Obrazy na stronie

now the object of man's existence, defined in the Ethics, namely, virtue combined with happiness, may be attained in the civil and domestic relations, through a good constitution of the state and household.—In the history of the Aristotelian school, four periods are commonly noticed. The first, from the death of Aristotle to the time of Cicero, was a period of gradual decline, for the philosophy of the Stagirite was deeper than suited ordinary intellects, and they could not carry it on. During the second period, from Cicero to the seventh century of the Christian era, the philosophy of Aristotle was quite neglected, and almost unknown. From the seventh to the tenth century, the third period, it was revived, but in a greatly corrupted state. From the tenth to the fifteenth, the fourth period, when it was overthrown by Bacon and Descartes, it went by the name of the scholastic philosophy, being connected with polemic theology.—Aristotle was the most voluminous of the ancient philosophers. A large catalogue of his writings is given by Diogenes Laertius, and in modern times by Fabricius and others. From this it appears that he wrote many books besides those which have been transmitted to our own day. We have all his Logical works, five in number, and usually published under the general title of Organon. We have 16 books on Physical Philosophy; 14 on Metaphysics; and three works on Morals ; the first entitled Nicomachean Ethics, addressed to his son Nicomachus; the second Magna Moralia; the third a Discourse on Virtue and Vice. We have also separate works on Economics, Government, the Art of Rhetoric, and the Art of Poetry. The works of Aristotle, together with his library, passed very early through hazards which have rendered it a subject of critical inquiry how far the present volumes which bear his name are genuine. (Consult remarks under the article Apellicon.)—Before closing this article it may not be amiss to offer a few observations relative to the term Metaphysics, as applied to some of the writings of Aristotle. This appellation is not found either in the works of the Stagirite himself, or in those of any Greek or Roman philosopher anterior to Nicholas of Damascus. It is said that Andronicus of Rhodes, wishing to arrange the works of Aristotle, distributed them into different classes, such as works on logic, on rhetoric, on poetry, &c. The last of these sections or divisions comprehended the works on Physics. Still, however, there remained over a number of writings, which he had been unable to assign to any class, because, being first essays in a new science, they did not fall under any one of the heads under which he had arranged the rest. He therefore united these into one class by themselves, and assigned them their rank after the works on Physics (uera puatrú), whence arose their peculiar name, which had no reference whatever to the subjects discussed in them. With a little more attention on his part, Andronicus might have found a better title in the writings of Aristotle himself; for it appears that the books which we have on Metaphysics are the same with what the Stagirite calls his Affyot &k Toc Trpärm: $120doptaç, “Discourses on the First Philosophy.”— The best editions of the entire works of Aristotle are, that of Du Val, Paris, 1619, 2 vols. fol. : that of Bekker, Berol., 1831, 5 vols. 4to ; and the small stereotype one published by Tauchnitz, Lips., 16 vols. 18mo, 1832, &c.—Of the separate treatises, the following editions may be mentioned. The best edition of the Organon is that of Geneva, 1605, 4to; of the Ethics, that of Cardwell, Oron., 1828–30, 2 vols. 8vo; to which we may add that of Bekker, Berol., 1831, 8vo; of the Art of Poetry, that of Hermann, Lips., 1803, 8vo; to which may be added the excellent one of Tyrwhitt, Oron, 1794, 4to, and that of Graefenhahn, Lips., 1821, 8vo; of the Art of Rhetoric, that published at Oxford, 1820, 2 vols. 8vo; of the History of Animals, that of Schneider, Lips., 1811, 4 vols. 8vo; of the Politics,

