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(204) the Adula (6 'AéoùZac), but this is an et, or or the copyists, arising probably from the name of Mount Adula, which precedes. Tzschucke restores 6 'Addoñag. Ades, or HRDEs, an epithet originally of Pluto, the monarch of the shades; afterward applied to the lower world itself. The term is derived by most etymoloists from 4 privative, and eiów, video, alluding to the arkness supposed to prevail in this abode of the dead. That this is the true derivation, indeed, will appear from what the poets tell us of the helmet of Pluto (kvvi, Atôov), which had the power of rendering the wearer invisible. (Hom. Il. 5, 845.) For farther remarks on the Hades of the Greeks, vid. Tartarus. Ado ANDEstrius, a prince of the Catti, who wrote a letter to the Roman senate, in which he promised to destroy Arminius, if poison should be sent him for that urpose from Rome. The senate answered, that the .omans fought their enemies openly, and never used perfidious measures. (Tacit. Ann. 2, c. 88.) Adherb AL, son of Micipsa, and grandson of Masimissa, was besieged at Cirta, and put to death by Jugurtha, after vainly imploring the aid of Rome, B.C. 112. (Sallust., Jug. 5, 7, &c.) According to Ge. senius (Phaen. Mon., p. 399, §o the more Oriental form of the name is Atherbal, signifying “the worshipper of Baal.” From this the softer form Adherbal arose. The MSS. of Sallust often give Atherbal, with which we may compare the Greek 'Arápéac. (Diod. Sic, lib. 34, fragm.—vol. 10, p. 132, ed. Bip.–Polyb. 1, 46, &c.) ADIABENE, a region in the northern part of Assyria, and to the east of the Tigris. During the Macedonian sway, it comprised all the country between the Zabus Major and Minor. Under the Parthian sway it comprehended the country as far as the Euphrates, including what was previously Aturia. It was afterward the seat of a kingdom dependant on the Parthian power, which disappeared from history, however, on the rise of the second Persian empire. (Plin. 5, 12, &c.) Adiatorix. Vid. Supplement. ADIMANtus. Vid. Supplement. ADMETÉ, I. (Vid. Supplement.)—II. A daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, whom Hyginus, in the preface to his fables, calls Admeto, and a daughter of Pontus and Thalassa, which last was the offspring of Æther and Hemera. (Hom. Hymn, in Cercrem, 421.—Hesiod. Theog. 349.) ADMEtus, I. son of Pheres, king of Pheraea in Thessaly, and who succeeded his father on the throne. He married Theone, daughter of Thestor, and, after her death, Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, so famous for her conjugal heroism. It was to the friendship of Apollo that he owed this latter union. The god having been banished from the sky for one year, in consequence of his killing the Cyclopes, tended during that period the herds of Admetus. Pelias had promised his daughter to the man who should bring him a chariot drawn by a lion and a wild boar, and Admetus succeeded in this by the aid of Apollo. The god also obtained from the Fates, that Admetus should not die if another person laid down his or her life for him, and Alcestis heroically devoted herself to death for her husband. Admetus was so deeply affected at her loss, that Proserpina actually relented; but Pluto remained inexorable, and Hercules at last descended to the shades, and bore back Alcestis to life. Admetus was one of the Argonauts, and was also present at the hunt of the Calydonian boar. Euripides composed a tragedy on the story of Alcestis, which has come down to us. (Apollod. 1, 8 —Tibull. 2, 3.-Hygin, fab 50, 5’, &c.)—II. A king of the Molossi, to whom Themistocles, when banished, fled for protection. (Vid. Themistocles)—III. A Greek epigrammatic poet, who lived in the early part of the second century after Christ.

ADMo, an engraver on precious stones in the time of Augustus. His country is uncertain. An elegant portrait of Augustus, engraved by him, is described by Mongez, Icon. Rom., tab. 18, n. 6.

