Obrazy na stronie

name nourishment, the slime in which they were born. At first they were of very brief duration, and subsequently only acquired the faculty of propagating their species. Men were distinct from the other kinds, and became the ruling race. in all animals alike, and all have a body for use, only some a more perishable, others a more durable one.

Mind, however, was inborn

of Eudamidas, was king of Sparta when Demetrius Poliorcetes came to attack that city, B.C. 293. He was defeated by Demetrius, in the very view of Sparta itself, and the city would have been taken, had not other events called the victor to a different quarter of Greece. The rest of his history is unknown. Larcher makes

his reign to have been one of 46 years, but does not

The o of Archelaus in ethics was

as follows: “Good and evil are not by nature, but by convention.” (Diog. Laert., 2, 16.-Orig. Phil., 9.Ritter's History of Philosophy, 1, 319, seqq.) Archexiàrus. Wid. Opheltes. ArchiAs, I. a Corinthian, leader of the colony that founded Syracuse. Wid. Syracuse.—II. A Greek poet, a native of Antioch, who came to Rome in the consulship of Marius and Catulus (B.C. 102). He soon became intimate with the most distinguished men in this iatter city, and accompanied Lucullus to Sicily, and, on returning with him to that province, received the rights of Roman citizenship at the municipal town of Heraclea, in southern Italy. A conflagration, however, having destroyed the records of this place, a certain Gratius contested judicially his title to the rights and privileges of a Roman citizen. Cicero, his friend and former pupil, defended Archias in a brilliant oration, which has come down to us, and which contains not only the praises of his old instructor, but a beautiful eulogium also on the culture of letters. The poet gained his cause. a poem on the war with the Cimbri, and had commenced another on the consulship of Cicero. There remain, however, of his productions, only some epigrams in the Anthology. It is difficult to reconcile the eulogiums which Cicero heaps on Archias, with the extreme mediocrity of the pieces that have reached us. A servile imitator of Leonidas the Tarentine, and of Antipater, he handles the same themes which they had selected before him, and only produces, after all, unfaithful copies. Two or three pieces are somewhat superior to the rest, but still we must take it for granted that his poem on the Cimbrian war was a very dif

Archias before this had composed

ferent production from any of his epigrams, or else

that Cicero's vanity got the better of his judgment, and cerning Neobule and her parent.

give the data on which he founds this opinion. (Plut.,

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Archigi Nes, a physician, born at Apamea in Syria. He lived in the reign of Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan. Archigenes enjoyed a high reputation among his contemporaries, and for some generations after. He is regarded as the founder of the Eclectic school of Medicine, and was also one of the pneumatic sect, having received the principles of the latter from his preceptor Agathinus. He wrote on the pulse (a work on which Galen commented), on chronic affections, on pharmacy, &c. Galen often cites him with eulogiums, and Juvenal, his contemporary, makes frequent mention of him in his satires. Only fragments of his writings remain. According to Suidas, he died at the age of 63; but Eudocia makes him to have reached 83 years.

| The latest edition of the fragments of Archigenes is

that of Harles, Lips., 1816, 4to. (Galen, de diff. puls., 2, p. 26.-Id., de loc. affect., 2, p. 262, &c.—Suidas, s. v. Eudocia, ap. Willoison, Anecd. Gratc., vol. 1, p. 65–Sprengel, Hist, de la Med., vol. 2, p. 75.) Archilochus, a Greek poet, a native of Paros, who flourished 688 B.C. His mother Enipo was a slave, but his father Telesicles one of the most distinguished citizens of the island. The particulars which the ancients have given us respecting the life of Archilochus appear to be in a great measure fabulous. It is certain, however, that, while still young, he accompanied his father, who, in obedience to a Delphic oracle, led a colony from Paros to Thasos, and that his subsequent career was one succession of misfortunes, which appear to have exasperated his character, and given to his poetry that severe cast which the ancients ascribed to it. Among the various tales related of Archilochus, the one most commonly mentioned is that con(Vid. Lycambes.)

that, in praising Archias, he felt he was praising him- This story, however, appears to have been invented

self. (Cic., pro Arch.)

Archidi Mus, I. son of Theopompus, king of Sparta, died before his father.—II. Another king of Sparta, son of Anaxidamus, succeeded by Agasicles. He ascended the throne about 620 B.C.—III. Son of Zeuxidamus, of the line of the Proclidae.

after the poet's time ; and one of the scholiasts on Horace remarks, that Neobule did not destroy herself on account of any injurious verses on the part of Ar.

chilochus, but out of despair at the death of her father.