that of Göttling, Lips., 1824, 8vo, &c. Among the subsidiary works on Aristotle may be mentioned the following: Ezamen Critique de l'ouvrage d'Aristote intitulé Metaphysique, par Michelet, Paris, 1836, 8vo. Essai sur la Metaphysique d'Aristote, par Ravaisson, Paris, 1837, 2 vols. 8vo.—La Logique d'Aristote, par Saint-Hilaire, Paris, 1838, 2 vols. 8vo. These French works are all prize-essays of the Institute (Ritter's History of Philosophy, vol. 3, p. 1, seqq.— Tennemann's Manual, &c., p. 121, seqq. Enfield's Hist. Philos., vol. 1, p. 260, seqq.) AR1stoxenus, I. a native of Tarentum and disciple of Aristotle, who wrote both on philosophy and music. Among the works of a philosophical character which he composed, may be enumerated his treatise on the Laws respecting Education (Tepi Tatóuköv vöuov); his Pythagorean Theses (IIv6ayoptical dropáaetc), a collection of the precepts of morality inculcated by that sect; and his Biography of Eminent Philosophers (Bioc dvdpåv). In the last of these works he is unjust towards the character of Socrates, as far as we can learn from some fragments that have come down to us. The cause of this may either have been the little esteem in which music was held by Socrates, or a quarrel which had occurred between the latter and Spinthares, the father of Aristoxenus, who had been one of his disciples. Aristoxenus was celebrated amon the ancients for applying the Aristotelian doctrine | knowledge to the scientific investigation of music. He compared the soul to a musical harmony, and thought that, as the latter is produced by the different relations subsisting between several tones, so, too, the soul is the consequence of the relative arrangement of the different parts of the body; for that it is this which produces the movement of the living body, and the soul is to be regarded as nothing more than a certain tension of the body. (Cic., Tusc., 1, 10.) As a writer on music, Aristoxenus must be regarded as the earliest that we possess. His work on Harmony was published by Meursius in 1616 (Lugd. Bat., 4to), and subsequently, in a much more correct form, by Meibomius, in his collection of the Writers on Music. The fragments on Rhythm were published for the first time by Morelli, at the end of the speech of Aristides against Leptines (Venet., 1785, 8vo). The remains of the philosophical writings of Aristoxenus are principally in Stobaeus, but have not as yet been edited by any scholar. Compare, with regard to this writer, the remarks of Meiners, Gesch. der Wissensch., vol. 1, p. 213, and Mahne, Diatribe de Aristoreno, Amst., 1793, 8vo. — II. A physician, disciple of Alexander Philalethes, cited by Galen (diff puls., 4, p. 47). He recommended the use of clysters in hydrophobia; and boasted much of the efficacy of frictions with oil and the plant termed by botanists polygonum convolvulus, in cases of quartan fever. He left a work on the principles of his school, which has not come down to us. (Cocl. Aurel., acut., 3, 16, p. 233.-Apoll. Dysc., hist. mirab., c. 33, p. 133.-Galen, l.c.) Arius, a presbyter of the church of Alexandrea, in the 4th century. He denied the divinity and consubstantiality of the Word. After having been persecuted for his opinions, he gained the favour of the Emperor Constantine, and supplanted St. Athanasius, his adversary, but died suddenly, when just about to enter in triumph the cathedral of Constantinople, A.D. 336. He gave name to the sect of the Arians. (Epiphan., Hares., 68.-Socrat., Hust. Eccles., &c.) ARMEN1A, a large country of Asia, divided into Armenia Major and Minor. The first, which is the modern Turcomania, and is still sometimes called Armenia, lies south of Mount Caucasus, and comprehends the Turkish pachalics Erzerum, Kars, and Van, and also the Persian province Iran or Erican. It was separated from Armenia Minor by the river Euphrates. Ar. menia Minor was, properly speaking, a part of Cappa'

docin. It is now called Aladulia or Pegian, belongs to the Turks, and is divided between the pachalics Merashe and Siras. Armenia is a rough, mountainous country, which has Caucasus for its northern boundary, and in the centre is traversed by branches of Mount Taurus, to which belongs Mount Ararat. Here the two great rivers Euphrates and Tigris take their rise; likewise the Cyrus or Kur, and other less considerable streams. Herodotus (7, 73) says that the Armenians were a Phrygian colony, and used arms like those of the Phrygians; but, as Ritter well remarks (Erdkunde, vol. 2, p. 782), the nations whom the father of profane history designates as Phrygians, Armenians, Cappadocians, and Syrians, are all descendants of the Aramean stock. Hence we may, with some degree of probability, consider the name Armenia as derived from Aram, and the Semitic Arameans to

For some remarks on the Armenian language, consult Balbi, Atlas Ethnographique, &c., tabl. 4, and Introduction à l'Atlas, p. 45. — As regards the literary history of Armenia, it may be remarked, that the literature of the country begins with the conversion of the Armenians to Christianity in the commencement of the fourth century. Since that time they have translated from the Greek (there is a Homer in Armenian hexameters), Hebrew, Syriac, and Chaldee, into their own dialect, which some assert to be an original language, as has already been remarked; while others regard it as a mixed dialect, composed of the Syriac, Chaldee, Hebrew, and Arabic. Both opinions are correct. The old Armenian, the language of literature and of the church, is, as Water agrees, an original language; the modern Armenian has been formed, as a popular language, by foreign additions during the suc

