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Pomponius Mela, it was one of the richest cities in Gallia Narbonensis. It was also called Sextanorum Colonia, from having been colonized by the soldiers of the sixth legion, conducted thither by the father of Tiberius. It is now Arles. During the later periods of the Roman empire, Arelate was the residence of some of the emperors; and at a subsequent date, on account of the frequent inroads of the barbarians, the praetorian headquarters were transferred from Treveri {Treres) to this place. (Caes., Bell. Civ., 1, 36. — Mela, 2, 5.-Suet., Vit. Tib., 4.) AREMoRica, or ARMoRica, a Celtic term, applied in strictness to all parts of Gaul which lay along the ocean. As the Romans, however, before Caesar's time, knew no other part of the coast except that between the Pyrenees and the mouth of the Garumna, the name with them became restricted to this portion of the country. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 112.) The appellation is derived from the Gaelic ar, “upon,” and moir, “sea.” (Compare Thuerry, Hist, des Gaulois, vol. 1, Introd., p. xxxix., in notis.) o ARENKcuM, a fortified place on the Rhine, in the territories of the Batavi, not far from where the river separates to form the Wahalis. It is now, according to D'Anville, Aert or Aerth, but Mannertis in favour o Arnheim. (Tacit., Hist., 5, 20.—Compare Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 242.) AREoPAGITAE, the judges of the Areopagus, a seat of justice on a small eminence at Athens. (Wul. Areopagus.) The time in which this celebrated seat of justice was instituted is unknown. Some suppose that Cecrops, the founder of Athens, first established it, while others give the credit of it to Cranaus, and others to Solon. The constitution and form under which it appears in history, is certainly not more ancient than the time of Solon, though he undoubtedly appears to have availed himself of the sanctity already attached to the name and place, to ensure to it that influence and inviolability which were essential to the attainment of its chief object, the maintenance of the laws. Its original right of judging all cases of homicide continued, though evidently the least important part of its duties, since, when Ephialtes had deprived it of all but that, the Areopagus was thought to be annihilated. (Demosth. adv. Aristocr., p. 642. — Lez. Rhet, appended to Porson's Photius, p. 585, ed. Lips Hermann's Polit. Antiq., p. 215, not, 6.) It was not restored to its dignity of guardian of the laws till the fall of the thirty tyrants. Its office as such was, in principle, directly opposed to an absolute democracy, and must have appeared the more formidable to the partisans of that form, from the indefinite and arbitrary nature of the merely moral power on which its authority was founded, and which rendered it impracticable clearly to define the extent of its influence. In later times it was found particularly active as a censorship of morals, and in several respects may be viewed as a superior court of police, taking cognizance of luxury and morals, the superintendence of public buildings and public health, and, in particular, making it its business to direct public attention to men who might endanger the state, though its own power to inflict punishment in such cases was very limited. (Hermann, l. c.) The Areopagus, when originally constituted, was, as has already been remarked, merely a criminal tribunal. Solon, guided by motives which cannot now be easily o rendered it superior to the Ephetae, another court instituted by Draco, and greatly enlarged its jurisdiction—The number of judges composing this august tribunal is not clearly ascertained. It was probably about ninety. (Tittmann, Griech. Staatsrerf., p. 252.) The court consisted entirely of ex-archons; and every archon, on laying down his archonship, became a member of it. (Tittmann, l.c.—Plut., Wit. Sol, c. 19.) It was expressly provided, however, that the members of this court should be altogether pure and