He ascended

the Spartan throne B.C. 476, his father having died

without becoming king. Laconia was desolated by an earthquake about the 12th year of his reign, and after this the Messenians revolted. Archidamus displayed great coolness and ability amid these events, and finally reduced the Messenians to submission, having taken the fortress of Ithome after a siege of ten years. He opposed the Peloponnesian war, but, his counsel not having been followed, he took the command of the confederate army, and made many invasions of Attica. He died B.C. 428.-IV. Son of Agesilaus, of the line of the Proclidae. Before coming to the throne, he had She command of the troops which the Lacedæmonians sent to the aid of their countrymen aster the battle of Leuctra. On his return to the Peloponnesus, he gained some advantages over the Arcadians, although the Thebans had come to their aid. Having ascended the throne (B.C. 361), he prevailed upon the Lacedaemonians to aid the Phocians, and took an active part in their behalf, in the Sacred war. He afterward went to the aid of the Tarentines, who were at war with some of the neighbouring communities, and fell in battle there, B.C. 338. His body could not be found after the action, which some ascribed to the vengeance of Apollo, who thus deprived him of the rites of burial for the part he had acted in the Sacred war.—W. Son

(Horat., Epod., 6, 13.) Archilochus states one sact relative to himself, in some verses that have come down to us, which is, that in a battle between the Thasians and people of Thrace, he saved himself by flight, throwing away at the same time his buckler. This act of weakness or cowardice was the occasion of a galling affront which he afterward received : for. having visited Sparta, he was ordered by the magistrate to quit the city immediately. Dissatisfied eventually with the posture of affairs at Thasos, which the poet often represents as desperate, Archilochus must have quitted Thasos and returned to Paros, since we are informed, by credible writers, that he lost his life in a war between the Parians and the inhabitants of the neighbouring island of Naxos. The ancients ascribe to Archilochus the invention of a great number of poetic measures. (Consult, on this subject, Victorinus, lib. 4, p. 2588, ed. Putsch; and, as regards the Epode, which he is also said to have invented, compare the remarks of Vandenbourg, in his edition of Horace, vol. 2.) With respect to iambic verse, of which he is, in like manner, named as the author (Hor., Ep. ad Pis., 79), some difference of opinion seems to exist; and it has been thought that the invention, in this case, relates less to the iambic rhythm, which appears so natural to the Greek language, than to a particular kind of versification. (Compare Schöll, Hist. Lut. Gr., vol. 1, p. 199, seqq.) Archilochus was, in general, regard: ed by the ancients as one of the greatest poets that Greece had produced. Cicero classes him with Homer, Sophocles, and Pindar (Orat., 1); and in an epigram in the Anthology (vol. 2, p. 286), the Emperor Hadrian remarks that the Muses, fearing for the glory of Homer, inspired Archilochus with the idea of composing in iambics. One production of this poet's, in particular, his Hymn in honour of Hercules, was the subject of high eulogium; this piece he himself sung at the Olympic games. The anniversary of his birth was celebrated, as in the case of Homer ; and the rhapsodists recited his verses as they did those of the Iliad. Blame, however, attaches itself to the bitter and vindictive spirit that characterized his verses, as well to the indecency which pervaded them; and it is probably to this latter cause that we must ascribe the loss of his poems, of which we possess only a few fragments, preserved as citations in the writings of Athenaeus, St. Clement of Alexandrea, Stobacus, the scholiasts, &c. If the ancients speak of the Fables of Archilochus, it is not because he ever published any collections of apologues, but because he was accustomed to give life and movement to his iambics by introducing into them occasionally this spieces of composition. The fragments of Archilochus were published by H. Stephens and Froben in their respective collections, and by Brunck in his Analecta. An edition of them by Liebel, with a critical commentary, appeared from the Leipsic press in 1812, and also in an enlarged form in 1819, 8vo. ARchivièDEs, the most celebrated mathematician among the ancients, a native of Syracuse in Sicily, and related to King Hiero. He flourished about 250 B.C. Under what masters he studied, or how much of his extraordinary knowledge he acquired from his o: is not known. That he travelled into gypt appears certain ; but it is probable that, in his scientific acquaintance with that country, he communicated more than he received, and that he owes the great name which he has transmitted to posterity to his own vigorous and inventive intellect. He was equally skilled in the science of astronomy, geometry, mechanics, hydrostatics, and optics, in all of which he excelled, and produced many extraordinary inventions. His ingenuity in solving problems had in Cicero's days become proverbial; and his singular ingenuity in the invention and construction of warlike engines is much dwelt upon by Livy. His knowledge of the doctrine of specific gravities is proved by the well-known story o his discovery of the mixture of silver with gold in King Hiero's crown, which fraud he detected by comparing the quantity of water displaced by equal weights of gold and silver. The thought occurred to him while in the bath, on observing that he displaced a bulk of water equal to his own body; when, at once, perceiving a train of consequences, he ran naked out of the bath into the street, exclaiming, Eipnka, “I have found it!” This part of the story, however, is regarded by some as a mere.exaggeration. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 379.) To show Hiero the wonderful effects of mechanic power, he is said, by the help of ropes and pulleys, to have drawn towards him, with perfect ease, a galley which lay on the shore, manned and loaded. His intimate acquaintance with the powers of the lever is evinced by his famous declaration to the same monarch : A\c troi ord, kal rôv kóauov Kuvijaw, “Give me where I may stand, and I will move the world.” But his greatest efforts of mechanic skill were displayed during the siege of Syracuse, when he contrived engines of annoyance of the most stupendous nature. Among other applications of science, he is said to have fired the Roman fleet by means of reflecting mirrors, of which story, long treated as a fable, Buffon has proved the credibility. (Mem. de l'Acad. des Sciences, 1747.) There are not wanting persons, however, even at the present day,