have been the first inhabitants of the land, who were cessive changes of their conquerors, and consists of afterward overpowered by barbarian tribes from Upper four principal dialects. The written language owes Asia. (Compare Adelung, Mithradates, vol. 1, p. 420.) its cultivation to the translation of the Bible, begun in According to another opinion, the Armenian tongue 411 by Mesrob, with his disciples (among whom was may be traced to Xisuthros or Noah, and may boast Moses Choronensis). by the desire of the patriarch of being antediluvian in its character. (Recherches Isaac the Great, and finished in 511. Mesrob first Curieuses, &c., par Chahan de Cubied et Martin, added seven vowel-signs to the old Armenian alphaParis, 1806, 8vo.) Of the ancient history of Arme- bet, which before only contained 27 consonants. At nia but little is known. The native writers make the same time schools were established. The most Haig to have been the first chieftain or prince that flourishing period of Armenian literature was in the ruled over this country, and from him they called them- sixth century, at the time of the separation of the Arselves Haji. He was the son of Taglath, who, ac- menians from the Greek church after the council of cording to them, was the same with Thogarma, grand- Chalcedon. It continued to flourish until the tenth son of Japhet. Twenty-two centuries before the century, revived in the thirteenth, and maintained a Christian era he left Babylon, his native place, and es- respectable character till 1453. In scientific inquiries tablished himself, with all his family, in the mountains it never rose to any considerable eminence. It is parof southern Armenia, in order to escape from the tyr- ticularly valuable in what relates to history.—The best anny of Belus, king of Assyria. The latter attacked introduction to Armenian history, geography, and lithim in his new settlements, but perished by his hand. erature, is that which M. J. Saint-Martin, member of Aram, the sixth successor of Haig, became so distin-, the French Institute, has extracted from old Armenian guished by his exploits, that, from his time, the sur- writings, inscriptions, and other sources, under the rounding nations called the country Armenia, after his title of Mémoires Historiques et Géographiques sur name. Ara, son of the preceding, fell in defending l'Armenic, Paris, 1808, 2 vols. (Encyc. Amer., 1, his country against Semiramis, and Armenia became 373.) thenceforward an Assyrian province until the death of ARMILustRIUM or ARMILUstruM, a festival at Rome, Sardanapalus, when a succession of native princes on the 19th of October, during which they sacrificed again appeared. (Compare Klaproth, Tableaux. His- completely armed, and to the sound of trumpets, . It toriques de l'Asie, &c., p. 50, seqq.) After the death was intended for the expiation of the armies, and the of Alexander, it became part of the kingdom of Syria, prosperity of the arms of the Roman people. The and so remained till the overthrow of Antiochus the name is also sometimes applied to the place in which Great, when it fell into the hands of different rulers, the sacrifice was performed. (Varro, L. L., 4, 32– and was divided into Armenia Major and Minor—Ar- Id. ib., 5, 3.—Lov. 27, 37.) menia Major was exposed to many attacks. The ARMINIus (the Latin name for Hermann, i.e., leadRomans and Parthians fought a long time for the er or general), the deliverer of Germany from the right of giving a successor to the throne, and it was Roman yoke. He was a son of a prince of the governed at one period by Parthian princes, at anoth- Cherusci, Sigimer (which, in the old German, signifies er by those whom the Romans favoured, until Tra- a famous conqueror), and was born 18 B.C. He was jan made it a Roman province. Armenia afterward educated at Rome, admitted into the rank of equites, recovered its independence, and was under the rule and appointed to an honourable station in the army of of its own kings. Sapor, king of Persia, attempt- Augustus. But princely favour and the charms of

ed its subjugation in vain, and it remained free until 650, when it was conquered by the Arabians. After this it several times changed its masters, among whom were Gengis-Khan and Timour-leng. In 1552, Selim II. conquered it from the Persians, and the greater

learning were insufficient to make the young barbarian forget his early associations. Convinced that the rude strength of his savage countrymen would be unequal to cope with the disciplined forces of the Romans in the open field, he had recourse to stratagem. Having