AdoNIA, a festival in honour of Adonis, celebrated both at Byblus in Phoenicia, and in most of the Grecian cities. Lucian (de Syria Dea.—vol. 9, p. 88, scqq., cd. Bip.) has left us an account of the manner in which it was held at Byblus. According to this writer, it lasted during two days, on the first of which every, thing wore an appearance of sorrow, and the death of the favourite of Venus was indicated by public mourning. On the following day, however, the aspect of things underwent a complete change, and the greatest joy prevailed on account of the fabled resurrection of Adonis from the dead. During this festival the priests of Byblus shaved their heads, in imitation of the priests of Isis in Egypt. In the Grecian cities, the manner of holding this festival was nearly, if not exactly, the same with that followed in Phoenicia. On the first day all the citizens put themselves in mourning; coffins were exposed at every door; the statues of Venus and Adonis were borne in procession, with certain vessels full of earth, in which the worshippers had raised corn, herbs, and lettuce, and these vessels were called the gardens of Adonis ('Adovuòoc kitrot). After the ceremony was over they were thrown into the sea or some river, where they soon perished, and thus became emblems of the premature death of Adonis, who had fallen, like a young plant, in the flower of his age. (Histoire du Culte d'Adonis : Mem. Acad. des Inscrip, &c., vol. 4, p. 126 seqq.—Dupuis, Origine de Cultes, vol. 4, p. 118, seqq., ed. 1822. — Valckenaer, ad Theoc. 'Aéović. in Arg.) The lettuce was used among the other herbs on this occasion, because Venus was fabled to have deposited the dead body of her favourite on a bed of lettuce. In allusion to this festival, the expression 'Aéðvadog kjirot became proverbial, and was applied to whatever perished previous to the period of maturity. (Adagia Veterum, p. 410.) Plutarch relates, in his life of Nicias, that the expedition against Syracuse set sail from the harbours of Athens, at the very time when the women of that city were celebratin 3. mournful part of the festival of Adonis, during which there were to be seen, in every quarter of the city, images of the dead, and funeral processions, the women accompanying them with dismal lamentations. Hence an unfavourable omen was drawn of the result of the expedition, which the event but too fatally realized. Theocritus, in his beautiful Idyll entitled 'Adovudsovoat, has left us an account of the part of this grand anniversary spectacle termed # eipeauc, “the finding,” i. e., the resurrection of Adonis, the celebration of it having been made by order of Arsinoë, queen of Ptolemy Philadelphus... Boettiger (Sabina, p. 265) has a very ingenious idea in relation to the fruits exhibited on this joyful occasion. He thinks it impossible, that even so powerful a queen as Arsinoë should be able to chtain in the spring of the year, when this festival was always celebrated, fruits which had attained their full maturity (Öpta). He considers it more than probable that they were of wax. This conjecture will also furnish another, and perhaps a more satisfactory, explanation of the phrase 'Adévadoc kitrot, denoting things whose exterior promised fairly, while there was nothing real or substantial within. Adonis was the same deity with the Syrian Tammuz, whose festival was celebrated even by the Jews, when they degenerated into idolatry (Ezekiel, 8, 14); and Tammuz is the proper Syriac name for the Adonis of the Greeks. (Creuzer's Symho!, vol. ii., p. 86 ) (Vid Adonis.)

