—Plut., Wit. Artar, int.)— II. The second of the name, was surnamed Mymptov (Mnemon), on account of his extraordinary memory. He was son of Darius the Second, by Parysatis, the daughter of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and had three brothers, Cyrus, Ostanes, and Oxathres. His name was Arsaces, which he changed into Artaxerxes when he ascended the throne. His brother Cyrus was of an ambitious disposition, and he resolved to make himself king in opposition to Artaxerxes. Parysatis always favoured Cyrus; and when he was accused by Tissaphernes of plotting against his brother, she obtained his pardon by her influence and entreaties. According to Xenophon (Anab., 1, 1), it was irritation against his brother for listening to this charge that induced Cyrus to revolt and aspire to the throne. Another reason, however, still more powerful in the eyes of an ambitious prince, would likewise appear to have urged him on to the step. Artaxerxes had been born before his father's accession to the empire, whereas Cyrus was born the son of a king, a distinction somewhat similar to that which had given Xerxes the throne. (Wid. Artabanus I.) Cyrus had been appointed by his brother satrap of Lydia, and had also the command assigned him of whatever forces the Dorian cities along the coast of Asia Minor might be required to send as auxiliaries to the Persian armies. (Consult Schneider, ad Xen., Anab., 1, 1.) Taking advantage of this, he assembled under various pretexts a numerous army, and at length marched against his brother at the head of one hundred thousand barbarians, and nearly thirteen thousand Greeks. Artaxerxes met him at Cunaxa with an army of nine hundred thousand barbarians, and a brief conflict ensued, in which Cyrus was killed. He was slain in the very moment of victory; for he had routed with his body-guard the guards of the king, while the Greeks were in full pursuit of that part of the king's army which had been opposed to them. The loss of the battle was owing partly to the rash impetuosity of Cyrus in charging the royal guards, and partly to the circumstance of the Greeks having pursued too far the barbarians opposed to them. Artaxerxes was wounded in the action by Cyrus's own hand, while Cyrus, on the other hand, was slain by Mithradates, a young Persian noble, and by a Carian soldier, having been wounded in succession by each. So anxious, however, was Artaxerxes to have it believed that he himself had slain the young prince, that both Mithradates and the Carian eventually lost their lives for boasting of the deed. After the battle of Cunaxa, the Greeks began their celebrated retreat, so graphic an account of which has been preserved for us in the pages of Xenophon. (Wid. Xenophon.) Artaxerxes was now peaceable possessor of the throne. Being irritated at the Lacedæmonians, who had embraced his brother's cause, he lent aid to Conon the Athenian admiral, and succeeded by his means in wresting from Sparta the dominion of the sea. He then furnished the necessary means for rebuilding the walls of Athens, and finally, by employing his gold in sowing dissensions among the Grecian states, he sorced Agesilaus to abandon the extensive conquests he had already made in the Persian dominions. The war at length was brought to a close by a memorable treaty, by which the Greek cities of Asia were abandoned to his sway. Artaxerxes was not successful in checking a revolt on the part of the Egyptians, nor was his march in person against the Cadusii, in Upper Asia, crowned with any happier result. He was governed entirely by his mother Parysatis, who, by studying his inclinations, had gained a complete ascendency over him. After having put to death Darius, his eldest son, for conspiring against him, he died at the advanced age of ninety-four years, bowed down by sorrow at the loss of two other sons whom Ochus, who reigned after him, had managed to cut off. According to Diodorus, he was on the throne forty-three years; but according to Eusebius and the Alexandrine Chronicle, forty years. Plutarch makes his reign sixty-two years, but this is an error of a transcriber. (Diod. Sic, 13, 104. — Clinton's Fast. Hell., vol. 1, p. 316, 323.)—III. The third of the name, called previously Ochus, and known in history as Artaxerxes Ochus, or simply Ochus, succeeded his father Mnemon. He commenced his reign with the massacre of his brothers, and of all who belonged to the royal family. Egypt was at this time in full revolt, Artaxerxes Mnemon having in vain attempted to reduce it, and Ochus continued the war by means of his generals. Learning, however, that the Egyptians indulged in railleries against his person, and, moreover, that Phoenicia and Cyprus had also rebelled, he put himself at the head of his armies, took Sidon through the treachery of Mentor, commander of the Greek mercenaries, and made an indiscriminate slaughter of the inhabitants. He then marched against Egypt, and reconquered it through the military talents of Bagoas. Once master of the country, he gave himself up to all manner of cruelty, destroyed the temples, insulted the Egyptian deities, and, to crown all, caused the sacred Apis to be killed, and his flesh served up for a repast. This conduct excited the indignation of Bagoas, who, being an Egyptian by birth, was, of course, strongly attached to the religion of his country. He concealed his angry feelings, however, until Ochus had returned to Persia, and resumed his indolent mode of life, giving up the reins of government entirely to Bagoas. The latter thereupon caused him to be poisoned, gave his body to be devoured by cats, and, to indicate his cruelty of disposition, had sabre handles made of his bones. Bagoas placed on the vacant throne Arses, the youngest son of Ochus, and put to death all the rest. Ochus reigned eleven years, not eighteen, as Manetho gives it. (AElian, V. H., 6, 8. — Justin, 10, 3.) — IV. A soldier of fortune, founder of the dynasty of the Sassanidae, and called by the Greek historians Artaxerxes. His true