part has since remained under the Turkish dominion. fomented the discontem prevailing among the German ~Armenia Minor has also had several rulers, among nations, and having produced a wide confederacy for whom Mithradates was first distinguished. From revolt, he artfully drew Varus, the Roman commander him Pompey took the kingdom, and gave it to Deiota- on the Rhine, into an ambuscade, where three Roman rus. On the decline of the Roman Empire in the legions were cut to pieces. Varus, unable to survive east it was conquered by the Persians, and in 950 his disgrace, slew himself. A.D. 10. Germanicus fell into the hands of the Arabians, since which time marched with a powerful army to revenge the overit has shared the same fate as Armenia Major, and was throw of Varus; but it required more than one cammade, in 1514, a Turkish province by Selim I. — The paign, and several battles, before he obtained any deearlier capital of Armenia was Armavir, which, during cided advantage; and at last Arminius fell a sacrifice 1800 years, was the residence of the kings. After only to the civil feuds in which he was involved with Armavir, Artaxata (Artaschad) on the Araxes, built his own countrymen and kindred, being assassinated in the time of the Seleucidae, became the capital, but by one of his own relations, in the 37th year of his sank into decay before the end of the 8th century.— age. Tacitus relates, that he drew upon himself the

hatred of his countrymen by aiming at the regal authority. A short time before his death, Adgantestes or Adgantestrius, prince of the Catti, proposed to the Roman senate to despatch Arminius by poison, but the senate took no notice of the offer. Arminius was 26 years old when he destroyed the legions of Varus. In the language of Tacitus, “Arminius was doubtless the deliverer of Germany. He fought against the Romans, not like other kings and generals, when they were weak, but when their empire was mighty and their renown glorious. Fortune, indeed, sometimes deserted him; but, even when conquered, his noble character and his extensive influence commanded the veneration of his conquerors. For twelve years he presided over the destinies of Germany, to the complete satisfaction of his countrymen; and, after his death, they paid him divine honours.” (Tacit., Ann., 2, 88.) If we dwell a moment on the results of his victory, we will find that it had a decided influence on the whole character of Germany, political and literary; because it is evident that, had the Romans remained in quiet possession of the country, they would have given a tone to all its institutions and its lanuage, as was the case with all the other countries of É. conquered by them. The reason, therefore, why the language of the Germans remained in a great degree unmixed with, and uninfluenced by, the Latin, and why their political institutions retained so much of their ancient character, is to be found in the victory of Arminius. (Encyclop. Americ, vol. 1, p. 375, seqq. —Bibl. Univ., vol. 2, p. 480. – Menzel, Geschichte der Deutschen, p. 58.) ARMoRica. Vid. Aremorica. ARNA, I. a city of Lycia, called afterward Xanthus. (Wid. Xanthus.) — II. A town of Umbria, west of Nuceria, and near the Tiber. It is now Cinitella d'Arno. (Plin., 3, 14.—Sil. Ital., 8,458.) ARNobius, I. the Elder, called also the African, was born at Sicca Venerea in Numidia, in the latter part of the third century. He was at first a pagan, and taught rhetoric in his native city, where he acquired a high reputation; but he subsequently embraced Christianity, being moved thereto by dreams, according to St. o: (Chron. ad Ann. xx. Const.—Compare de rir. ill, 79.) As, however, he had warmly attacked Christianity before his conversion, in the course of his public lectures, the bishop of Sicca refused to admit him within the pale of the church until he had evinced the sincerity of his conversion by some open act. In consequence of this, while yet a catechumen, he wrote a work entitled Libri vii. adversus gentes, in which he refuted the objections of the heathen against Christianity with spirit and learning. This work betrays, as may be well expected, a defective knowledge of the Christian religion, but it is rich in materials for the understanding of Greek and Roman mythology: hence it is one of the writings of the Latin fathers, which, like the works of his disciple Lactantius, are particularly valued by philologists. We have given above the more correct title of the work of Arnobius. It is commonly, but less correctly, called Libr. vii. disputationum adversus gentes. (Le Nourry, Aparat. ad Bibl. Patr., 2, p. 285. — Bahr, Christlich#. Theol., p. 67.) The latest and best edition of Arnobius is that of Orellius (Lips., 1816, 8vo). — II. The younger, a Gallic divine in the last half of the 5th century. . We have from him an insignificant commentary on the Psalms, which betrays the principles of the Semi-Pelagians. (Bahr, l c.) ARNus, a river of Etruria, rising in the Umbrian Apennines, and falling into the Mediterranean. It is now the Arno. On its banks stood Florentia, the modern Florence, and near its mouth Pisa, now Pisa. The portus Pisanus was at the very mouth. (Strab., 222.-Rutil., Itin., 1,531.)