AnūNis, I. son of Cinyras, by his daughter Myrrha (rid. Myrrha), and famed for his beauty. He was ardently attached to the chase, and notwithstanding the entreaties of Venus, who feared for his safety and loved him tenderly, he exposed himself day after day in the hunt, and at last lost his life by the tusk of a wild boar whom he had wounded. His blood produced the anemone, according to Ovid (Mct. 10, 735); but according to others, the adonium, while the anemone arose from the tears of Venus. (Bion, Epitaph. Ad.66.) The goddess was inconsolable at his loss, and at last obtained from Proserpina, that Adonis should spend alternately six months with her on earth, and the remaining six in the shades. This fable is evidently an allegorical allusion to the periodical return of winter and summer. (Apollod. 3, 14.—Ov. l. c.—Bion, l. c.— Virg. Ecl. #. 18, &c.) “Adonis, or Adonai,” observes R. P. Knight, “ was an Oriental title of the sun, signifying Lord; and the boar, supposed to have killed him, was the emblem of winter; during which the productive powers of nature being suspended, Venus was said to lament the loss of Adonis until he was ain restored to life; whence both the Syrian and Argive women annually mourned his death and celebrated his renovation; and the mysteries of Venus and Adonis at Byblus in Syria were held in similar estimation with those of Ceres and Bacchus at Eleusis, and Isis and Osiris in Egypt. Adonis was said to pass six months with Proserpina and six with Venus; whence some learned persons have conjectured that the allegory was invented near the pole, where the sun disappears during so long a time; but it may signify merely the decrease and increase of the productive wers of nature as the sun retires and advances. The ishnoo or Juggernaut of the Hindus is equally said to lie in a dormant state during the four rainy months of that climate; and the Osiris of the Egyptians was supposed to be dead or absent forty days in each year, during which the people lamented his loss, as the Syrians did that of Adonis, and the Scandinavians that of Frey; though at Upsal, the great metropolis of their worship, the sun never continues any one day § below their horizon.” An Inquiry into the Symbo ical Language of Ancient Art and Mythology (Class. Journal, vol. 25, p. 42.)—II. A river of §§. which falls into the Mediterranean below Byblus. It is now called Nahr Ibrahim. At the anniversary of the death of Adonis, which was in the rainy season, its waters were tinged red with the ochrous particles from the mountains of Libanus, and were fabled to flow with his blood. But Dupuis (4, p. 121), with more probability, supposes this red colour to have been a mere artifice on the part of the priests. AdRAMyTTTUM, a city of Asia Minor, on the coast of Mysia, and at the head of an extensive bay (Sinus Adramyttenus) facing the island of Lesbos. Strabo (605) makes it an Athenian colony. Stephanus Byzantinus follows Aristotle, and mentions Adramys, the brother of Croesus, as its founder. This last is more probably the true account, especially as an adjacent district bore the name of Lydia. According, however, to Eustathius and other commentators, the place existed before the Trojan war, and was no other than the Pedasus of Homer (Plin. 5,32). This city became a place of importance under the kings of Pergamus, and continued so in the time of the Roman power, although it suffered severely during the war with Mithradates. (Strab. 605.) #. the Conventus Juridicus was held. . The modern name is Adramyt, and it is represented as being still a place of some commerce. It contains 1000 houses, but mostly mean and miserably built. Adramyttium is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (ch. 27, 2). Aph KNA, a river in Germany, in the territory of the Catti, and emptying into the Visurgis. Now the Eder. AdRINTus. Vid. Supplement. AdRKNUs. Vid. Supplement. ADRAstEA (Aépágreta), I. a region of Mysia, in Asia Minor, near Priapus, at the entrance of the Propontis, and containing a plain and city of the same

from Adrastus, who founded in the latter a temple to Nemesis. (Strab. 558—Steph. B. s. n.) This etymology, however, appears very doubtful. A more correct one is given under No. II. The city had originally an oracle of Apollo and Diana, which was as: terward removed to Parium in its vicinity. Homer makes mention of Adrastea, but Pliny is in error (5, 32) when he supposes Parium and Adrastea to have been the same.—II. A daughter of Jupiter and Necessity, so called, not from Adrastus, who is said to have erected the first temple to her, but from the impossibility of the wicked escaping her power: 3 privative, and Öpáo), “to flee.” She is the same as Nemesis.III. A Cretan nymph, daughter of Melisseus, to whom the goddess Rhea intrusted the infant Jupiter in the Dictaean grotto. In this office Adrastea was assisted by her sister Ida and the Curetes (Apollod. 1, 1, 6; Callim. Hymn. in Jor. 47), whom the scholiast on Callimachus calls her brothers. Apollonius Rhodius (3, 132, seqq.) relates that she gave to the infant Jupiter a beautiful globe (a paipa) to play with, and on some Cretan coins Jupiter is represented sitting on a globe. (Spanheim ad Callim. l. c.) ADR Astus, I, a king of Argos, son of Talaus and Lysimache. (Wid. Supplement.)—II. A son of the Phrygian king Gordius, who had unintentionally killed his brother, and was, in consequence, expelled by his father, and deprived of everything. He took refuge as a suppliant at the court of Croesus, king of Lydia, who received him kindly and purified him. After some time he was sent out as guardian of Atys, the son of Croesus, who was to deliver the country around the Mysian Olympus from a wild boar which had made great havoc in it. Adrastus had the misfortune to kill the young prince Atys while throwing his javelin at the wild beast : Croesus pardoned the unfortunate man, as he saw in this accident the will of the gods and the fulfilment of a prophecy; but Adrastus could not endure to live longer, and accordingly killed himself on the tomb of Atys. (Herod., 1, 35–45.)—III. A Peripatetic philosopher, born at Aphrodisias in Caria, and who flourished about the beginning of the second century of our era. He was the author of a treatise on the arrangement of Aristotle's writings and his system of philosophy, quoted by Simplicius (Prafat in. viii. lib. phys.), and by Achilles Tatius (p. 82). Some commentaries of his on the Timaeus of Plato are also quoted by Porphyry (p. 270, in Harm. Ptol.), and a treatise on the categories of Aristotle by Galen. None of these have come down to us, but a work on Harmonics (Tept "Apuovuków) is preserved in manuscript in the Vatican library—IV. Father of Eurydice, and grandfather of Laomedon. (Apollod. 3, 12, 3.)—V. Son of the soothsayer Merops of Percote. He went to the Trojan war with his brother, against the will of his father, and was slain by Diomede. AdRIA, ATRIA, or HADRIA, I. in the time of the Romans a small city of Cisalpine Gaul, on the river Tartarus, near the Po. Its site is still occupied by the modern town of Atri. In the ages preceding the Roman power, Adria appears to have been a powerful

