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before and after the time of Alexander. Through this country, moreover, lay the nearest and safest route to India. Syburtius, the Greek governor after Alexander's death, cultivated friendly relations with the Indian monarch Sandrocottus, and Megasthenes was often sent by him to the court of the latter. (Arrian, 5, 6.) The ancient Arachosia answers to the modern Arokhage. (Mannert, 5, pt. 2, p. 76.) ARAchöTAE and ARAchöti, the inhabitants of Arachosia. (Wid. Arachosia.) They are styled AtvöxŽatvot, from their linen attire. (Dionys. Perieg., 1096. —Compare Eustath., ad loc.—Arrian, 3, 23.) ARAchörus, I or Arachosia, the chief city of Arachosia, called also Cophe (Koo), and said to have been built by Semiramis. It did not lie, as some remark, on the river Arachotus, but a considerable distance east of it, on a road leading in a northern direction towards the modern Candahar. (Mannert, 5, pt. 2, p. 80.)—II. A river of Arachosia, rising in the hills northeast of the modern Gazni, and losing itself in a marsh about four miles to the south of Candahar. Its modern name, according to Wahl, is Naodah. D'Anville, however, makes it Kare. (Isld, Charac, ap. Geogr. Gr. Min, vol 2, p. 8.-Plin., 6, 23.) ARAchthus, ARAEThus, or AREthon, a river of Epirus, flowing from that part of the chain of Pindus which belonged to the ancient Tymphaei, and running by Ambracia into the Ambracian Gulf Lycophron (b. 409), who calls it Araethus (’Apattoo), speaks of it as the boundary of Greece on this side. Ambracia, therefore, being always accounted a city of Greece Proper, must have stood on its left bank. We cannot, therefore, admit, with Pouqueville, that this city occupied the site of Regous, since that ruined fortress is situated on the right bank of the Luro river, which that writer considers to be the Arachthus. That the Arachthus is a considerable stream, may be inferred from Livy, who relates (43, 21) that Perseus, king of Macedon, was detained on its banks by high floods, on his way to Acarnania. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 151, seqq.) ARAcyNThus, I. a chain of mountains in AEtolia, running in a southeasterly direction from the Achelous to the Evenus. Its present name is Mount Zigos. Pliny (4, 1) and other writers, with less propriety, ascribe Aracynthus to Acarnania.-II. A mountain of Boeotia, sacred to Minerva, whence the goddess received the appellation of Aracynthia. (Rhian., a Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Aptikvutoğ.) It was situate not far from Thebes. ARKDUs, I. a city on an island of the same name, on the coast of Phoenicia. According to Strabo, it was founded by a band of exiles from Sidon. The island on which it stood was a mere rock, not quite seven stadia in circumference; and hence, as the population of the city increased, they were compelled to erectedifices many stories in height, to make amends for the limited area of the place. #. position of Aradus was well adapted for commerce. The modern name of the island is Ruad, according to Pococke (vol. 2, p. 294), and traces still remain of the cisterns anciently cut in the rock to hold the rain-water for the use of the inhabitants. (Mannert, Geogr., vol 6, pt. 1, p. 398, seqq.)—II. An island, according to some, on the coast of Arabia, in the Persian Gulf. It is supposed to mark, in part, the original settlements of the Phoemicians previous to their establishing themselves on ..he coast of the Mediterranean. Much doubt exists, however, with regard to the accuracy of this statement; and Mannert, among others, thinks that the name Aradus, as designating an island in this quarter, is indebted for its existence to the love of theory alone. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 154. — Compare, however, Michaelis, Spicileg., vol. 1, p. 166, seqq., and mud. Phoenicia.) ARAE. Vid. AEgimuro.