blameless in their lives, and it was even required that their whole demeanour should be grave and serious beyond what was expected from other men. The dignity of a judge of the Areopagus was always for life, unless he was expelled for immoral or improper conduct. The Areopagites took cognizance of murders, impiety, and immoral behaviour, and particularly of idleness, which they deemed the cause of all vice They watched over the laws, and they had the management of the public treasury; they had also the liberty of rewarding the virtuous, and inflicting severe punish. ment upon such as blasphemed against the gods, or slighted the celebration of the holy mysteries. Hence St. Paul was arraigned before this tribunal as “a setter forth of strange gods,” because he preached to the Athenians of Jesus and the resurrection. They always sat in the open air; because they took cognizance of murder, and, by their laws, it was not permitted for the murderer and the accuser to be both under the same roof (Vud. Areopagus.) This custom also might originate from the persons of the judges being sacred, and their being afraid of contracting pollution by conversing in the same house with men who had been” guilty of shedding innocent blood. They always heard causes and passed sentence in the night, that they might not be prepossessed in favour of the plaintiff or j. by seeing them. Whatever causes were pleaded before them were to be divested of all orator and fine speaking, lest eloquence should charm their ears and corrupt their judgment. Hence arose the most just and most impartial decisions; and their sentence was deemed sacred and inviolable, and the plaintiff and defendant were equally convinced of its justice. The Areopagites generally sat on the 27th, 28th, and 29th day of every month. But if any business happened which required despatch, they assembled in the royal portico, Baathuk) Xrost. This institution was preserved entire until the time of Pericles, who, as he had never filled the office of archon, could not be admitted a member of the Areopagus, and therefore employed all his power and influence in undermining an authority which was incompatible with his own. The earlier strictness too, as regarded the private character of the judges, began now to be relaxed, and eventually, when the grandeur of Athens was on the decline, men of vicious and profligate lives became members of the Areopagus. – As regards the form Areopagita and Ariopagita, consult the remarks of Bergman (Praef ad Isocr. Areopag. init.). AREoPKgus (Apetórayoc, or "Apeloc rityoc, i. e., “the hill of Mars"), a small eminence at Athens, a little distance to the northwest of the Acropolis. It was so called in consequence, as it was said, of Mars having been the first person tried there, for the murder of Halirrhothius, son of Neptune. (Wid. Areopagita.) This celebrated court consisted only of an open space, in which was an altar dedicated to M. Areia, and two rude seats of stone for the defendant and his accuser. From Vitruvius we learn (2, 1. — Compare Poll., 8, 10), that at a later period this space was enclosed, and roofed with tiles. According to Herodotus (8,52), the Persians were stationed in the Areopagus when they made their attack on the western side of the Acropolis. (Consult, as regards the form of the name, the remarks of Bergman, Praef. ad Isocr. Areopag. tnit.) AREstorides, a patronymic given to the hundredeyed Argus, as son of Arestor. (Orld, Met., 1,624.) ARETA:Us, a Greek physician of Cappadocia, who is supposed to have flourished A.D. 80. We have two productions of his remaining: trept Airtov wai Xmuetov Čšéov ka xpovíov traßv, “On the causes and symptoms of acute and chronic maladies;” and, trepi 6epareiac Čščov kai apovíov traffāv, “On the cure of acute and chronic maladies.” The works of this most elegant writer, which have come down to us,

are so truly valuable as to make us deplore the loss we have sustained by the mutilations they have suffered. His language is in the highest degree refined, and his descriptions are uncommonly graphic and accurate. For example, what picture could be truer to life than the one which he has drawn of a patient in the last stage of consumption' and what description was ever more poetically elegant than that which he gives us of the symptoms attending the collapse in ardent fever ! — Considering that most probably he was prior to Galen, the correctness of his physical views cannot but excite our admiration. Thus, in his account of Paralysis, he alludes to the distinction between the Nerves of Sensation and those of Muscular motion, which doctrine is treated of at great length by Galen, in his work De Usu Partium (step: Xpeiac Töv čv dvdparov aduatl uopiwy). He enumerates indigestion among the exciting causes of palsy, which seems to be an anticipation of a late pretended discovery, that paralysis of the limbs is sometimes to be referred to derangement of the stomach and bowels.-In speaking of epilepsy, he makes mention of the use of copper, which medicine has been tried of late years in this complaint with manifest advantage.—No other ancient writer that we are acquainted with gives us so correct an account of ulcers on the throat and tonsils. His description of the various phenomena of mania is very interesting, and contains the singular case of a joiner, who was in his right senses while employed at his profession at work, but no sooner left the seat of his employment than he became mad. . He gives an interesting account of jaundice, which he attributes, probably with correctness, to a variety of causes, but more especially to obstruction of the ducts, which convey the bile to the intestinal canal. He makes no mention, indeed, of gall-stones, nor are they mentioned, as we know, by any ancient writer; only Nonnius recommends Lithontriptics for the cure of the disease, which might seem to imply that he was acquainted with the existence of these concretions.—Aretaeus was fond of administering hellebore, and concludes his work with a glowing eulogy on the properties of this medicine. The best editions of Aretaeus are, that of Wigan, Oxon., 1723, folio, and that of Boerhave, Lugd. Bat., 1731, folio. This latter one, in fact, is superior to the former, since it contains all that is given in Wigan's edition, together with the commentary of Petit, and the notes and emendations of Triller. The edition of Aretaeus given in Kuhn's collection of the Greek medical writers, has not proved very satisfactory in a critical point of view. (Pierer, Annal. Aug., P. 1041.—Hoffmann, Lez, Bibl., vol. 1, p. 248.)