who, from the silence of Polybius, Livy, and Plutarch on this subject, still view the tale with an eye of unbelief (Compare Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 381.—Foreign Review, No. 1, p. 305.) Eminent as this great mathematician was for his knowledge of mechanics, he was still more so for the rare talent which he possessed of investigating abstract truths, and inventing conclusive demonstrations in the higher branches of geometry. According to Plutarch (Wit. Marcell.), intellectual speculations of this nature most delighted him ; and he did not deem it worth his while to leave any account in writing of his mechanical inventions. We have, indeed, no precise indication of any works in which they are described, except it be with regard to a sphere representing the movements of the stars, of which Cicero and Claudian make mention. Archimedes prided himself on the discovery of the ratio between the cylinder and the inscribed sphere, and requested his friends to place the figures of a sphere and cylinder on his tomb, with an inscription expressing the proportion between them; a desire that afterward led to its discovery by Cicero. The Roman orator, when he was quaestor in Sicily, discovered this monument in the shape of a small pillar, and showed it to the Syracusans, who did not know that it was in being. He says there were some iambic verses inscribed upon it, the latter halves of which were almost eaten out by time; and that there were likewise to be seen (as those verses asserted) the figures of a cylinder and a sphere. From the death of this great mathematician, which happened A.U.C. 542, to the quaestorship of Cicero, A.U.C. 678, a hundred and thirty-six years had elapsed. This period, though it had not effaced the cylinder and the sphere, had put an end to the learning of Syracuse, once so respectable in the republic of letters. (Cuc., Tusc. Quast., 5, 23.) Archimedes's sepulchre, which stood near one of the city gates, was almost overgrown with thorns and briers, and, but for the exertions of Cicero, would most probably have never been discovered. Various accounts are given by Plutarch of the manner of Archimedes' death. The period when it occurred was during the capture and storming of Syracuse. According to the narrative most commonly received, Archimedes was engaged in study when the city fell; and so intent was he upon a geometrical figure which he was tracing in the sand, as to be altogether unconscious of the confusion around him. A soldier suddenly entered his room, and ordered him to follow him to Marcellus, the Roman general having given particular orders to spare him. Archimedes refused to go until he had finished his demonstration, whereupon the soldier, in a passion, drew his sword and killed him. The Roman commander took upon himself the charge of his funeral, and protected and honoured his relations.—Several valuable remains of this celebrated mathematician are preserved. In abstract geometry there are two books “On the Sphere and Cylinder;” a treatise “On the Dimensions of the Circle ;” two books “On obtuse Conoids and Spheroids;” a book “on Spiral Lines;” and another “On the Quadrature of the Parabola.”