ARAE PHILAENORUM. Wid. Philaeni. ARAR, a very slow, smooth-running river of Gaul It rises near Mons Vogesus, and, after a southern course, falls into the Rhodanus at Lugdunum. (Caes., B. G., 1, 12–Plin., 3, 4.) Ammianus Marcellinus, who flourished towards the close of the fourth century of our era, first calls the Arar by the name of Saucona, speaking of this latter as a common appellation on tho part of the inhabitants in that quarter, “Ararim, quem Sauconam appellant” (15, 11). Gregory of Tours, at a later period, styles it Saugona; and from this comeo the modern French appellation Saône. (Compare Lemare, Inder Geogr., ad Cars. Comm., p. 190.) ARATEA, a festival celebrated at Sicyon, upon the birthday of Aratus, and in memory of that distinguish, ed patriot (Plut., Wit. Arat., 53.) ARRTUs, I, a Greek poet, born at Soli (Pompeiopo. lis) in Cilicia. He flourished about 270 B.C., was a favourite of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and a firm friend to Antigonus Gonatas, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes. | He was also a contemporary of Theocritus, who makes mention of him in the sixth and seventh Idyls, and was on very friendly terms with him. At the instance of Antigonus, Aratus composed an astronomical poem, entitled panoueva, “Appearances,” and treating of the heavenly bodies, their names, movements, &c. The materials for this production he is said to have principally derived from the works of Eudoxus of Cnidus, who wrote two treatises on the celestial bodies and phaenomena, one entitled "Evostrpov, or “the Mirror,” and the other batvöueva. (Buhle, de Arat. Script. Comment., p. 466.) What other writers he followed besides Eudoxus, cannot now be ascertained. Salmasius, indeed, insists that he did not follow Eu. doxus at all, but Phainus or Meton (Salm. ad Solin., p. 822); this opinion, however, is refuted by Petavius. (Doctr. Temp., 6, 9.) Aratus was the author also of another poem, entitled Atoq musia, or “Signs from Jove,” the materials for which he borrowed from Hesiod, the meteorological writings of Aristotle, and Theophrastus on the signs of the winds. Some of the ancients, and several of the moderns, too, have united the batvöueva and Atoo mutia into one poem, probably because, in the latter, he draws his signs indicative of changes in the atmosphere from the relative positions of the sun, moon, and constellations of the zodiac as regards the earth. They are, however, distinct productions, and are regarded as such by the best ancient and modern authorities. (Schol. ad Diosem. init. Schol. ad Aristoph., Pac., 1086. — Vitruv., 9, 7. — Buhle, ibid., p. 462.)—In the two poems just referred to, Aratus gives us, in correct and rather elegant verse, a general view of what was then known of the heavens, with their signs, appearances, &c., although it is evident, both from ancient authority as well as from the poem itself, that he was not a professed astronomer, or even very accurately acquainted with the principles of the science. (Cic., de Orat., 1, 16.-Buhle, p. 467.) Ovid passes a high eulogium on Aratus, “cum sole et luna semper Aratus erit” (Amor, 1, 15); but this exaggerated compliment, and the admiration of Ovid, were very probably .."; to the circumstance of no other poet's having taken the astronomic sphere for his theme prior to Aratus. (Buhle, p. 471.) The truth is, the subject matter of both poems is far from being congenial to poetry, as is well remarked by Quin, tilian, who adds of Aratus himself, “sufficit tamen operi, cui se parem credidit (10, 1, 55) As one proof of the consideration which Aratus enjoyed, we may cite the monument which his compatriots erected to his memory, and which became famous by reason of a physical phanomenon that Mela mentions. (“Jurta in parro tumulo Arati poeta monumentum, ideo referen: dum quia, ignotum quam ob causam, jacta in ud sara dissiliant,” 1, 13.) Aratus, moreover, is the writer to whom St. Paul refers in his speech before the Are

opagus (Acts, 17, 28), a circumstance which entitled the poet to great favour among the fathers of the church, although it is evident that the Apostle makes

guardian cf Philip, formed an alliance with the Lace da monians, the naturai enemies of the Achaean league Aratus marched to the aid of those cities of Arcadia

no allusion to his poetic merit., M. Delambre re- which belonged to the confederacy, and which were marks, in speaking of Aratus, that he has “transmitted, menaced by Cleomenes, king of Sparta; but he was to us almost all that Greece at that time knew of the defeated in three successive engagements, and sound heavens, or, at least, all that could be put into verse. himself obliged to have recourse to Antigonus. In The perusal of Autolycus or Euclid gives more infor- order to induce this prince to lend aid, he surrendered mation on the subject to him who wishes to become to him, on his expressly requiring it, the citadel of Coran astronomer. Their notions are more precise and inth ; and Antigonus, on having come with an army, more geometrical. The principal merit of Aratus is was appointed generalissimo of the Achaean troops. the description he has left us of the constellations; | Plutarch pretends that Cleomenes had offered peace to and yet, even with this description to aid us, one the Achaeans, on condition of being appointed comwould be much puzzled to construct a celestial chart mander of their forces, and that Aratus opposed him