ARETÉ, a daughter of the philosopher Aristippus. AElian, however, contrary to the common account, makes her his sister. (Hist. An., 3,40.) Aristippus taught her the doctrines of his school, and she in her turn became the instructress of her own son, the younger Aristippus, who, on this account, received the surname of Metrodidactus (Mntpoétéaxtoc). Her at

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86–Casaub., ad Diog., l.c.) AREThūsa, I. a nymph of Elis, daughter of Oceanus, and one of Diana's attendants. As she returned one day from hunting, she came to the clear stream of the Alpheus, and, enticed by its beauty, entered into its waters to drive away the heat and fatigue. She heard a murmur in the stream, and, terrified, sprang to land. The river-god rose and pursued her. The nymph sped all through Arcadia, till with the approach of evening she felt her strength failing, and saw that her pursuer was close upon her. She then prayed to Diana for relief, and was immediately dissolved into a fountain. Alpheus resumed his aqueous form, and sought to mingle his waters with hers. She fled on under the earth, however, and through the sea, till she

rose in the island of Ortygia at Syracuse, still foliowed by the stream of the Alpheus. In proof of the truth of this fable, it was asserted that a cup (putizo) which fell into the Alpheus rose in the fountain of Arethusa, whose pellucid waters also became turbid with the blood of the victims slain at the Olympic games. (Orid, Met., 5,572, seqq.—Moschus, Idyll, 7–Keightley's Mythology, 2d ed., p. 132.) An explanation of the legend will be found under the article Alpheus.II. A lake in Armenia Major, through which the Tigris ran. It was near the sources of that river, and exhaled, according to Pliny, nitrous vapours. (Plin., 6, 27.)—III. A city in the Macedonian district of Amphaxitis. (Plin., 4, 10.)—IV. A city of Syria, on the eastern bank of the Orontes. It was either built or restored by Seleucus Nicator, and is supposed to have been destroyed by the Arabians. (Strab., 518.—Zosim., 1, 52.—Thecd., Hist. Eccles., 3, 7.)—V. A fountain in Euboea, near Chalcis. (Plin., 4, 12.)—VI. A fountain in Boeotia, near Thebes. (Plan., 4, 7.) AREUs, I. (two syllables) a king of Sparta, preferred in the succession to Clecnymus, son of Cleomenes, who, on being defeated in his claim upon the throne, called in the aid of Pyrrhus. Areus was in Crete when the king of Epirus marched against Sparta; and instantly leaving that island, whither he had gone to aid the Gortynians, he returned home and repulsed Pyrrhus. He afterward went to the aid of Athens, when attacked by Antigonus Gonatas, and lost his life in a battle with this prince in the environs of Corinth, B.C. 268. (Pausan., 3, 6.) — II. (Artus, 'Apetc.) a native of Alexandrea, and member of the Pythagorean sect. According to the common account, he was one of the masters of Augustus, and enjoyed so high a degree of favour with this prince, that when, after the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra, Augustus appeared in the thcatre of Alexandrea, he had his old instructer on his right hand, and conversed familiarly with him, declaring that one of the causes of his sparing the inhabitants was his friendship for Arcus. (Dio Cassius, 51, 16.—I’alric. ad Dion., l.c.—Plut., Wat. Antch., 80.) The eloquence and philosophy of Areus were so persuasive, that, according to Seneca, he powerfully contributed to console Livia for the loss of Augustus: (Senec., Consol. ad Mar., 4, 2.) It is thought by some that Dioscoridcs dedicated to him his work on the Materia Medica, but the point is not clearly ascertained. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 407.) AREva, a river of Hispania Tarrace mensis, in the territory of the Arevaci. It rose southeast of Salamantica, and flowed into the Durius. The modern name is, according to Harduin, the Arlanzo (ad Plin., 3, 4), but according to Florez, more correctly, the Uccro. (Esp. Sagr., 5, 16, 39.) AREvKc1, a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, deriving their name, according to Pliny (3, 3), from the river Areva. They lay between the Vaccari to the north and the Carpetani to the south, and formed one of the most powersul branches of the Celtiberi. According to some authorities, their chief city was Nus mantia. (Strabo, 162. — Mela, 2, 6. — Appian, B. Hisp., c. 91.) Pliny, however, assigns this place to the