Besides these geometrical works, he wrote a treatise, entitled Yauuirng (Arenarius), in which he demonstrates that the sands of the earth might be numbered by a method somewhat similar to that of logarithms. In mechanics he has left a treatise “On Equiponderants, or Centres of Gravity;” and in hydrostatics, a treatise “On bodies floating in fluids.” Other works of Archimedes are mentioned by ancient writers, which are now lost. Of those that remain various editions have appeared, the latest of which was issued in 1792 from the Clarendon press in Oxford, with a new Latin translation, a preface, notes by Torrelli of Verona, purchased of his executor Albertini, and with various readings, The edition was published under the care of the Rev. A. Robertson, of Christ Church, Oxford, and may be regarded as the first truly complete one of the works of Archimedes. Translations have also appeared in some of the modern languages. That of Peyrard, in French (1807, 4to, and 1808, 2 vols. 8vo), is most deserving of mention. Delambre has appended to this version a memoir on the Arithmetic of the Greeks ; a subject of great interest, as we have very scanty data left us on this point. A review of this translation is given in the London Quarterly, vol. 3, p. 89, seqq. (Compare Hutton's Math. Dict. Aikin's G. Dict. —Sarii Onomast. Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 378, seqq.) Archippe, a city of the Marsi, destroyed by an earthquake, and lost in Lake Fucinus. It is thought by Holstenius, on the authority of some people of the country who had seen vestiges of it, to have stood between the villages of Transaqua and Ortuccia, on the spot which retains the name of Arciprete. (Holst., Adnot., p. 154.) Archippus, I. a king of Italy, from whom perhaps the town of Archippe received its name. He was one of the allies of Turnus. (Virg., AEm., 7, 752.)—II. An Athenian comic poet, who gained the prize but once (Olymp. 91), according to Suidas. For some of the titles of his pieces, consult Fabricius, Bibl. Gr., vol. 1, p. 747, and Schweighaeuser's Index Auctorum to Athenaeus (Animadv., vol. 9, p. 47). ArchoNtes, the name of the chief magistrates of Athens. At first the archons were for life, and on their death the office descended to their children. This arrangement took place after the death of Codrus, the Athenian state having been previously governed by kings. The first of these perpetual archons was Medon, son of Codrus, from whom the thirteen following and hereditary archons were named Medontidae, as being descended from him. In the first year of the seventh Olympiad, the power of the archons was curbed by their being allowed to hold the office only for ten years. These are what are termed decennial archons. Seventy years after this the office was made annual, and continued so ever after. These annual archons were nine in number, and none were chosen but such as were descended from ancestors who had been free citizens of the republic for three generations. They were also to be without any personal defect, and must show that they had been dutiful towards their parents, had borne arms in the service of their country, and were possessed of a competent estate to support the office with dignity. They took a solemn oath that they

would observe the laws, administer justice with impartiality, and never suffer themselves to be corrupted.

If they ever received bribes they were compelled by the laws to dedicate to the god of Delphi a statue of gold, of equal weight with their body. (Plut, Vit. Solon, c. 19. Pollux, 8, 9, 85.) They possessed the entire power of punishing malefactors with death. The chief among them was called Archon; the year took its denomination from him, and hence he was also called étavvuot. He determined all causes between man and wife, and took care of legacies and wills; he provided for orphans, protected the injured, and punished drunkenness with uncommon severity. If he suffered himself to be intoxicated during the time of his office, the misdemeanor was punished with death. The second of the archons was called Basileus : it was his office to keep good order, and to remove all causes of quarrel in the families of those who were dedicated to the service of the gods. The profane and the impious were brought before his tribunal ; and he offered public sacrifices for the good of the state. He assisted at the celebration of the Eleusinian festivals and other religious ceremonies. His wife was to be a citizen of the whole blood of Athens, and of a pure and unsullied life. He had a vote among the Areopagites, but was obliged to sit among them without his crown. The Polemarch was another archon