and flourishing commercial city, as far as an opinion

may be deduced from the circumstance of its having given name to the Adriatic, and also from the numerous canals which were to be found in its vicinity. (Compare Lip. 5, 33.—Strab. 218–Justin, 20, 1– Plin. 3, 16.) It had been founded by a colony of Etrurians, to whose labours these canals must evidently be ascribed, the name given to them by the Romans (fossiones Philistina) .."; they were not the work of the people. (Compare Müller, Etrusk., vol. 1, p. 228, in notis.) The fall of Adria was owing to the inroads of the Gallic nations, and the consequent neglect of the canals. Livy, Justin, and most of the ancient historians, write the name of this city

Atria. In Strabo alone the reading is doubtful. Ma-
nutius and Cellarius, and the authority of inscriptions
and coins, give the preference to the form Hadria.
Berkel (ad Steph. Byzant., v. 'Aépía) is also in favour
of it. It must be observed, however, that Adria is
found on coins as well as the aspirated form. (Rasche,
Lex Rei Num., vol. 4, col. 9. Cellarius, Geogr.
Ani. 1, 509.)—II. A town of Picenum, capital of the
Praetutii, on the coast of the Adriatic. Here the fam-
ily of the Emperor Adrian, according to his own ac-
count, took its rise. The modern name of the place
is Adri or Atri.
AdRIANopolis, or HADRIANopólis, I. one of the
most important cities of Thrace, founded by and named
after the Emperor Adrian or Hadrian. Being of com-
paratively recent date, it is consequently not mentioned
by the old geographical writers. Even Ptolemy is
silent respecting it, since his notices are not later than
the reign of Trajan. The site of this city, however,
was previously occupied by a small Thracian settle-
ment named Uskudama; and its very advantageous
situation determined the emperor in favour of erecting
* large city on the spot. (Ammian. Marcell. 14, 11.
–Eutrop. 6, 8.) Adrianopolis stood on the right bank
of the Hebrus, now Maritza, which forms a junction in
this quarter with the Arda, or Ardiscus, now Arda,
and the Tonzus, now Tundscha. (Compare Zosimus,
2, 22.-Lamprid. Elagab. 7.) This city became fa-
mous in a later age for its manufactories of arms, and
in the fourth century succeeded in withstanding the
Goths, who laid siege to it after their victory over the
Emperor Valens. (Ammian. Marcell. 31, 15.) Hier-
ocles (p. 635) makes it the chief city of the Thracian
province of Haemimontius. The inhabitants were prob-
ably ashamed of their Thracian origin, and borrowed
therefore a primitive name for their city from the my-
thology of the Greeks. (Wid. Orestias.) Mannert
(7,263) thinks that the true appellation was Odrysos,
which they thus purposely altered. The modern name
of the place is Adrianople, or rather Edrinch. It was
taken by the Turks in 1360 or 1363, and the Em-
peror Amurath made it his residence. It continued
to be the imperial city until the fall of Constantinople;
but, though the court has been removed to the latter
place, Adrianople is still the second city in the empire,
and very important, in case of invasion by a foreign
power, as a central point for collecting the Turkish
strength. Its present population is not less than
100,000 souls.-II. A city of Bithynia in Asia Minor,
founded by the Emperor Adrian. D'Anville places it
in the southern part of the territory of the Mariandyni,
and makes it correspond to the modern Boli...—III.
Another city of Bithynia, called more properly Adriani
or Hadriani ('Aéptavot). It is frequently mentioned
in ecclesiastical writers, and by Hierocles (p. 693), and
there are medals existing of it, on which it is styled
Adriani near Olympus. Hence D'Anville, on his
map, places it to the southwest of Mount Olympus, in
the district of Olympena, and makes it the same with
the modern Edrenos. Mannert opposes this, and places
it in the immediate vicinity of the river Rhyndacus.—
IV. A city of Epirus, in the district of #.
situate to the southeast of Antigonea, on the river Ce-
o: Its ruins are still found upon a spot named
rinopolis, an evident corruption of its earlier name.
(Hughes' Travels, 2, 236.)—V. A name given to a
§. of Athens, in which the Emperor Adrian or Ha-
rian had erected many new and beautiful structures.
(Gruter, Inscrip., p. 177.)
AdRIXNUs, a Roman emperor. (Wid. Hadrianus.)
ADRIANUs. Vid. Supplement.
ADMIAs, the name properly of the territory in which
the city of Adria in Cisalpine Gaul was situated.
Herodotus (5,9) first speaks of it under this appella-
tion (6 Aópiac), which is given also by many subse-
'uent Gro writers. (Compare Scylar, p. 5.) Most