Pelendones (3,4). Their later capital was Segobia or Segubia, now Segovia. (Itin. Ant., p. 435Ptol., 2, 6.) Argaeus, a mountain of Cappadocia, covered with perpetual snows, and so lofty that from its summit; according to the ancient writers, both the Euxine and the Mediterranean Seas might be seen, although, according to Strabo (538), there were very few who could boast of such a feat. It is now calicd Argehdag, and at its foot stood Mazaca, the capital of Cappadocia, called, in the time of Tiberius, Caesarea ad Argaeum, and now Kaisarieh. Mr. Kinneir observes, that Mount Argaeus is unquestionably one of prodigious elevation; but he much questions whether any human being ever reached its summit; and, indeed, he was positively informed that this was quite impossible. It was covered for some miles below the peak with snow, which was said to be eight or ten feet in depth in the month of October, when he was at Caesarea. (Journey through Asia Minor, &c., p. 94, note.) ARGAthonius, or Arganthonius, a king of Gades, who, according to one account (Herod., 1, 163.—Cic., de Senect., 19), lived 120 years, and reigned 80 years of this number. Pliny (7,48) gives 150 years as the period of his existence ; and Silius Italicus (3, 398), by poetic license, 300 years. Arges, a son of Coelus and Terra, who had only one eye in his forehead. (Wid. Cyclopes.) ARGEus, a son of Perdiccas, king of Macedonia, who obtained the kingdom when Amyntas, father of Philip, was driven out for a season by the Illyrians (from 393 B.C. to 390). On the death of Perdiccas, B.C. 360, he endeavoured, but in vain, to remount the throne. (Justin, 7, 1.) ARG1 (plur. masc.). Wid. Argos. ARGIA, I. daughter of Adrastus, married Polynices, whom she loved with uncommon tenderness. When he was killed in the Theban war, and Creon had forbidden any one to perform his funeral obsequies, Argia, in conjunction with Antigone, disobeyel the mandate, and placed the corpse of Polynices on the funeral pile. Antigone was seized by the guards who had been stationed near the dead body, but Argia escaped. Wul. Antigone. (Hygin, Fab., 69 and 72.)—II. A country of Peloponnesus, called also Argolis, of which Argos was the capital.-III. The wife of Inachus, and mother of Io. (Hygin.., Fab., 145.) ARGILEtu M, a street at Rome, which led from the Vicus Tuscus to the Forum Olitorium and Tiber. The origin of the name is uncertain. Some accounts derived it from Argus, a guest of Evander's (rid, Argus W.), who was said to have been interred there; others from the abundance of argilla, or clay, found in the vicinity. (Varro, L. L., 4, 32.) This street appears to have been chiefly tenanted by booksellers (Martial, Ep., 1, 4.—Id., 1, 118), and also by tailors. (Martial, Ep., 2, 17.) Cicero informs us (Ep. ad Att., 1, 14), that his brother Quintus had a house in the Argiletum. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 1, p. 545.) AR Gilus, the first town on the coast of Bisaltia in Thrace, beyond Bromiscus and the outlet of the Lake Bolbe. It was founded by a colony from Andros, according to Thucydides (4, 102). Herodotus (7, 115) says it was the first town which Xerxes entered after crossing the Strymon. The Argilians espoused the cause of Brasidas on his arrival in Thrace, and were very instrumental in securing his conquest of Amphipolis. (Thucyd., 4, 103.) ARGINús. E, small islands below Lesbos, and lying off the promontory of Cana or Coloni in AEolis. They were rendered famous for the victory gained near them by the Athenian fleet under Conon, over that of the Lacedæmonians, in the 26th year of the Peloponnesian war, B.C. 405. Of these three islands, the largest had a town called Arginusa. They are formed of a white, argillaceous soil, and from that circumstance took their names (dpytváetc, shining white, feminine dpywóeaga, contracted dpytvojaa.—Compare the remarks of Heusinger, ad Cic., de Off., 1, 24, 9). ARGIPhostes, a surname given to Mercury, because he killed the hundred-eyed Argus, by order of Jupiter. Cowper, in his version of Homer, renders the term in question by “Argicide.” (Consult remarks under the article Io.) ARGIPPAEI, a nation among the Sauromatae, born bald, with flat noses and long chins. They lived upon the fruit of a tree called Ponticus, from which, when ripe, they made a thick black liquor called Aschy, which they drank clear, or mixed with milk. Of the husks they prepared a kind of cake. No man offered