name was Ardechir Babegan, and he was the son or

ndson of an individual named Sassan, who, though in very reduced circumstances, claimed descent from Artaxerxes Longimanus. He succeeded indethroning Artabanus, the last of the Arsacidae, and thus laid the foundation of the second or later Persian empire. Although a usurper, Artaxerxes appears to have had a peaceable reign, as far as the internal affairs of his kingdom were concerned. In his external relations he came in contact with the Emperor Severus, who de

feated him on his invading the Roman territory, and forced him to retreat. Artaxerxes was about to renew the war with fresh forces, when he died. To rare prudence and heroic courage he united a love of letters, and is said to have composed several works. He .g. fourteen or fifteen years, and left the throne to Sapor I.-W. A brother and successor of Sapor II. He died after a reign of four years, A.D. 384. — As regards the form Artorerres ('Aprošépêng), which sometimes occurs in editions, in place of the more common Artarerres, consult the remarks of Bahr (ad Ctes., p. 186, seqq.). The name Artaxerxes is supposed to have been Artachshast or Artachshasta in Persian, and to have been compounded of the Persian Art or Ard, “strong,” and the Zendic Khshetro, Khshered, or Khshetra, “a warrior.” Hence the appellation Artaxerxes will signify “a strong or mighty warrior.” (Compare Herodotus, 6, 98, 'Apraśćpšng, Héyag dpistoc.) Others write the Persian name thus, Ariahschetz, and make it equivalent to “a great king.” (Consult Bahr, ad Ctes., p. 187. Rosenmüller, Handbuch, &c., vol. 1, p. 373, n. 40–De Sacy, Mémoires sur diverse antiquités de la Perse, p. 100.) ARTAxias, the name of three kings of Armenia.I. The first reigned in the Upper or Greater Armenia, with the consent of Antiochus the Great. He gave an asylum to Hannibal at one time, and was also taken prisoner by Antiochus Epiphanes, but afterward regained his liberty.—II. The son of Artavasdes. He was killed by his own subjects, A.D. 20, and Tigranes chosen as his successor. (Tacit., Ann., 2.)—III. Surnamed Zeno, son of Polemon. He was proclaimed king of Armenia by Germanicus, in the place of Venones, who was expelled the throne. He died A.D. 35. (Tacit., Ann., 6, 31.) ARTEMIDörus, I. A philosopher of Cnidus, who, having been intrusted by his friend Brutus with the secret of the conspiracy set on foot against Caesar, presented to the latter a memorial containing an account of the whole affair. Caesar received it as he was going to the senatehouse, and put it with other papers which he held in his hand, thinking it to be of no material consequence. Had it been read by him, the whole plot would have been crushed. (Plut., Wit. Caes.) — II. A geographer of Ephesus, who flourished about 104 B.C. After having visited the coasts of the greater part of the Mediterranean, and having seen Gades and portions of the Atlantic shores, as also the Sinus Arabicus or Red Sea, he published a geographical work in eleven books, entitled Tewypapotueva. More than five centuries after this, Marcianus of Heraclea made an abridgment of it, a part of which is preserved. We have also remaining some other fragments of Artemidorus. Athenaus likewise cites his Ionic Memoirs, 'Iovukù intopluńuara. He is often referred to by Strabo, Pliny, and Stephanus of Byzantium. The remains of Artemidorus are given in the Minor Greek geographers by Hoeschel and Hudson, with the exception of one