of inferior dignity. He had the care of all foreigners, and provided a sufficient maintenance, from the public treasury, for the families of those who had lost their lives in the defence of their country. But because these three magistrates were often, by reason of their youth, not so well skilled in the laws and customs of their country as might have been wished, that they might not be left wholly to themselves, they were each accustomed to make choice of two persons of age, gravity, and reputation, to sit with them on the bench, and assist them with their advice. These they called IItipedpot, or assessors, and obliged them to undergo the same probation as the other magistrates. The six other archons were indifferently called Thesmotheta, and received complaints against persons accused of impiety, bribery, and ill behaviour. Indictments before the Thesmothetae were in writing ; at the tribunal of the Basulcus, they were by word of mouth. They settled all disputes between the citizens, redressed the wrongs of strangers, and forbade any laws to be enforced but such as were conducive to the safety of the state. After some time, the qualifications which were required to be an archon were not strictly observed, and, when the glory of Athens was on the decline, even foreigners, who had been admitted to the rights of citizenship, were created archons. Thus Hadrian, before he was elected emperor of Rome, was made archon at Athens, though a foreigner; and the same honours were conferred upon Plutarch.Many lists of the Athenian archons have been published in various works, but all of these were more or less inaccurate till the time of Corsini, and on that account of little use in illustrating ancient history. A catalogue of the archons is given in Stanley’s “Lives of the Philosophers,” p. 938, seqq.; another by Du Fresnoy (Tablettes, vol. 1, p. 66, seqq), and a third by Dr. Hales (Analysis of Chronology, vol. 1, p. 230, scqq.). One cause of the incorrectness of these lists has been, the not adverting to a peculiarity of the Parian marble; that the compiler places the annual archons, who preceded the Peloponnesian war, one year higher respectively than the Julian year, with which they were in reality connumerary. Hence two archons have been often made out of one. Again, those who have used this document did not always distinguish between what was attested by the marble, and what was supplied by conjecture where the marble was defaced. Hence the marble is often quoted for that which was only inserted by its editors. Various forms or corruptions of the name of an archon have been sometimes admitted as the names of different archons. From these causes, the catalogues of archons are not as correct and accurate as they might have been rendered. (Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. 1, p. x., Introduction.) The most accurate tables, as far as they extend, are those given by Clinton, in the work which has just been quoted. ARchyTAs, a native of Tarentum, and one of the Pythagoric preceptors of Plato. He is said to have been the eighth in succession from Pythagoras; and this account deserves more credit than the assertion of Iamblichus, that he heard Pythagoras in person; for the father of this sect flourished, as we shall see, about the 60th Olympiad, B.G. 540; but Archytas conversed with Plato upon his first visit to Sicily, which was in the 96th Olympiad, B.C. 396; whence it appears, that there was an interval of above a century between the time of Pythagoras and that of Archytas. Such was the celebrity of this philosopher, that many illustrious names appear in the train of his disciples, particularly Philolaus, Eudoxus, and Plato. To these Suidas, and, after him, Erasmus (Chil., p. 550), add Empedocles ; but Empedocles certainly flourished about the 84th Olympiad, near fifty years before Archytas.--So high was his character for moral and political wisdom, and so deservedly did he enjoy the unlimited confidence of his fellow-citizens, that, contrary to the usual custom, he was appointed seven different times to the responsible office of general, and never experienced either check or defeat. (Diog. Laert., 8, 79.—Menage, ad loc. — AFlian makes it six times. War. Hist., 7, 14.) Archytas was eminently distinguished for his self-command and purity of conduct; and as uniting with a rare knowledge of mankind such a childlike feeling of universal love, and such simpleness of manners, that he lived with the inmates of his house a real father of a family. Amid all his public avocations, however, he still found leisure to devote to the most important discoveries in science, and to the composition of many works of a very diversified character. His discoveries were exclusively in the mathematical and kindred sciences. He was occupied not merely with theoretical, but also practical mechanics; and his inventions in this department of study imply a considerable advance in their cultivation. He also published a musical system, which was referred to by all succeeding theoretical students of the art. (Ptolem., Harm., 1.13.-Boeth., de Mus.) He wrote, moreover, a treatise on agriculture. (Varro, de R. R., 1, 1.—Colum., 1, 1.) Of his philosophical doctrines many accounts have come down to us; but wherever our information on this head is derived exclusively from writers of later date, we cannot be too much on our guard, lest we should adopt anything which rests merely on supposititious writing, since nearly all the fragments attributed to him are spurious. These fragments have been preserved by Stobaeus and others, and edited from him by Gale, in his Opuscula Mythologuca (Cantabr., 1671, 12mo), among the IIvtayopetov droarraquírta. They are given, however, more fully and correctly by Orellius, in his Opuscula Graecorum, &c., vol. 2, p. 234, seqq.—Aristotle, who was an industrious collector from the Pythagoreans, is said to have borrowed from Archytas the general arrangements which are usually called his “Ten Categories.”—The sum of the moral doctrines of Archytas is, that virtue is to be pursued for its own sake in every condition of life; that all excess is inconsistent with virtue ; that the mind is more injured by prosperity; and that there is no pestilence so destructive to human happiness as pleasure. It is probable that Aristotle was indebted to Archytas for many of his moral ideas; particularly for the notion which runs through his ethical pieces, that virtue consists in avoiding extremes. Archytas perished by shipwreck, and his death is made a subject of poetical description by Horace, who celebrates him as a geometer, mathematician, and astronomer. (Od., 1, 28–Rutter, History of the Pythag. Philos., p. 67—Id., Hist. Anc. Phil., vol. 1, p. 350, seq.) ArcitéNENs, an epithet applied to Apollo, as bearing a bow (arcus and teneo). The analogous Greek expression is rošopópoc. (Virg., AEn., 3, 75, &c.) Arctixus, a cyclic bard, born at Miletus. He was confessedly a very ancient poet, nay, he is even termed a disciple of Homer. The chronological accounts place him immediately after the commencement of the