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sar (B. G., 6, 32), which he places nearer the Rhine. (Mannert, 2, 200.) Aduatüci or Aduatic1, a German nation who originally formed a part of the great invading army of the Teutones and Cimbri. They were left behind in Gaul, to guard a part of the o and finally settled there. Their territory extended from the Scaldis, or Scheld, eastward as far as Mosae Pons, or Mastricht. (Mannert, 2, 199.) Adjlis, called by Pliny (6, 29) Oppidum. Adulitarum, the principal commercial city along the coast of AEthiopia. It was founded by fugitive slaves from Egypt, but fell subsequently under the power of the neighbouring kingdom of Auxume. Ptolemy writes the name 'Aéoùm, Strabo Adovāst, and Stephanus Byzantinus "Adovätz. Adulis has become remarkable on account of the two Greek inscriptions found in it. Cosmas Indicopleustes, as he is commonly called, was the first who gave an account of them (l. 2, p. 140, apud Montfauc.). One is on a kind of throne, or rather armchair, of white marble, the other on a tablet of touchstone (dro Baaavírov Zibov), erected behind the throne. Cosmas gives copies of both, and his MS. has also a drawing of the throne or chair itself. The inscription on the tablet relates to Ptolemy Euergetes, and his conquests in Asia Minor, Thrace, and Upper Asia. It is imperfect, however, towards the end; although, if the account of Cosmas be correct, the part of the stone which was broken off was not large, and, consequently, but a small part of the inscription was lost. Cosmas and his coadjutor Menas believed that the other inscription, which was to be found on the throne or chair, would be the continuation of the former, and therefore give it as such. It was reserved for Salt and Buttmann to prove, that the inscription on the tablet alone related to Ptolemy, and that the one on the throne or chair was of much more recent origin, probably as late as the second or third century, and made by some native prince in imitation of the former. One of the principal arguments by which they arrive at this conclusion is, that the inscription on the throne speaks of conquests in AEthiopia which none of the lemies ever made. (Museum der Alterthumsurissenschaft, vol.2, p. 105, seq.) Advo Machid. E, a maritime people of Africa, near Egypt. Ptolemy (lib. 4, c. 5) calls them Adyrmachites, but Herodotus (4, 168), Pliny (5, 6), and Silius Italicus (3,279), make the name to be Adyrmachidae ('Advpuaxića). Hence, as Larcher observes (Histore d'Herodote, vol. 8, p. 10, Table Geogr.), the text of Ptolemy ought to o corrected by these authorities. The Adyrmachidae were driven into the interior of the country when the Greeks began to settle along the coast. AEA, the city of King Ætes, said to have been situate on the river Phasis in Colchis. The most probable opinion is, that it existed only in the imaginations of the poets. (Mannert, 4, 397.) AExces, a tyrant of Samos, deprived of his tyranny by Aristagoras, B.C. 500. He fled to the Persians, and induced the Samians to abandon the other Ionians in the sea-fight with the Persians. He was restored by the Persians in the year B.C. 494. (Heredotus, 4, 138.) AE Acipes, I. a patronymic of the descendants of Æacus, such as Achilles, Peleus, Pyrrhus, &c. (Virg. AEn. 1, 99, &c.) The line of the Eacidae is given as follows: APacus became the father of Telamon and Peleus by his wife Endeis. (T:ct:es, ad Lycophr., p. 175, calls her Deis, Amic.) From the Nereid Psam*the was born to him Phocus (Hesiod., Theog., 1003, seqq.), whom he preferred to his other sons, and who became more conspicuous in gymnastic and naval exercises than either Telamon or Peleus. (Muller, AEgunct., p. 22.) Phocus was, in consequence, slain by his brothers, who thereupon fled from the vengeance