fragment, giving a description of the Nile, which was

published for the first time by Berger in Aretin's Beytrage zur Gesch. und Lit., vol. 2, 1804 (May), p. 50.

—III. A native of Ephesus, who lived in the time of

the Antonines, and who was surnamed, for distinction from others, Daldianus, because his mother had been born in Daldis, a city of Lydia. He published, under the title of 'Oveupokpaturds, a work On the Interpretation of Dreams, in five books. It contains, all that the author had been able to collect during his travels

in Greece, Italy, and Asia, from those persons who,

in that superstitious age, had turned their attention to so futile and illusory a subject. The work, apart

from its main topic, contains some very interesting

information respecting ancient customs, and serves also to explain many symbols and allegorical objects connected with the sculpture of former times. It furnishes, moreover, some important aid in elucidating points of mythology. The style is marked by a certain degree of neatness, if not elegance. The best edition is that of Reiff, Leips., 1805, 2 vols. 8vo. — IV. A physician in the age of Hadrian. He is charged with having mutilated the works of Hippocrates. Not content with removing expressions that had fallen into disuse, and substituting others that were more intelligible in his own day, he is said also to have interpolated the text, and to have struck out, at the same time, whatever appeared to clash with the new matter thus brought in by him. (Vid. Hippocrates.—Galen, comm. in lib. de nat, hum., p. 4. — Sprengel, Hist. Med., vol. 1, p. 294.)—V. A painter, whose country is uncertain. He flourished towards the end of the first century of our era, and is referred to by Martial (Ep., 5, 40), who censures him, because, in painting Venus, he did not give that soft gracefulness to her person which other artists had done, but rather a degree of the austere dignity of Minerva. (Sillig, Dict. Art., s. r.) ARTÉMis ("Apreuc), the Greek name of Diana. From a curious passage in Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom., 1, p. 384, Pott), it would appear, that the goddess was called Artemis because of Phrygian origin (opuytav re ovaav, kek2.jathat "Apreuv). ence Jablonski concludes, that the name itself is a Phrygian one, and he compares it with the royal appellation Artemas, as given in Xenophon to a king of Phrygia. (Cyrop, 2, 1, 5.) It is very probable, that the primitive root of the term Artemis is to be traced to the Persian tongue (Arta, Arte, Art, Ar, all signifying “great,” or “excellent”), and thus Artemis or Diana becomes identical with the “great” mother of Nature, even as she was worshipped at Ephesus. As a collateral confirmation of this etymology, we may state, that the Persians, according to Herodotus (7,61), originally called themselves Artari ('Apraiot), which Hellanicus makes equivalent to the Greek hpweg, “heroes,” i. e., great, strong, powerful. (Hellan, Fragm., p. 97. Sturz. Id., ap. Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Apraia.) Other derivations of the name Artemis are not so satisfactory. Sickler, for example, deduces it from the Semitic Ar, “a foe,” and tama, “impurity,” as indicating the foe of what is unchaste, gloomy, or obscure. (Cadmus, p. x.c.) Welcker, on the other hand, regards it as an epithet of the same nature with Opis and Nemesis, and says that it is dipt-05utc. (Schwenck, Etymol. Mythol. Andeut., p. 263.) Plato, in his Cratylus, derives "Apreutz from dpreußc, “whole,” “uninjured,” and, therefore, “sound” and “pure,” as referring to the virgin purity of the goddess. This is about as correct as the rest of Plato's attempts at etymology. (Cratyl., p. 50–0p., ed. Bekk., vol. 4, p. 248.-Consult Crcuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 190.) ArtEMiss A, I. daughter of Lygdamis of Halicarnassus, reigned over Halicarnassus, and also over Cos and other adjacent islands. She joined the fleet of Xerxes, when he invaded Greece, with five vessels, the best equipped of the whole fleet after those of the Sidonians; and she displayed so much valour and skill at the battle of Salamis, as to elicit from Xerxes the well-known remark, that the men had acted like women in the fight, and the women like men. The Athenians, indignant that a female should appear in arms against them, offered a reward of 10,000 drachmae to any one who should take her prisoner. She, however, escaped after the action. (Herod., 7, 99.-Id, 8, 88. —Id., 8, 93.) If we are to believe Ptolemy Hephaestion, a writer who mixed up many fables with some truth, Artemisia subsequently conceived an attachment for a youth of Abydos, named Dardanus; but, not . a return for her passion, she put out his eyes while he slept, and then threw herself down from the lover's leap at the Promontory of Leucate. (Ptol. Hephæst, ap. Phot, Cod., 190, p. 153, Bekker.)—II. Another queen of Caria, not to be confounded with the