Olympiad. Arctinus composed a poem consisting of 9100 verses. (Heeren, Bibliothek der Alten Lit., &c., pt. 4, p. 61.) It opened with the arrival of the Ama

zons at Troy, which event followed immediately after the death of Hector. The action of the epic of Arctinus was connected with the following principal events. Achilles kills Penthesilea, and then, in a fit of anger, puts to death Thersites, who had ridiculed him for his love of her. Upon this, Memnon, the son of Aurora, appears with his Ethiopians, and is slain by the son of Thetis, after he himself has killed in battle Antilochus, the Patroclus of Arctinus. Achilles himself falls by the hand of Paris, while pursuing the Trojans into the town. Ajax and Ulysses contend for his arms, and the defeat of Ajax causes his suicide. (Schol. Pind.,

Isthm., 3, 58.) Arctinus farther related the story of the wooden horse, the careless security of the Trojans, and the destruction of Laocoon, which induced. Eneas to fly for safety to Ida, before the impending destruction of the city. In this he is quite different from Virgil, who, in other respects, has in the second book of the AEneid chiefly followed Arctimus. The sack of Troy by the Greeks returning from Tenedos, and issuing from the Trojan horse, was described so far as to display in a conspicuous manner the arrogance and mercilessness of the Greeks, and to occasion the resolution of Minerva, already known from the Odyssey, to punish them in various ways on their return home. This last part, when divided from the preceding, was called the Destruction of Troy (12tov repair); the former, comprising the events up to the death of Achilles, was termed the AEthiopis of Arctinus. (Procl, Chrestom. Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. 169– Hist. Lit. Gr., p. 65, un the Library of Useful Knowledge.) Arctoph YLAx, a constellation near the Great Bear, called also Bootes. The term is derived from tiparoc. “a bear,” and 90Zaš, “a keeper or guard,” for the position of the constellation on the celestial sphere is such, that it appears to watch over the Greater and Smaller Bear. Hence Ovid calls it “Custos Ursae" (Trust., 1, 10, 15), and Vitruvius simply “Custos” (9, 4.—Compare Ideler, Untersuch., &c., der Sternnamen, p. 47.-Cic., de Nat. D., 2, 42). - Arctos, two celestial constellations near the north pole, commonly called Ursa Major and Minor, supposed to be Arcas and his mother, who were made constellations. Ovid calls them Ferae conjointly: “magna minorque Ferae” (Trist., 4, 3, 1). Originally, the Greater Bear alone had the name of Arctos, and Homer appears merely to have been acquainted with this constellation, not with that of the Smaller Bear. (Il., 18, 487.-Od., 5, 275.) The discoverer of the latter constellation is said to have been Thales, who lived at least two centuries after Homer. (Schol. ad Il., l. c.—Achill. Tat., Isag. in Arat., Phaen., c. 1.Hygin., Poet. Astron., 2, 2.) The truth is, however, that Thales merely brought the knowledge of the Smaller Bear from the East into Greece, for the Phoenicians were acquainted with it at a much earlier pcriod, and hence the name botvíkm, Phoenice, that was sometimes given to it.' (Eratosth., Cat., c. 2.-Schol. ad German.. p. 89.) Another name for the Greater Bear was "Auaša, or “the Wain,” an appellation known already to Homer (Il, l.c.). Subsequently, a distinction was made between the Greater and Smaller Wain, as between the Greater and Smaller Bears. Hence we have, in Latin, the plural form Plaustra applied to both constellations of the Wain. (German., v. 25—Aviem., v. 103.) The more common Latin expression, however, is Septem Triones, “ the seven ploughing oxen,” originally applied to the Greater Bear, but afterward to both. Hence the Latin Septemtrio, as indicating the north. (Varro, L. L., 6, 4– Aul. Gell., 2, 21–Virg., AEm., 1, 748.) Two other names are also found among the ancients for the Bear, namely, ‘E2/km (Helice), and Kvvónowpa (Cynodiira). The first of these is derived from £215, “curled,” and has reference to the curved or s-like position of the stars composing the Greater Bear, if we regard what is commonly called the Square or Quadrangle, merely as a semicircle opening towards the north. (Buttmann, as cited by Ideler, Untersuch, uber die Beobacht. der Alt., p. 376.) The term Kvvóoroupa, on the other hand, which signifies the “Dog's tail,” was applied by the ancients to the constellation of the Smaller Bear, because this animal is represented on the celestial planisphere with its tail bent upward like that of a dog, or, as the scholiast on Homer remarks (Il., 18, 487), 6ta r) oc kvoog #xeuv dwalkekāaquévny oipúv. At a later period, however, the etymology of the two terms was forgotten or neglected, and Helice and Cynosura appear in fable as two nymphs, the nurses of Jove. (Arat., Phaen., 30, seqq.