of which Patrae was afterward built. The other twe were Anthea and Messatis. (Pausan., 7, 18.) ARomATA, or ARox1Atum ProMontoRIUM, the most eastern land of the continent of Africa, now Cape Guardafui, (Ptol., 1, 9, p. 11.) ARPI, a city of Apulia, in the interior of Daunia, remarkable for its antiquity. Its first name was Argyrippa, an appellation supposed to be modified from 'Apyog "Irittov, the name which it received originally from its founder Diomede. When Arpi is first introduced to our notice in the history of Rome, it is represented as an Apulian city of no great importance, and of which the Romans possessed themselves without difficulty. (Liv., 9, 13.) In the second Punic war it fell into the hands of Hannibal after the battle of Cannae (Polyb., 3, 88 and 118), but was recovered by the Romans. Arpi was greatly reduced in the time of Strabo (283), but still continued to exist under Constantine as an episcopal see. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 282.) ARPINUM, a small town of Latium, southeast of Rome, still known by the name of Arpino. It is rendered illustrious in the page of history for having given birth to Marius and Cicero. It originally belonged to the Volsci, but was taken by the Samnites, from whom it was again wrested by the Romans. (Liv., 9, 44.) It became a municipal town, and its citizens were enrolled in the Cornelian tribe. Of course, frequent mention is made of Arpinum in Cicero's letters: he was fond of his native place, and dwells with complacency on the rude and primitive simplicity of its customs, applying to it those lines of the Odyssey (1, 27, seqq.) in which Ulysses expresses his love for Ithaca. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 114, seqq.) ARRia, the wife of Caecina Paetus. Her husband, a man of consular rank, having taken part in the unsuccessful revolt of Seribonianus, in Illyricum, against the Emperor Claudius, was brought to Rome for trial. Arria, finding all means of saving him ineffectual, and perceiving him, at the same time, destitute of sufficient courage to destroy himself, plunged a dagger into her own bosom in the presence of her husband, and then drawing it forth, handed the weapon to him, calmly remarking at the time, “it does not pain.” Martial has made this the subject of an epigram (1, 14). ARRIXNUs, I. a Greek historian, a native of Nicomedia, who flourished in the second century under Hadrian and the Antonines. In his own country he was a priest of Ceres and Proserpina; but, taking up his residence at Rome, he became a disciple of Epictetus. He was honoured with the citizenship of Rome, and appointed prefect of Cappadocia by the Emperor Hadrian, who patronised him on account of his learning and talents. In this capacity he distinguished himself by his prudence and valour in the war against the Massagetae, and was afterward advanced to the senatorial and even consular dignities. Like Xenophon, he united the literary with the mili: tary character, was conversant with philosophy and learning, and intimate with those who cultivated them. No less than seven of the epistles of Pliny the younger are addressed to Arrian. His historical writings were numerous; but of these, with the exception of some fragments in Photius, only two remain. The first is composed of seven books on the expedition of Alexander, which, being principally compiled from the memoirs of Ptolemy Lagus and Aristobulus, who both served under that king, are deemed proportionably valuable. Arrian, himself a soldier and a politician, possessed a sounder judgment than Quintus Curtius, and indulged less in the marvellous. To this work is added a book on the affairs of India, which pursues the history of Alexander, but is not deemed of equal auHadrian is also extant, entitled, “A Periplus of the Euxine,” probably written while he was prefect of Cappadocia. There are, besides, under the name of Arrian, “a treatise on Tactics;” “a Periplus of the Erythrean Sea,” of which the authority is doubtful; “a treatise on Hounds and Hunting;” an “Enchiridion,” or Manual, exhibiting an abstract of the doctrines of Epictetus; and the “Discourses,” or Dissertations of that philosopher, compiled from notes taken during his lectures. The best editions of Arrian's Expedition of Alexander are, that of Gronovius (Lugd. Bat., 1704, fol.), and that of Schmieder (Lips., 1798, 8vo). The edition of Raphelius (Amst., 1757, 8vo) is, with the exception of the Greek index, almost wholly derived from that of Gronovius. Of the Indian history, the best edition is that of Schmieder (Halae, 1798, 8vo). Of his Enchiridion, that of Upton (Lond., 1739, 4to), and that of Schweighaeuser (Lips., 1799, 8vo), forming part of the edition of the Discourses, by the same, which last-mentioned work is in 5 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1799–1801. Of the rest of his works, the best edition is that of Blanchard, Amst, 1683, 8vo. The edition of his geographical writings, by Stuckius, Gener., 1577, fol., is also valuable.—II. A Roman lawyer, whose era is unknown. A work of his, “De Interdictis,” is mentioned in lab. 2, D V., 3, de hared, petit.—III. A poet who wrote an epic poem in 24 books on Alexander; also another poem on Attalus, king of Pergamus. He likewise translated Virgil's Georgics into Greek verse (Suidas, s. v.) ARRius, a noted gourmand, mentioned by Horace. The poet alludes to an entertainment such as he should direct, which would, of course, be no unexpensive one. (Serm., 2, 3, 86.) ARsMcEs, I. a man of obscure origin, who incited the Parthians to revolt from the power of the Seleucidae, and was elevated to the throne on account of his success. Justin (41, 4) makes this revolt to have taken place during the reign of Seleucus Callinicus, son of Antiochus i. but his account is inconsistent with his date. Arrian (ap. Phot, Cod., 58) seems to fix the revolt in the reign of Antiochus; while Appian (Bell. Syr., 65) places it at the death of this monarch. Possibly, the establishment of the Parthian power was gradual, and was not completed till the reign of Seleucus. (Clinton, Fast. Hell, vol. 2, p. 18.) Arsaces defeated Seleucus in battle, and when this monarch made a second expedition into Parthia, he took him prisoner, and kept him long in captivity. (Postdon. ap. Athen., 4, p. 153, a.) Arsaces then laid the foundation of the Parthian empire, and his successors took from him the name of Arsacidae. According to Justin (l.c.), who seems confirmed by Strabo (515), he reigned long and died in old age : according to Syncellus (p. 284, c.), who quotes from Arrian, he reigned only two years. (Clinton, l.c.) — II. The second of the name, son of the preceding, succeeded his father on the Parthian throne, and was, like him, a warlike prince. While Antiochus the Great was engaged in a war with Ptolemy Philopator, of Egypt, Arsaces made himself master of Media. Antiochus, when the war with Ptolemy was ended, marched against the Parthian king, drove him not only from Media, but from his own kingdom, and compelled him to take refuge in Hyrcania. Having subsequently, however, collected a numerous army, Arsaces appeared to Antiochus so formidable an antagonist, that the latter was glad to confirm to him the possession of Hyrcania as well as Parthia, on the sole condition of his concluding an alliance with him. Arsaces left his throne to his son Arsaces Priapatius or Phriapatus. (Polyb., 10, 27. — Justin, 41, 5. — Clinton, Fast. Hell, vol. 2, p. 315.) — III. The third of the name, son of the preceding, surnamed Priapatius or Phriaso He reigned 15 years, and left the kingdom to is son * (Justin, 41, 5.)—IV. A king of 206