violence to this people, for they were accounted sacred, and had no warlike weapon among them. They determined the differences between their neighbours, and whoever fled to them for refuge was permitted to live unmolested. (Herodot., 4, 23.) Ritter thinks that these Argippaei were one of the early sacerdotal colonies from India, which had settled in the wilds of Scythia, and whose peaceful and sacred character had secured the regard of the neighbouring barbarians. Their bald heads he accounts for by the circumstance of the priests of Buddha being accustomed to shave the head. (Vorhalle, p. 286.) De Guignes, on the other hand, refers the description of Herodotus to the Sinae. (Mem. de l'Acad, des Inscr., vol. 35, p. 551.) The best opinion, however, is in favour of the Calmucs, whose peculiar physiognomy coincides with that ascribed to the ancient Argippaei. (Malte-Brun, Annal. des Voyag., vol. 1, p. 372.) The Calmuc priests, moreover, called Ghelongs, are said to shave the entire head, and to do this also in the case of infants that are destined for the priesthood. (Compare Bahr, ad Herod., l. c.—Rennell, Geogr. of Herodotus, vol. 1, p. 172, scqq.) Argiva, a surname of Juno, as worshipped at Argos. (Virg., AEn., 3, 547.) ARGIvi, the inhabitants of the city of Argos and the neighbouring country. The word is also applied by Homer, and, in imitation of him, by the later poets, to all the inhabitants of Greece. Argo, the name of the famous ship which carried Jason and his fifty companions to Colchis, when they resolved to recover the golden fleece. Jason having applied to Argus (vid. Argus III.) to construct a vessel for the expedition, Argus built for him a fifty-oared galley, called from himself the Argo. Minerva aided the architect in its construction, and set in the prow a piece of timber cut from the speaking oak of Dodona, and which had the power of giving oracles. On the termination of the voyage, Jason consecrated the vessel to Neptune at the Isthmus of Corinth. According to the more popular account, however, Minerva translated the Argo to the skies, and made it a constellation. (Apollod., 1, 9, 16.—Id., 1, 9, 24.—Id., 1, 9, 27–Diod. Sic., 4, 53.-- Eratosth., 35–Hygin., Fab., 24, &c.) Argolicus sixus, a bay on the coast of Argolis, between this country and Laconia. It is now the Gulf of Napoli. ARGölis, a country of Peloponnesus, to the east of Arcadia. It is properly a neck of land, deriving its name from its capital city Argos, and extending in a southeasterly direction from Arcadia, fifty-four miles

into the sea, where it terminates in the promontory of .

Scillaeum. Many and important associations of the heroic age are connected with this country. Here was Tyrins, from which Hercules departed at the commencement of his labours; here was Mycenae, the

royal city of Agamemnon, the most powerful and the

most unhappy of kings; here was Nemea, celebrated for its games instituted in honour of Neptune. But the glory of its early history does not seem to have animated Argos. No Themistocles, no Agesilaus was ever counted among its citizens; and though it possessed a territory of no inconsiderable extent, it never assumed a rank among the first of the Grecian states, but was rather the passive object of foreign policy. (Heeren's Politics of Grecce, p. 19, Bancroft's transl.)—For a sketch of the history of Argolis, rid. Argos. AngoNAUTAE, a name given to those ancient heroes who went with Jason on board the ship Argo to Colchis. The expedition arose from the following circumstance. Athamas, king of Orchomenus in Boeotia, married Nephele, by whom he had two children, a son and a daughter, named Phrixus and Helle. Having subsequently divorced Nephele, he married Ino, daugh