preceding. She was the daughter of Hecatomnus, king of Caria, and married her brother Mausolus, a species of union sanctioned by the customs of the country. She lost her husband, who was remarkable for personal beauty, B.C. 365, and she became, in consequence, a prey to the deepest affliction. A splendid tomb was erected to his memory, called Mausoleum (Mavowaelov, scil. uvmuelov, i.e., “tomb of Mausolus”), and the most noted writers of the day were invited to attend a literary contest, in which ample rewards were to be bestowed on those who should celebrate with most ability the praises of the deceased. Among the individuals who came together on that occasion were, according to Aulus Gellius (10, 18), Theopompus, Theodectes, Naucrites, and even Isocrates. The W. was won by Theopompus. (Aul. Gell., l.c.) alerius Maximus and Aulus Gellius relate a marvellous story concerning the excessive grief of Artemisia. They say that she actually mixed the ashes of her husband with water, and drank them off! (Val. Mar., 4, 6.) The grief of Artemisia, poignant though it was, did not cause her to neglect the care of her dominions; she conquered the isle of Rhodes, and gained possession of some Greek cities on the main land; and yet it is said that she died of grief two years after the loss of her husband. (Wutruv., 2, 8. – Strab., 656. — Plin., 36, 5.) ARTEMisium, a promontory of Euboea, on the northwestern side of the island. It had a temple sacred to Artemis (Diana), whence its name. Off this coast the Greeks obtained their first victory over the fleet of Xerxes, on the same day with the action of Thermopylae. (Herod., 7, 175, &c.) ArtEMita, I. a city of Assyria, north of Seleucia, and southwest of Apollonia. It appears to have been the same with Dastagerda in the middle ages, and the Chalasar of more modern times. (Tacit., 6, 41. —Plin., 6, 26.-Isul., Charac.)—II. Another in Armenia Major, near its southern boundary, now Actamar or Wan. It lay at the southeastern extremity of the Arsissa Palus, now Lake of Van. ARTÉMoN, I. a celebrated mechanician, a native of Clazomenae, who was with Pericles at the siege of Samos, where it is said he invented the battering-ram, the testudo, and other equally valuable military engines. (Plut., Vit. Pericl., c. 27.)—II. A native of Syria, one of the lower order, whose features resembled in the strongest manner those of Antiochus Theos. The queen, after the king's murder, made use of Artemon to represent her husband in a lingering state, that, by his seeming to have died a natural death, she might conceal her guilt, and effect her wicked purpose. (Plin., 7, 10.) ArtIMPKsa, a name given to a goddess among the Scythians, whose attributes resembled those of the Grecian Venus. (Herod., 4, 59.) Some read, in the text of Herodotus, 'Apíritaqa (Arippasa); others, with Origen (contr. Cels. V., p. 609), prefer 'Apyiustaqa. Many consider the deity here mentioned to be none other than the “Earth,” the German Hertha, for, according to Jamieson, the ancient Goths called Venus Iordem-asa, and Ardem-asa, i. e., “terra dea.” The first part of the name reminds us at once of our English term “earth,” through the German “erde,” and the remainder refers to the Asi, or earliest deities of Asiatic and Scandinavian mythology. (Hermes Scythicus, p. 120.) AR v Kles or AMBAR v Kles, a name given to twelve priests who celebrated the festivals called Ambarvalia. This sacerdotal order is said to have been instituted by Romulus in honour of his nurse Acca Laurentia, who had twelve sons; and when one of them died, Romulus, to console her, offered to supply his place, and called himself and the rest of her sons Fratres Arvales. Their office was for life, and continued