Armenia, who was on the throne when Julian march. ed against Sapor, and was ordered to furnish auxiliaries for the Roman army. When Jovian, after the death of Julian, was compelled to sign an ignominious treaty of peace, Arsaces, by the very terms of it, was left to the mercy of the Persians, and was soon after entrapped and slain. (Amm. Marcell., 23, 2, seq.— Id., 25, 7, et 12.) Ars Acid Æ, a name given to some of the monarchs of Parthia, in descent from Arsaces, the founder of the empire. Their power subsisted till the 226th year of the Christian era, when the dynasty of the Sassanides was founded by Artaxerxes. (Wid. Arsaces I. and Artabanus W.) ARs AMoskta, a city of Armenia Major, in the southwestern angle of the district of Sophene, and 70 miles from the Euphrates. It is now Sirmat. Another form of the ancient name is Armosata. (Plin. 6, 9. —Polyb., Erc. vii., lib. 8, 25, 1.—Tacit., 15, 10.) Ars ANIAs, I. a river of Armenia Major, which D'Anville and Mannert, but especially the latter, consider as another name for the southern arm of the Euphrates. (Vid. Euphrates.)—II. There was another river of the same name lower down, which flowed from the northwest through Sophene, and entered the Euphrates below Melitene, on which Arsamosata was situate. This is now the Arsen. (Pluny, 5, 24. — Tacut., 15, 15.) Arses, the youngest son of Ochus, whom the eunuch Bagoas raised to the throne of Persia, and destroyed with his children after a reign of three years. (Vad. Bagoas.) ARsia, a small river between Illyricum and Histria, and forming the limit of Italy in that quarter, after Histria was added to Italy by Augustus. (Plun., 3, 19.-Flor., 2, 5.) ARsiNöE, I, daughter of Meleager, and mother of Ptolemy I., of Egypt, by Philip, father of Alexander. During her pregnancy she was married to Lagus.-II. Daughter of Ptolemy I., of Egypt, and Berenice. She married Lysimachus, king of Thrace, who was already advanced in years, by whom she had several children. Lysimachus, setting out for Asia, left her in Macedonia, with two sons, Lysimachus and Philip, a part of the fruits of their union. This monarch having been slain in an expedition, Ptolemy Ceraunus seized on Macedonia, but could not take the city of Cassandria, where Arsinoë had taken refuge with her children. He therefore offered her his hand in marriage, and with much difficulty chtained her consent. But no sooner had he been admitted into the city for the purpose of celebrating the nuptials, than he caused her two sons to be slain, and exiled Arsinoë herself to Samothrace. From this island she soon took her departure to wed Ptolemy Philadelphus, her own brother, the first instance of this kind of union, and which became afterward so common in the time of the Ptolemies. Although many years older than Ptolemy, she nevertheless inspired him with such a passion, that, after her death, he gave her name to one of the nomes of Egypt (Arsinoltis), and to several cities both in that country and elsewhere. He even gave orders to have a temple erected to her, but his own death and that of the architect prevented the fulfilment of his wishes. It was intended to have had the ceiling of loadstone, and the statue of iron, in order that the latter might appear to be suspended in the air. (Plin., 34, 14.)—III. Daughter of Lysimachus, king of Thrace, and the earlier wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus. She became by him the mother of Ptolemy III. (Euergetes), Lysimachus, and Berenice. After Ptolemy's union with Arsinoë, his own sister, she was banished to Coptos. The charge brought against her was a design to overthrow her rival.—IV. i. of Ptolemy III, and Berenice, married Ptolemy Philopator, her brother. Her husband subsequently having become enamoured of Agathoclea, and being completely ruled by this female and her brothers, was induced, at their instigation, to order Arsinoë to be put to death.W. A daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, proclaimed queen