ter of Cadmus, who bore him two sons, Learchus and Melicerta. Ino, feeling the usual jealousy of a stepmother, resolved to destroy the children of Nephele. For this purpose she persuaded the women to parch the seed-corn unknown to their husbands. They did as she desired, and the lands consequently yielded no crop. Athamas sent to Delphi to consult the oracle, in what way the threatening famine might be averted. Ino persuaded the messenger to say that Apollo directed Phrixus to be sacrificed to Jupiter. Compelled by his people, Athamas reluctantly placed his son before the altar; but Nephele snatched away both her son and her daughter, and gave them a gold-fleeced ram she had obtained from Mercury, which carried them through the air over sea and land. They proceeded safely till they came to the sea between Sigaeum and the Chersonese, into which Helle fell, and it was named from her Hellespontus (Helle's Sea). Phrixus went on to Colchis to AEetes, the son of Helios, who received him kindly, and gave him in marriage his daughter Chalciope. He there sacrificed his ram to Jupiter Phyxius, and gave the golden fleece to AEetes, who nailed it to an oak in the grove of Mars. It is thus that we find this legend o: by Apollodorus (1, 9, 1). There are, however, many variations in the tale. Thus it is said that Ino was Athamas's first wife, and that he put her away by the direction of Juno, and married Nephele, who left him after she had borne two children, on finding that he still retained an attachment for Ino. When the response of the oracle came to Athamas, he sent for Phrixus out of the country, desiring him to come, and to bring the finest sheep in the flock for a sacrifice. The ram then spoke with a human voice to Phrixus, warning him of his danger, and offering to carry him and his sister to a place of safety. The ram, it was added, died at Colchis. (Philostephanus, ap. Schol. ad Il., 7, 86.— Compare, for another account, Hygin., Poet. Astron., 2, 20.) Other statements again are given by the tragic poets, it being well known that they allowed themselves great liberties in the treatment of the ancient myths. seqq.) Some time after this event, when Jason, the son of AEson, demanded of his uncle Pelias the crown which he usurped (rid. Pelias, Jason, AEson), Pelias said that he would restore it to him, provided he brought him the golden fleece from Colchis. Jason undertook the expedition, and when the Argo was ready (vid. Argo), consulted the oracle, which directed him to invite the

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Telamon, grandsons of that god, also came with Theseus; Erginos and Ancaeus, sons of Neptune, Augeas, son of Helius, Zetes and Calais, sons of Boreas. There were likewise Lynceus, and Idas, and Meleagrus, Laertes, Periclymenus, Nauplius, Iphiclus, Iphitus, Admetus, Acastus, Butes, Polyphemus, Atalanta, and many others. Idmon, the seer, the son of Apollo, came from Argos; Mopsus, also a prophet from Thessaly, and Orpheus, the son of the muse Calliope. The