even in captivity and exile. They wore a crown made of the ears of wheat, and a white woollen wreath around their temples. The hymn sung by these priests was discovered in 1778, in opening the foundations of the sacristy of St. Peter's, inscribed on a stone. Consult Forcellini (Ler. Tot. Lat., s. v. Arvales), where the question is considered, whether the Arvales and the Ambarvales were distinct priesthoods or not. Reference is there made to the work of Marinio, “Degli Attiche Monumenti de' Fratelli Arcali, scolpiti gia in tapole di marmo, ed ora raccolti, diciferatic commentati, Roma, 1795, 2 vols. 4to,” ARušRIs, a god of the Egyptians, son of Isis and Osiris. (Wid. Horus.) Arver Ni, a powerful people of Gaul, whose territories lay between the sources of the Elaver or Allier, and Duranius or Dordogne, branches of the Liger and Garumna. The district is now Auvergne. Their capital was Augustunometum, now Clermont. They were a powerful nation, and were only conquered after at slaughter. Their name is supposed to be derived m Ar, or al, “high,” and Verann (fearann), “country” or “region.” (Thierry, Hist, des Gaulois, vol. 2, . 29.) p Ariusium ProMontoRIUM, a promontory of Chios. The adjacent country was famous for producing a wine (Vinum Ariusium) that was considered the best of all the Greek wines. (Virg., Eclog., 5, 71.—Strab, 955–Plut., non posse suav. vivi, &c., c. 17. – Clem. Aler., Paed., 2, 2.) ARuns TARquinius, I. a brother of Lucius Tarquinius, or Tarquin the Proud. He was of a meek and entle spirit, and was married to the younger Tullia. is wife, a haughty and ambitious woman, murdered him, according to the old legend, and married Tarquin the Proud, who had, in like manner, made away with his own spouse. (Liv., 1, 46.-Arnold's Rome, vol. 1, p. 41.)—II. A son of Tarquin the Proud. In the first conflict that took place after the expulsion of his father, he and Brutus slew each other. (Liv., 2, 6.— Arnold's Rome, vol. 1, p. 108.) ARUNtius, I. a Roman writer, who, with an affectation of the style of Sallust, composed in the age of Augustus a history of the first Punic war. (Voss., de Hist. Lat., 1, 18.)—II. A Roman poet, whose full name was Aruntius Stella. He is highly praised by Statius, who dedicated some of his productions to him, and also by Martial. Among the works that he composed was a poem on the victory of Domitian over the Sarmatae. His writings have not come down to us. (Statius, Sylv., 1, 2, 17–Id. ib., 1, 2, 258, &c.—Martial, 5, 59, 2.—Id., 12, 3, 11, &c.) ARuspex. Wid. Haruspex. ARxxtA, a town of Armenia Major, situate on the Araxes, east of Artaxata, towards the confines of Media. (Strab., 528.) It is probably the Naxuana of Ptolemy. ARYANDEs, a Persian, appointed governor of Egypt by Cambyses. He was put to death by Darius for issuing a silver coinage in his own name. (Herodot, 4, 166.) As ANDER, a governor of the Cimmerian Bosporus under Pharnaces. He revolted against him B.C. 47; and having defeated both him and his successor, obtained peaceable possession of the government, which was afterward confirmed to him by Augustus. He separated by a wall the Tauric Chersonese from the continent. (Appian, Bell. Mithrad., 120.—Dio Cassius, 42, 46.) Asciburgium, I. a Roman fortified post on the German side of the Rhine. Ptolemy places it where the Canal of Drusus joined the Yssel.—II. A town of Germany, placed by the Tab. Peuting. on the western bank of the Rhine, south of the modern Santen. (Compare Mannert, Geogr., vol. 3, p. 454.) Ritter has some curious speculations upon the name of this place, and seeks to trace an analogy between it and that of the Aspurgiana, on the Palus Maeotis (Strabo, 495), as also between both of these and the famed