by Ganymedes, when Caesar attacked Alexandrea.

She was conquered, and brought in triumph to Rome; but, as this proved unpleasing to the people, she was set at liberty. Subsequently, at the instigation of her younger sister Cleopatra, she was put to death by the orders of Antony, in the temple of Diana at Miletus. Hurt., Bell. Alex., 4.—Appian, Bell. Cir., 5, 9.)—VI. A city of Egypt, the capital of the Arsinoltic nome, lying to the west of the Nile, and between Heracleopolis Magna and Lake Moeris. It derived its name from Arsinoë, the sister and queen of Ptolemy Philadelphus. The earlier appellation was the “City of Crocodiles,” as the Greeks translated it (Crocodilopolis, Kpoxodeizov tróżuc, Herod., 2, 148). This lastmentioned name arose from the circumstance of the crocodile's being worshipped here ; and a tamed representative of this fearful class of creatures was carefully nurtured and attended to in an adjacent pond or tank. Strabo gives an account, as an eyewitness, of this curious custom. The bodies of the sacred crocodiles were deposited after death in the cells of the Labyrinth, which stood near the city. The Egyptians honoured the crocodile here, because it was consecrated to Typhon, their evil genius, whom they dreaded, and sought to appease by worshipping an animal which was his symbolical image. The city of Arsinoe is now a pile of ruins, which lie not far to the north of the modern Medinet el Faioum. Jomard gives an accurate description of them. (Descript. de l'Egypte, vol. 4, p. 446.)—VII. A city of Egypt, at the head of the Sinus Arabicus, and not far from the spot where stands the modern Suez. Philadelphus constructed the harbour, and called the place after his sister and queen Arsinoe. In its immediate vicinity lay the city of Cleopatris, of later erection, and, in consequence of their proximity, both places were often called by the common name of Cleopatris, though actually distinct spots. (Strab., 805.) Arsinoë was connected with the Nile by means of the canal of Ptolemy, and for a long period was the very life of the navigation on the Sinus Arabicus, forming the connecting link between the traffic of Egypt and that of the East. In process of time, however, the dangerous navigation of the upper art of the gulf induced the Ptolemies to construct so lower down, and Arsinoë from this time sank in importance, and finally disappeared from notice. The Peutinger table, in the third century, makes mention of the place, but the Itinerary of Antonine passes it over in silence. (Mannert, vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 517.) —VIII. A city of Cilicia Trachea, on the coast, between Celenderis and the mouth of the Arymagdus. (Pliny, 5, 27.) — IX. Another name for Patara, in Lycia. (Vid. Patara.)—X. A town of Cyprus, near the promontory of Ammochostus. (Strab.,682.)—XI. A harbour of Egypt, on the Sinus Arabicus, below Philoterae Portus. (Plin., 6, 29.)—XII. Another harbour, in the regio Troglodytica, in the vicinity of Dirae. (Mela, 3, 8.-Artemid. ap. Strab.) ARsissa PALUs, a great lake in the southern part of Armenia Major, now the Lake of Van. It was on its northern side embellished with cities, which were better known to the Byzantine writers than they had been before, viz., Chaliat or Athlat, Arzes or Argish, and Perkri. This sheet of water is also sometimes called, in Armenian geography, the Lake of Besnouikh, from the district of that name in which it is situate. The name Besnouikh is deduced from that of Basus, a grandson of Haig, the first ruler of Armenia. (Wahl, Worder und Mittel Asien, p. 508.) ARTABRNus, H. son of Hystaspes, was brother to Darius the First. He endeavoured to dissuade his nephew Xerxes from making war upon the Greeks, but