—Hygin., Poet. Astron., 2, 2.) The name Cynosura is sometimes improperly applied by the moderns to the Pole-star. (Ideler, Sternnamen, p. 8.)—The ancient name of the Greater Bear in the north is Karlsvagn, the “Carle's,” or “Old Man's Wain.” The Carle, Magnusen says, is Odin or Thor. Hence our “Charles's Wain.” The Icelanders call the Bears “Stori (great) Wagn,” and “Litli Wagn.” (Edda Saemundar, 3,304.) ARCTURus, a star near the tail of the Great Bear, the rising and setting of which was generally supposed to portend tempestuous weather. It belongs to the constellation Boötes or Arctophylax, and forms its brightest star. Originally, according to Erotianus (Erpos. roc. Hippocr.), the term Arcturus was synonymous with Arctophylax, being derived from dpktoc, a bear, and otpoc, a watch or guard. Whether Hesiod, who twice makes mention of Arcturus (Op. et D., 566. —Ibid.,610), means the star or the constellation, is not very clear. Even some later writers, such as Martianus Capella, and the scholiast to Germanicus, employ the term as indicating the constellation itself. The common derivation of the name, from dpktos, and otpú, a tail, as referring to the situation of the star near the tail of the bear, is condemned by Buttmann. (Ideler, Sternnamen, p. 47, seqq.) Arcturus, observes Dr. Halley, in the time of Columella and Pliny rose with the sun at Athens, when the sun was in 12} of Virgo; but at Rome three days sooner, the sun being in 94 of Virgo, the autumnal equinox then falling on the 24th or 25th of September. ARDALUs, a son of Vulcan, said to have been the first who invented the pipe. He erected a temple also at Troezene, in honour of the Muses, who were hence called, from him, Ardalides, or Ardaliotides. (Pausan., 2, 31.—Steph. Byz., s. v.) ARDEA, the capital of the Rutuli, a very ancient city of Italy, founded, as tradition reported, by Danaë, the mother of Perseus. (Virg., AEn., 7,408.) Hence the boast of Turnus, that he could number Inachus and Acrisius among his ancestors. Pliny (3,5) and Mela (2, 4) have improperly reckoned Ardea among the maritime cities of Latium ; but Strabo (232) and Ptolemy (66) have placed it more correctly at some distance from the coast. The ruins which yet bear the name of Ardea are situated on a hill about three miles from the sea. Though the early accounts of this ancient city are lost in obscurity, we are led to infer that it must have attained to a considerable degree of power and prosperity at a remote period, if it be true, as Livy (21, 7) asserts, that a body of Ardeatae formed part of the Zacynthian colony, which settled Saguntum in Spain. The first mention which occurs of this city in the history of Rome, is in the reign of Tarquinius Superbus. We are told that it was during the siege of Ardea, which the king was carrying on, that the memorable circumstance occurred which led to his expulsion from the throne, and the consequent change of government at Rome. (Lit., 1, 57.-Dion. Hal., 4, 64.) The Ardeatae had the honour of affording an asylum to Camillus in his exile, and, under the conduct of that great man, were enabled to render a signal service to the Romans in their utmost distress (if indeed we are to give credit to Livy's account of these transactions); first by defeating a large body of Gauls who had advanced towards their city in quest of booty (Liv., 5,45), and afterward by contributing greatly to the decisive victory which freed Rome from her most dangerous enemies. (Liv., 5, 49.) In all probability, however, this story is merely to be regarded as one of the embellishments of the false legends of the Furian family. (Compare Arnold's History of Rome, vol. 1, p. 393, seqq.) The Ardeatae, however, did not always display the same zeal and constancy in the service of