As-gard of Scandinavian mythology. (Ritter's Worhalle, p. 296, seqq.—Consult remarks under the arti. cle Asi.) Asbystak, a small inland tribe of Africa, situate be. tween the Gilligammae on the east, and the Auschisa, on the west (Herodot., 4, 170), and above Cyrenaica. They had no communication with the coast, which was occupied by the Cyreneans. According to Herodotus (l.c.), they were beyond all the Africans remarkable for the use of chariots drawn by four horses. (Rennell, Geogr. Herod., vol. 2, p. 265.) AscALĀphus, I. a son of Mars and Astyoche, went to the Trojan war at the head of the Orchomenians, with his brother Ialmenus. He was killed by Deiphobus, (Hom., Il., 2,513.)—II. A son of Acheron by Gorgyra or Orphine, stationed by Pluto to watch over Proserpina in the Elysian fields. It was he who testified to the fact of Proserpina's having eaten a pomegranate seed in the kingdom of Pluto. (Wid. Proserpina.) He was changed into an owl for his mischief-making. (Ovid, Met., 5,549.) Another legend says that Ceres placed a large stone on him in Erebus, which Hercules rolled away. (Apollod., 1, 5, 3–ld., 2, 5, 12.) There are likewise other variations in the fable, as given by the ancient mythologists. . According to Antoninus Liberalis (c. 24), who quotes from Nicander, the name of the individual was Ascalabus, son of the nymph Misine (Míaum). His mother having handed Ceres a drink when the latter was searching for her daughter, and the goddess having, through excessive thirst, drained the cup at a single draught, Ascalabus, in derision, ordered a caldron to be brought; whereupon the offended deity changed him into a lizard. (Compare Muncker, ad Anton, Lab., l.c., and Creuzer, Symboluk, vol. 4, p. 467, seqq.) Ascklon, a maritime town of Palestine, 320 furlongs from Jerusalem, between Azotus to the north, and Gaza to the south. Venus Urania was worshipped in this city. Her temple was pillaged, according to Herodotus, by the Scythians, B.C. 630. Here also was worshipped the goddess Derceto. Ascalon was taken from the Assyrians by the Persians, and afterward fell successively into the hands of Alexander the Great, Ptolemy, and Antiochus I. ; but, during the wars between Antiochus Epiphanes and his brother Philopator, it became independent, and remained so until it fell under the Roman power. It was frequently taken by the Saracens, and suffered much during the crusades. Baldwin, king of Jerusalem, took it, after a siege of five or six months, in 1153 or 1154, at which time it was erected into an episcopal town: but, falling at length into the hands of the Turks, it was almost destroyed, and is now an insignificant place, which they occupy for the purpose of opposing the inroads of the Arabians. Its modern name is Scalona. Herod the Great was born at Ascalon, and hence received the appellation of Ascalonites. (Plin., 5, 13. —Amm. Marcell., 14, 26.—Ptol., 5, 16.-Strabo, 522. —Joseph., Ant. Jud., 6, 1.) AscANIus, I. son of AEneas by Creusa. According to the old legend (for it is not right to dignify such narratives with the name of history), he was saved from the flames of Troy by his father, whom he accompanied to Italy, where his name was afterward changed to Iulus. He behaved with great valour in the war which his father carried on against the Latins, and succeeded AEneas in the kingdom of Latinus, and built Alba, to which he transferred the seat of his empire from Lavinium. The fabulous chronology of the Roman writers makes the descendants of Ascanius to have reigned in Alba for about 420 years, under fourteen kings, till the age of Numitor. Ascanius himself reigned, according to the same authorities, thirtyeight years, of which thirty were passed at Lavinium, and the remainder at Alba. He was succeeded by Sylvius Posthumus, son of Eneas by Lavinia. Iulus, the son of Ascanius, disputed the crown with him; but the Latins gave it in favour of Sylvius, as he was descended from the family of Latinus, and Iulus was invested with the office of high-priest, which remained a long while in his family. (Liv., 1, 3–Serp. ad Virg., '#. 