of their father. (Dorothcus, apud Plut. Parall., 25, 277, W. — Heync, ad Apollod., 12, 6, 6.) Telamon took refuge at the court of Cychreus of Salamis, Peleus retired to Phthia in Thessaly. (Apollod. l c.— Pherecyd. apud T:ct:... in Lycophr., v. 175.) From Peleus came Achilles, from Telamon Ajax. Achilles was the father of Pyrrhus, from whom came the line of the kings of Epirus. From Teucer, the brother of Ajax, were descended the princes of Cyprus; while from Ajax himself came some of the most illustrious Athenian families. (Muller, Æginet., p. 23.)—II. The son of Arymbas, king of Epirus, succeeded to the throne on the death of his cousin Alexander, who was slain in Italy. (Lury, 28, 24.) ACacides married Phthia, the daughter of Menon of Pharsalus, by whom he had the celebrated Pyrrhus, and two daughters, Deidamea and Troias. In B.C. 317, he assisted Po.. in restoring Olympias and the young Alex. ander, who was then only five years old, to Macedonia. In the following year he marched to the assistance of Olympias, who was hard pressed by Cassander. But the Epirotes disliked the service, rose against Eacides, and drove him from his kingdom. Pyrrhus, who was then only two years old, was with difficulty saved from destruction by some faithful servants. But, becoming tired of the Macedonian rule, the Epirotes recalled Æacides in B.C. 313. Cassander immediately sent an army against him under Philip, who conquered him the same year in two battles, in the last of which he was killed. (Pausan., 1, 11.) AExcus. Wid. Supplement. AEAEA, a name given to Circe, because born at AEa. (Virg., AEn., 3, 386.) AEANtEuxt, a small settlement on the coast of Troas, near the promontory of Rhaeteum. It was founded by the Rhodians, and was remarkable for containing the tomb of Ajax, and a temple dedicated to his memory. The old statue of the hero was carried away by Antony to Egypt, but was restored by Augustus. (Strabo, 595.) In Pliny's time this place had ceased to exist, as may be inferred from his expression, “Full ct AEanteum” (5, 30). Mannert asserts that Lechevalier is wrong in placing the mound of Ajax on the summit of the hill by Intepe. AEANTides, I. one of the Tragic Pleiades. (Wid. Alexandrina Schola.) He lived in the time of the second Ptolemy—II. The tyrant of Lampsacus, to whom Hippias gave his daughter Archedice. AEAs, a river of Epirus, thought to be the modern Wayussa, falling into the Ionian Sea. Isaac Vossius, in his commentary on Pomponius Mela (2, 3, extr.), charges Ovid with an error in geography, in making this river fall into the Peneus o: 1, 577). But Vossius was wrong himself in making the verb convenunt, as used by Ovid, in the passage in question, equivalent to ingreslauntur. Ovid o: means that the deities of the river mentioned by him met together in the cave of the Peneus. AEDEPsus, a town of Euboea in the district Histianotis, famed for its hot baths, which even at the present day are the most celebrated in Greece. The modern name of the place is Dipso. But, according to Sib thorpe (Walpole's Coll., vol. 2, p. 71), Lipso. In Plu tarch (Sympos., 4, 4), this place is called Galepsus (Tažmboo), which many regard as an error of the copyists. If the modern name as given by Sibthorpe be correct, it appears more likely that Lipso is a corruption of Galepsus, and that the latter was only another name for the place, and no error. AEDEs, A. Wid. Supplement. AEDEsius, a Cappadocian, called a Platonic, or perhaps, more correctly, an Eclectic philosopher, who lived in the 4th century, and was the friend and most distinguished scholar of Iamblichus. After the death of his master, the school of Syria was dispersed, and AEdesius, fearing the real or fancied hostility of the Christian emperor Constantine to philosophy, took ref. uge in divination. An oracle in hexameter verse represented a pastoral life as his only retreat ; but his dis