(Compare Hygin., Fab., 4.—Nonnus, 9, 247,

Lemnos, in which there were at that time no men, Hypsipyle the daughter of Thoas governing it as queen. For the Lemnian women had murdered their husbands, being incensed at their neglect. (Vid. Hypsipyle.) The Argonauts, being invited to land, all disembarked with the exception of Hercules, and gave themselves up to joy and festivity, until, on the remonstrances of the son of Alcmena, they tore themselves away from the Lemnian fair ones, and once more handled their oars. The offspring of this temporary union repeopled, say the poets, the Island of Lemnos. After leaving Lemnos they came to Samothrace, and thence pursued their voyage through the Hellespont into the Propontis, where they came to an island with a lofty hill in it named the Bears' Hill, inhabited by giants with six arms. The adjacent country was possessed by the Delionians, whose king was named Cyzicus. Having been hospitably entertained by this prince, and having slain the giants who opposed their departure, they set sail, but were driven back by adverse winds. It was in the night that they returned, and the Dolionians, taking them to be their enemies the Pelasgians, attacked them ; and several of the Dolionians, and among them Cyzicus, lost their lives. With daylight discerning their error, the Argonauts shore their hair, and, shedding many tears, buried Cyzicus with solemn magnificence. They then sailed to Mysia, where they left behind them Hercules and Polyphemus: for Hylas, a youth beloved by the former, having gone for water, was seized and kept by the nymphs of the spring into which he dipped his urn. Polyphemus, hearing him call, went with his drawn sword to aid him, supposing him to have fallen into the hands of robbers. Meeting Hercules, he told him what had happened, and both proceeded in quest of the youth. Meantime the Argo put to sea, and left them behind. Polyphemus settled in Mysia, and built the city of Kios: Hercules returned to Argos. (Wid, remarks under the article Hylas.) The Argo next touched on the coast of Bebrycia, otherwise called Bithynia, where Pollux accepted the challenge of Amycus, king of the country, in the combat of the cestus, and slew him. They were driven from Bebrycia, by a storm, to Salmydessa, on the coast of Thrace, where they delivered Phineus, king of the place, from the persecution of the harpies. | Phineus directed them how to pursue their course through the Cyanean rocks, or the Symplegades (rid. Cyaneae), and they safely entered the Euxine Sea. They visited the country of the Mariandynians, where Lycus reigned. Here died Idmon, the seer, wounded | by the tusks of a wild boar. Tiphys also dying here, Ancaeus undertook the steerage of the vessel. They now kept along the southern coast of the Euxine till they came to the Island of Aretias, which was haunted by birds that shot feathers sharp as arrows from their wings. These they drove off by clattering on their shields. While they remained in this isle, the sons of Phrixus, who were on their way to Greece, having been sent by Æetes to claim their father's kingdom, were cast on the shores of Aretias by a storm. These became the guides of the Argonauts to Colchis, and conducted them to Æa the capital. Jason explain|ed the causes of his voyage to Æetes ; but the condiwhich Cadmus sowed at Thebes. All this was to be performed in one day. Medea, who was an enchantress, gave him a salve to rub his body, shield, and spear. The virtue of this salve would last an entire day, and protect alike against fire and steel. She farther told him that, when he had sown the teeth, a crop of armed men would spring up, and prepare to attack him. Among these she desired him to fling stones, and, while they were fighting with one another about them, each imagining that the other had thrown these, to fall on and slay them. The hero followed the advice of the princess: he entered the sacred grove of Mars, yoked the bulls, ploughed the land, and siaughtered the armed crop which it produced. But AEetes refused to give the fleece, and meditated burning the Argo and slaying her crew. Medea, anticipating him, led Jason by night to the golden fleece: with her drugs she cast to sleep the serpent which guarded it; and then, taking her little brother Absyrtus out of his bed, she embarked with him in the Argo, and the vessel set sail while it was yet night. (Pherecydes, ap. Schol. ad Apoll. Rh., 4, 223.−Another account is given under the article Absyrtus.) AEetes, on discovering the treachery and flight of his daughter, got on shipboard and pursued the fugitives. Medea, seeing him gain on them, cut her brother to pieces, and scattered his limbs on the stream; an event that was afterward transferred to the north side of the Euxine, where the town of Tomi (Tóuot, cuttings) was said to have derived its name from it. (Apollod., 1, 9, 24.—Orid, Trist., 3, 9.) While AEetes was engaged in collecting the limbs of his son, the Argo escaped. He then despatched a number of his subjects in pursuit of the Argo, threatening, if they did not bring back his daughter, to inflict on them the punishment designed for her. At length the Argo entered the western sea, and came to the Island of Circe. The belief for a long time prevailed, that there was a communication between the Palus Maeotis and the Oceanus or earth-encompassing stream. This communication the old poets made to be a narrow passage or strait, but later writers the river Tanais. The writer of the Orphic Argonautics makes the Argonauts pass up the Phasis into the Palus Maeotis, thence into the main Oceanus, and thence directing their course to the west, to come to the British Isles and the Atlantic, and to reach at last the Columns of Hercules. Circe performed the usual rites of purification to remove the blood-guilt of the death of Absyrtus, and the heroes then departed. Ere long they came to the Isle of the Sirens, charmed by whose enchanting strains they were about to land on that fatal shore, when Orpheus struck his lyre, and with its tones overpowered their voices. Wind and wave urged on the Argo, and all escaped but Butes, who flung himself into the sea to swim to the Flowery Isle. Venus, to save him, took him and set him to dwell at Lilybaeum. The Argonauts now passed Scylla and Charybdis, and also the Wandering Rocks; over these they beheld flame and smoke ascending, but Thetis and her sister Nereids guided them through by the command of Juno. Passing Thrinakia, the Isle of the Sun, they came to the island of the Phaeacians. Some of the Colchians who were in pursuit of the Argonauts, arriving here, found the Argo, and requested Alcinous to give Medea up to them. He assented, provided she j not been actually married to Jason. His wife Arete, hearing this, lost no time in joining the lovers in wedlock; and the Colchians, then fearing to return, settled in the island. Sailing thence, the Argo was assailed by a tremendous storm, which drove it to the Syrtes, on the coast of Libya. After being detained there for some time, they proceeded on their homeward voyage, and came to Crete, where the brazen man, Talus, prohibited their landing; but Medea, by her art, deprived him of life. . On leaving Crete, the night came on so black and dark that they knew not