1, 270. Dionys. Hal., 1, 76. Plut., Wit. Rom.)—II. A river of Bithynia, which discharged into the Propontis the waters of the Lake Ascanius. (Plin., 5, 32. — Aristot, ap. Schol. Apollon. Rh., 1, 1177.)—III. A lake in the western part of Bithynia, near the head waters of the Sinus Cianus. At its eastern extremity stood the city of Nicaea. Aristotle observes, that the waters of this lake were so imregnated with nitre, as to cleanse the clothes dipped into them. (Mirab. Auscult., c. 54. Plin., 31, 10.) According to Colonel Leake, the Ascanian Lake is about ten miles long and four wide, surrounded on three sides by steep woody slopes, behind which rise the snowy summits of the range of Olympus. (Leake's Asia Minor, p. 7. – Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 1, p. 180.) AscolepigA ('Aok27trteia), a festival in honour of AEsculapius ("Aakämtlác), celebrated in several parts of Greece, but nowhere with so much solemnity as at Epidaurus. One part of the celebration, as we learn from Flato, consisted of contests in poetry and music. (Plat., Ion, init. Jul. Poll., 1, 37. —- Pausanias, 2, 26, 7.) Another form of the name is Asclepia ('Aok2nteia), o; which, consult the remarks of Siebelis (ad Pausan., l.c.). Asclepiñdes, I, the reputed descendants of Æsculapius ("Aakamirtóc), consisting of several families spread over Greece, and professing to have among them certain secrets of the healing art handed down to them from their great progenitor. The Asclepiades of Epidaurus were among the most famous of the name. The Asclepiades compelled all who were initiated into the mysteries of their science, to swear by Apollo, AEsculapius, Hygiea, Panacea, and all the other gods and goddesses, that they would not profane the secrets of the healing art, but would only unfold them to the children of their masters, or to those who should have bound themselves by the same oath. (Consult Hippocr., §pkoç illustratus a Meibomio, 4to, L. B., 1643.) We may, in this point of view, regard as a locus classicus a passage of Galen, wherein he states that medical knowledge was at first hereditary, and that parents imparted it to their offspring as a kind of family prerogative or possession. This usage, however, became in process of time more relaxed, and then medical secrets began to be imparted to strangers who had gone through the forms of initiation (Tézelot àvöpec), and were in this way rendered less exclusive in their character. (Galen, Administr. Anatom., lib. 2, p. 128.) It is for this reason that Aristides, in a later age, remarks, that a knowledge of medicine was for a long time regarded as the attribute of the family of the Asclepiades. (Orat. Sacr., vol. 1, p. 80.) And hence, too, Lucian makes a physician say, “My sacred and mysterious oath compels me to be silent.”, (Tragopod., p. 818.) The theurgic physicians of the Alexandrean school re-established, at a subsequent period, this ancient custom, in order to impart, by the obligation of religious silence, a greater degree of consideration to their superstitious practices. (Aler. Trall, lib. 10, p. 593, ed. Guinth. Andernac.) The Asclepiades appear to have established, among their disciples and in their manner of instructing, a distinction which we find existing also in the schools of the philosophers. They imparted the ordinary branches of medical knowledge to those who were not yet initiated, but their profound secrets (at drójnrot Čudaakažía) only to those who had been admitted into their mysteries. The Asclepiades neglected entirely two essential parts of the healing art, diet and anatomy. Plato says that an acquaintance with die