ciples, perhaps calming his fears by a metaphorical interpretation, compelled him to resume his instructions. He settled at Pergamos, where he numbered among his pupils the Emperor Julian. After the accession of the latter to the imperial purple, he invited AEdesius to continue his instructions, but the latter, being unequal to the task through age, sent in his stead Chrysanthes

and Eusebius, his disciples. (Eunap., Vit. ABdes.)
AEDEssa. Vid. Edessa.
AEpo N. Vid. Philomela.
AED51, a powerful nation of Gaul. Their confeder-

ation embraced all the tract of country comprehended between the Allier, the middle Loure, and the Saône, and extending a little beyond this river towards the south. The proper capital was Bibracte, and the second city in importance Noviodunum. The political influence of the AEdui extended over the Mandubes or Mandubii, whose chief city Alesia traced its origin to the most ancient periods of Gaul, and passed for a work of the Tyrian Hercules. (Diod. Suc., 4, 19.) This same influence reached also the Ambarri, the Insubres, and the Segusiani. The Bituriges themselves, who had been P. one of the most flourishing nations of Gaul, were held by the AEdui in a condition approaching that of subjects. (Thierry, Histoire des aulous, 2, 31.) When Caesar came into Gaul, he found that the AEdui, after having long contended with the Arverni and Sequani for the supremacy in Gaul, had been overcome by the two latter, who called in Ariovistus and the Germans to their aid. The arrival of the Roman commander soon changed the aspect of affairs, and the AEdui were restored by the Roman arms to the chief power in the country. They became, of course, valuable allies for Caesar in his Gallic conquests. Eventually, however, they embraced the party of Vercingetorix against Rome; but, when the insurection was quelled, they were still favourabl treated on account of their former services. (Caes., } G., 1, 31, seqq.) AEETA, or '#r. king of Colchis, son of Sol, and Perseis, the daughter of Oceanus, was father of Medea, Absyrtus, and Chalciope, by Idyia, one of the Oceanides. He killed Phryxus, son of Athamas, who had fled to his court on a golden ram. This murder he committed to obtain the fleece of the golden ram. The Argonauts came against Colchis, and recovered the golden fleece by means of Medea, though it was guarded by bulls that breathed fire, and by a venomous dragon. (Wid. Jason, Medea, and Phryxus) He was afterward, according to Apollodorus, deprived of his kingdom by his brother Perses, but was restored to it by Medea, who had returned from Greece to Colchis. (Apollod., 1, 9, 28.-Heyne, ad Apollod., l. c.—Or., Met, 7, 11, seqq., &c.) AEETIAs, off. and ÆETINE, patronymic forms from ÆETEs, used by Roman poets to designate his do Medea. Ö. Mct., 7, 9, 296.) G.A. Vid. Supplement. AEGAE, I. a small town on the western coast of Lubaea, southeast of Ædepsus. It contained a temple sacred to Neptune, and was supposed to have given name to the AEgean. (Strab., 386)—II. A city of Macedonia, the same with Edessa,—III. A town of Achaia, near the mouth of the Crathis. It appears to have been abandoned eventually by its inhabitants, who retired to AEgira. The cause of their removal is not known. (Strabo, 386.)—IV. A town and seaport of Cilicia Campestris, at the mouth of the Pyramus, and on the upper shore of the Sinus Issicus. The modern village of Ayas occupies its site. (Strab., 676–Plin., 5, 27–Lucan, 3, 225.) 42g+A, I. a city of Mauritania Caesariensis. (Ptol.) *II. A surname of Venus, from her worship in the