to no effect; and, after accompanying the monarch to

the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont, was sent back by him to Susa, to act as viceroy or regent in his absence. (Herod., 7, 10, seqq.—Id., 7, 17.-Id., 7, 52.) If the story related by Plutarch be true, Artabanus must always have possessed great influence with Xerxes, since, according to the Greek writer, the monarch owed his crown to his uncle, who was appointed by . the Persians to decide between Xerxes and his elder brother Ariamenes. , Artabanus adjudged the kingdom to the former, as having been born after his father came to the throne, and as being the son of Atossa the daughter of Cyrus. (Plut., de frat am., p. 488, f., p. 988, Wyttenb.—Compare the account given by Herodotus, 7, 1, seqq.) We have nothing farther of Artabanus in history. He is by no means to be confounded with the individual of the same name (Artabanus II.) who slew Xerxes. (Bahr, ad Ctes., c. 20, p. 151—Larcher, ad Ctes., vol. 6, p. 287.)—II. An Hyrcanian, captain of the guards of Xerxes, and for a long time one of his greatest favourites. When the monarch, after his return from Greece, gave himself up to a life of dissolute pleasure, Artabanus conceived this to be a favourable opportunity for seizing on the throne, and, having conspired with Mithradates, one of the eunuchs of the palace, and chamberlain to the king, he introduced himself by night into the royal apartment, and slew Xerxes, B.C.464. After perpetrating the deed, he ran to Artaxerxes, the son of the monarch, and told him that Darius, his elder brother, had just murdered his father. Artaxerxes believed the story, and his brother was immediately arrested and put to death. After the new monarch had ascended the throne, Artabanus conspired against his life, but was betrayed by Megabyzus, an accomplice of his, and put to death. Such is the account of Ctesias (c. 30), which Larcher very justly prefers to the statements of Justin (3, 1) and Diodorus Siculus (10, 19), both of which appear tinged with absurdity.—III. A monarch of Parthia, known as Artabanus II., or Arsaces VIII. He succeeded his nephew Phraates II. (Arsaces VII.), and was killed in a war with the Thogarii, a Scythian nation. (Justin, 42, 2.)—IV. A monarch of Parthia, known as Artabanus III., or Arsaces XIX. He succeeded Vonones I., whom he drove from the throne, having himself previously reigned in Media. Faithful to the Romans, his protectors, as long as Germanicus inspired him with fear, he became, after the death of this commander, cruel and oppressive to his subjects, and arrogant towards Rome. His people complained of him to Tiberius, who named for them Phraates as king. This individual, however, dying on the route, the emperor nominated Tiridates. Artabanus fled into Scythia, but, being encouraged by the effeminacy of Tiridates, he took up arms again, and recovered his kingdom. The death of Tiberius saved him from punishment, and he made his peace with Caligula by dint of flatteries. Still, however, he was once more driven out by his subjects, and only returned eventually to die in his kingdom, about 44 A.D. (Tacit., Ann., 2, 58.—Id. ab., 6, 31.—Id. ib., 6,43, &c.)—W. A king of the Parthians, son of Vologeses IV., ascended the throne A.D. 216. His historical name is Artabanus IV., or Arsaces XXXI. He had hardly commenced his reign when he was menaced by Caracalla. The emperor demanded his daughter in marriage, in order to have a pretext for war in case he refused. The Parthian king, however, assented, and the Roman army was allowed to approach the Parthian capital, where Artabanus met it with a brilliant cortège. But on a given signal, the Roman troops fell upon the followers of the monarch, and an indiscriminate massacre ensued, from which Artabanus himself with difficulty escaped. Caracallathereupon pillaged the surrounding country, and then returned to Mesopotamia. Artabanus, burning for revenge, assembled the largest army which the Parthians had ever as yet raised, crossed the Euphrates,

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