tetics was not cultivated before the time of Prodicus of Selymbria, and Hippocrates confirms the assertion of the philosopher. (Sprengel, Apol., d'Hippocr., pt. 11, p. 271.) Anatomy, again, could not flourish in Greece, through the force of popular prejudice, and these prejudices took their rise from the belief, that the soul, after being disengaged from its material envelope, was obliged to wander on the banks of the Styx until the body was consigned to the earth or devoured by the flames. (Hom., Il., 23, 71. — Sprengel, Hist. Med., vol. 1, p. 169, seqq.)—II. A Greek physician, a native of Prusa in Bithynia, who lived in the age of Cicero, and who was the first that brought the art of medicine into reputation at Rome. After having acquired a name in Asia, he came to the capital of Italy, B C. 110, rejecting the offers of Mithradates, king of Pontus, who wished him to reside at his court. As. clepiades was one of those ardent spirits destined to bring about a revolution in whatever career they move, and nature had endowed him with an attractive kind of eloquence, which he often abused. At Rome he commenced giving lessons in rhetoric, but all of a sudden, persuading himself, after a very superficial acquaintance with medicine, that he was thoroughly master of the art, he began to practice it. Unhappily, he brought into this new pursuit all the rash eagerness cf his independent spirit, and all the philosophical errors of opinion which, as a rhetorician, he had successively adopted. The Romans had given a favourable reception to Archagathus before Asclepiades came among them, but they soon began to dislike his practice, from his having recourse frequently to painful remedies. Asclepiades, in order to gain a reputation, pursued a course directly opposite to this. He made it a point to give only such remedies as were agreeable and easy to bear. He applied, moreover, to the medical art all the erroneous philosophic notions of his day; and, speaking in this way to the Romans of things that entered into the plan of their studies, and alluring them also by the charms of his eloquence, he was enabled to gain their confidence the more easily, from being himself deceived into the belief that he was near the truth. , Adopting the corpuscular philosophy of Epicurus, he made it the basis of his doctrine. He misunderstood that of Hippocrates, the only true one. He even criticised openly the method of this great physician, namely, the calm observation of nature, and called it, in derision, “the study of death” (9avarov pe?&rm. Galen, de renae sect. adr. Eraststr., page 3). From Pliny's account of him, Asclepiades would appear to have been nothing more than a successful charlatan, who flattered the whims of his patients, and rejected all the tortures which, under the name of regular remedies, had been previously in vogue. He admitted only five means of cure; dieting, occasional abstinence from wine, frictions, exercise on foot, and the being carried in litters. (Plin., 26, 3.) . The appearance, too, for the first time in Italy, of the disorder termed elephantiasis, and the alarm which it occasioned, could not fail to add greatly to the reputation of a medical man who was skilful in curing it. (Plut., Sympos., 8, qu. 9), Finally, the relations subsisting between him and the most distinguished Romans of his time, especially Cicero, contributed greatly to his celebrity. (De Orat., 1, 14.) A singular circumstance also gained him great credit among the lower orders. Happening to pass, on one occasion, near a funeral train, he perceived that the body which was being conveyed to the funeral pile exhibited signs of life. He immediately employed the most active measures for its resuscitation, and succeeded, to the great astonishment of the by-standers, who regarded what he had done as a restoring from death to life, rather than as an act of ordinary healing. Asclepiades used to boast that he had never been sick; and if we credit Pliny, he did not even die of any malady, but from an

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