islands of the AEgean Sea. 7, 8.) A's EoN, I. one of the fifty sons of Lycaon, whom Jupiter slew. (Apollod., 3, 8, 1.)—II. A giant, son of Uranus by Gaea. (Vid. Supplement.) AEG.EUM MARE, that part of the Mediterranean lying between Greece and Asia Minor. It is now called the Archipelago, which modern appellation appears to be a corruption of Egio Pelago, itself a modern Greek form for Aiyaíow TéZayog. Various etymologies are given for the ancient name. The most common is that which deduces it from AEgeus, father of Theseus; the most plausible is that which derives it from AEgae in Euboea. (Strab., 386). In all probability, however, neither is correct. The AEgean was accounted particularly stormy and dangerous to navigators, whence the proverb Töv Aiyaíov Tzei (scil. kóżroy). (Erasm. Chul. Col., 632.) AEGAEus, a surname of Neptune, given him as an appellation to denote the god of the waves. Compare Muller, Geschichte, &c. (Die Dorier), vol. 2, p. 238, in notis. AEGALEos, a mountain of Attica, from the summit of which Xerxes beheld the battle of Salamis. (Herod, 8, 90.) According to Thucydides (2, 19), it was situate to the left of the road from Athens to Eleusis. Mount AEgaleos seems indeed to be a continuation of Corydallus, stretching northward into the interior of Attica. The modern name is Ska'amanga. (Cramer's Greece, 2, 355.) AEGRTEs, or Ægusa, three islands off the western extremity of Sicily, between Drepana and Lilybaeum. The name Ægusa (Alyovaa) properly belonged to but one of the number. As this, however, was the principal and most fertile one (now Farignana), the ap|. became a common one for all three. The omans corrupted the name into AEgades. (Mela, 2, 7–Florus, 2, 2.) , however (21, 10, &c.), uses the form AEgates. The northernmost of these islands is called by Ptolemy Phorbantia (popfavria), i. e., the pasture-land, . the Latin writers translate by Bucina, i. e., Oxen-island, it being probabl uninhabited, and used only for pasturing cattle. This island is very rocky, and bears in modern times the name of Levanco. The third and westernmost island was called Hiera ('Ispa), which Pliny converts into Hieronesus, i. e., Sacred island. At a later period, however, the Romans changed the name into Maritima, as it lay the farthest out to sea. Under this appellation the Itin. Marit. (p. 492) makes mention of it, but errs in giving the distance from Lilybaeum as 300 stadia, a computation which is much too large. The modern name is Maretamo. Off these islands the Roman fleet, under Lutatius Catulus, obtained a decisive victory over that of the Carthaginians, and which put an end to the first Punic war. (Lir., 21, 10.—Id. ibnd., 41.-1d., 22, 54.) AEGEsta, an ancient city of Sicily, in the western extremity of the island, near Mount Eryx. The Greek writers name it, at one time AEgesta (Alyeara), at another Egesta ("Eyeara). The cause of the slight variation would seem to have been, that the city was one not of Greek origin, and that the name was written from hearing it pronounced. In a later age, when the inhabitants attached themselves to the Roman power, they called their city Segesta, and themselves Segestani, according to Festus (s. v. Segesta), who states that the alteration was made to obviate an improper ambiguity in the term. (Praposta est ei S. literane obsceno nomine appellaretur.) It is more probable, however, that the Romans caused it to be done on ac. count of the ill-omened analogy in sound between AEgesta or Egesta, and the Latin term egcstas, “want.” Thucydides (6, 2) states, that after the destruction of Troy, a body of the fugitives found their way to this quarter, and, uniting with the Sicani, whom they

(Statius, Thebais, 8, 4,

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