the republic. In the second Punic war, and at a time when the victories of Hannibal had exhausted the resources of the state, they refused to furnish any farther supplies of men and provisions. Their city was therefore included in the vote of censure which the Roman senate afterward passed on several refractory colonies. (Liv., 27, 9.) Another curious circumstance in the history of Ardea is recorded by Varro (R. R., 2, 2), who states, that the era in which barbers were first introduced into Italy from Sicily was noted in the archives of this city. This epoch Varro makes to coincide with 454 A.U.C. Strabo (22) informs us, that the country about Ardea was marshy, and the climate consequently very unfavourable; which is confirmed by Seneca (Epist. 105) and Martial (Epigr., 4, 60). Some warm springs, strongly impregnated with sulphur, noticed by Vitruvius (8, 3) in the vicinity of Ardea, still exist under the name of la Salforata, near the Terre di S. Lorenzo, in the direction of Antium. (Cramer's Ancient Italy, vol. 2, p. 21, seqq.) ARDERicca, I. a small town of Assyria, north of Babylon, on the Euphrates. Herodotus informs us (1, 185) that Nitocris, queen of Babylon, in order to render her territories more secure against the Medes, altered the course of the Euphrates, and made it so very winding, that it came, in its course, three times to Ardericca. (Compare Larcher, ad loc., where a diagram is given, explanatory of the course of the stream.) Heeren thinks that this laborious undertaking had also another object in view, to facilitate, namely, the navigation of the vessels in their descent from the higher countries. He considers it probable that this was effected by a series of sluices and floodgates, and that the numerous windings of the canal made it a three days' voyage to pass the village of Ardericca, the canal being cut in a zigzag manner, to diminish the fall occasioned by the steepness of the land. The name Ardericca has led to the conjecture, that it is the present Akkercuf, above Bagdad. Akkercuf, however, lies on the Tigris, not the Euphrates. (Heeren, Ideen, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 138, seqq.—Porter's Travels, vol. 2, p. 277.)—II. A village in Cissia, about two hundred and ten stadia to the northeast of Susa. (Herodotus, 6, 119.—Compare Larcher and Bahr, ad loc.) It was here that the Eretrian captives were settled. (Wid. Eretria.) ARD1scus, a river of Thrace, falling into the Hebrus at Adrianopolis. Now the Arda. ARDUENNA, now Ardennes, a forest of Gaul, the longest in that country, reaching, according to Caesar, from the Rhenus and the territories of the Treveri to those of the Nervii, upward of fifty miles in length. Others make the extent much larger. If it covered the whole of the intervening space between the countries of the Treveri and Nervii, it would greatly exceed fifty miles. The original Gallic name would seem to have been Ar-Denn, i.e., “the profound,” or “deep” (forest). Ar is the article, Den in the Kimric, Don in the Bas-Breton, and Domhainn in Gaelic, denote respectively “profound,” “thick,” &c. (Thierry, Hist. des Gaulois, vol. 2, p. 41, in notis.) The ground is now in many places cleared, and cities built upon it. It is divided into four districts. Its chief town is Mezieres. (Tacit., Ann., 8, 42.—Cas., Bell. Gall., 6, 29.) ARDys, a son of Gyges, king of Lydia, who reigned forty-nine years, took Priene, and made war against Miletus. (Herodot., 1, 16–Compare Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. 2, p. 296.) ARELRTUM ("Apezārov, Ptol. : 'Ape2srat, Strabo: Arelate, among the Latin writers; and sometimes Arelas by the poets), a town of the Salyes on the east side of the Rhodanus, at the place where it divides into three branches, not far from its mouth. Strabo speaks of it as a commercial emporium, and, according to

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