steersman was Tiphys, son of Agnius, from Siphae in tions on which he was to recover the golden fleece Boeotia. The entire number was fifty. (Apollod., 1, were so hard, that the Argonauts must have perished 9, 16. — Heyne, ad loc.— Burmann, Praef ad Val. in the attempt had not Medea, the king's daughter, Flacc., 11, vol. 1, p. clzxiii.) When the heroes were fallen in love with their leader. She had a conference all assembled, Mopsus took auguries, and the omens with Jason, and, after mutual oaths of fidelity, Medea being favourable, they embarked. The joyful heroes' pledged herself to deliver the Argonauts from her fagrasped each his oar at the word of the soothsayer; ther's hard conditions, if Jason married her, and carand, while Orpheus struck his lyre in concert with his tied her with him to Greece. He was to tame two voice, their oars kept time to the harmony. . At the bulls, the gifts of Vulcan to Æetes, which had brazen close of the day they had reached the mouth of the bay' feet, and breathed flame from their throats. When of Pagasae. Here they remained for two days, and he had yoked these, he was to plough with them a piece then rowed along the coast of Magnesia; and, passing of ground, and sow the serpent's teeth which Æetes the peninsula of Pallene, at length reached the Isle of possessed; for Minerva had given him one half of those

where they were ; but Apollo, taking his stand on the rocks called the Melantian Rocks, shot an arrow into the sea: the arrow flashed a vivid light, and they beheld an island, on which they landed. As this isle had appeared (sive privato) so unexpectedly, they named it Anáphe. Here they erected an altar to Apollo AEgletes (the Lightener), and offered sacrifices. They thence proceeded to Ægina, where they watered; and they finally arrived at Iolcos after an absence of four months. —This celebrated voyage formed a theme for several ancient poets, and is noticed inore or less by many other writers. Jason and the Argo are mentioned by Homer (Il., 7, 469.-lb., 21, 40.—Od., 12, 69). Hesiod briefly narrates the principal events (Theog., 992, seqq.); it is the subject of one of Pindar's finest odes (Pyth., 4), and of the epic poem of Apollonius, named from it. It is narrated in detail by Apollodorus and Diodorus Siculus. Ovid also relates a large part of it, and there is an unfinished poem on the subject by the Latin poet Valerius Flaccus, which displays genius and originality. We have also the Argonautics of the pseudo-Orpheus, a poem to which the ablest critics assign a date posterior to the commencement of the Christian era. To these are to be added the detached notices in other writers and in the various scholia. Of the dramas composed on this subject, not a single one has been preserved, except the Medea of Euripides. (Keightley's Mythology, 2d ed., p. 468, seqq.)—The Argonautic expedition, observes Thirlwall, when viewed in the light in which it has usually been considered, is an event which a critical historian, if he feels himself compelled to believe it, may think it his duty to notice, but which he is glad to pass rapidly over, as a perplexing and unprofitable riddle. For even when the ancient legend has been pared down into an historical form, and its marvellous and poetical features have been all effaced, so that nothing is left but what may appear to belong to its pith and substance, it becomes, indeed, dry and meager enough, but not much more intelligible than before. It still relates an adventure, incomprehensible in its design, astonishing in its execution, connected with no conceivable cause, and with no sensible effect. Though the account which we have given is evidently an artificial statement, framed to reconcile the main incidents of a wonderful story with nature and probability, it still contains many points which can scarcely be explained or believed. It carries us back to a period when navigation was in its infancy among the Greeks; yet their first essay at maritime discovery is supposed at once to have reached the extreme limit, which was long after attained by the adventurers who gradually explored the same formidable sea, and gained a footing on its coasts. The success of the undertaking, however, is not so surprising as the project itself; for this implies a previous knowledge of the country to be explored which it is very difficult to account for. But the end proposed is still more mysterious ; and, indeed, can only be explained with the aid of a conjecture. Such an explanation was attempted by some of the later writers among the ancients, who perceived that the whole story turned on the golden fleece, the supposed motive of the voyage, and that this feature had not a sufficiently historical appearance. But the mountain torrents of Colchis were said to sweep down particles of gold, which the natives used to detain by fleeces dipped in the streams. This report suggested a mode of translating the fable into historical language. It was conjectured that the Argonauts had been attracted by the metallic treasures of the country, and that the golden fleece was a poetical description of the process which they had observed, or perhaps had practised: an interpretation certainly more ingenious, Cr, at least, less absurd than those by which Diodorus transforms the fire-breathing bulls which Jason was said to have yoked, at the bid. ding of Æétes, into a band of Taurians who guarded

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