or globe.” (Delambre, Histoire de l'Astronomie An cienne, vol. 1, p. 74.)—The two poems of Aratus were thrice translated into Latin verse, first by Cicero, secondly by Germanicus, of the line of the Caesars, and thirdly by Avienus. Cicero's translation is lost, with the exception of some fragments. The translation, or, rather, imitation of the Phaenomena by Germanicus, and his commencement of the Diosemea, as well as the version of Avienus, remain to us. Virgil, also, in his Georgics, is under many obligations to our poet. Although Aratus has been accused of possessing but a slight acquaintance with the subject on which he treats, still a number of mathematicians united themselves with the grammarians in commenting on his work. Many of these commentaries are lost: we still have, however, four remaining; one by Hipparchus of Nicaea, another by Achilles Tatius; the other two are anonymous, for those are in error who attribute one of them to Eratosthenes. Aratus wrote many other works, which have not come down to us. They treated of physical, astronomical, grammatical, critical, and poetic themes, and a list of them is given by one of his editors, Buhle (vol. 2, p. 455, seqq.)—The best editions of this poet are, that of Buhle, Lips., 1793– 1801, 2 vols. 8vo, and that of Matthiae, Francos., 1817–1818. We have also a German version by J. H. Voss, Heidelb., 1824, published with the Greek text and illustrations.—II. A celebrated Grecian patriot, born at Sicyon, B.C. 273. When he was but seven years of age, his father Clinias, who held the government of Sicyon, was assassinated by Abantidas, who succeeded in making himself absolute. Aratus took refuge in Argos, where he was concealed by the friends .# the family, and where he devoted himself with great success to physical exercises, gaining the prize in the five exercises of the pentathlum. After some revolutions and changes of rulers at Sicyon, the government came into the hands of Nicocles, when Aratus, then hardly twenty years of age, formed the project of freeing his country, and, having assembled some exiles, surprised the city of Sicyon. The tyrant having fled, Aratus gave liberty to his fellowcitizens, and induced them to join the Achaean league, still as yet feeble, and only in the twenty-fourth year of its existence. The return of the exiles, however, occasioned much trouble at Sicyon ; those who had purchased their property refused to restore it, and Aratus was compelled to have recourse to Ptolemy Philadelphus, to whom he had rendered some services, and who gave him 150 talents, with which he indemnified the new possessors, and restored their property to his fellow-exiles. Being chosen, for the second time, Praetor of the Achaeans, 244 B.C., he seized by surprise on the citadel of Corinth, which Antigonus had guarded with great care as one of the keys of the Peloponnesus, and prevailed upon the Corinthians to join the confederacy Similar success attended his efforts in other quarters, and many of the most important states and cities of southern Greece became through his means members of the league. Some time after, the AEtolians, jealous of the prosperity of the

Achaeans, and reckoning on the aid of Antigonus, the

through jealousy; and he even reproaches him for preferring a barbarian to a descendant of Hercules. But the truth was, Aratus could not hesitate between Antigonus, a humane prince, and a religious observer of his oaths, and Cleomenes, who had now become a tyrant over his own country, to which he wished to make all the Peloponnesus subject. The aid of Antigonus changed entirely the aspect of affairs; and this prince having entered eventually into Laconia, compelled Cleomenes, after a defeat at Sellasia, to flee from the country, took Sparta, and restored to it the laws which Cleomenes #. abrogated. Antigonus always showed great consideration for Aratus, and governed himself by his counsels in what related to the affairs of Greece. Philip, his nephew and successor, did the same during the early part of his reign : but in process of time a less friendly feeling arose between the latter and Aratus, as the evil qualities of Philip began to display themselves, and the Grecian patrict eventually fell a victim to the unprincipled monarch, who had caused a slow poison to be given to him. Some time before his death, Aratus was closerved by one of his friends to spit blood, and, when the latter o;"| his surprise at this, he merely exclaimed, “Such, Cephalon, are the fruits of royal friendship !” He was buried with distinguished #. by his countrymen, and a festival, called A1atea, was celebrated every year in memory of him. Aratus wrote Memoirs, now lost, which Polybius cites with culogiums. His character may be summed up in a few words. He was a pure and aident patriot, and, in addition to this, a statesman of no small degree of merit, but not very conspicuous for military abilities. Aratus died in the 62d year of his age, B.C. 213. (Plut., Wit. Arat.) – III. A son of the preceding, nearly of the same age with Philip, king of Macedonia. He was on intimate terms with this monarch, a circumstance, however, which did not prevent the latter from administering a potion, that threw him into a deplorable state of idiocy, so that his friends regarded his death, which cccurred in the flower of his age, as a blessing rather than a misfortune. (Plut., Vit Arat, ult.) ARAUsio, the chief city of the Cavares, in Gallia Narbonensis, to the north of Avenio. It is now Orange, in the department of Vaucluse. In the vicinity are some remains of a triumphal arch, erected in commemoration of the victory of Marius over the Cimbri and Teutones (Plin., 3, 4.) ARAXEs, I a river of Armenia Major, issuing from Mons Abus, on the side opposite to that whence the southern arm of the Euphrates flows. It runs east until it meets the mountains which separate Armenia from northern Media, when it turns to the north, and, after receiving the Cyrus, falls into the Caspian Sea. It is now the Arras. (Plin., 6, 9 Strab., 363. — Ptol. 5, 13.)—II. Another in Persia, running by Persepolis, and falling into the Medus, now Bend-Emir. —Xenophon calls the Chaboras by the name of Araxes (vid. Chaboras), and gives the name of Phasis to the Armenian Araxes. (Xen, Anab., 1, 4, 19.—Compare the Inder Nom. to the edition of Zeune, and the remarks of Krüger, ad Xen., Anab., 4, 6, 4.) — III. A river cf Upper Asia, mentioned by Herodotus (1,202), and supposed by the most recent inquirers into this subject to be the same with the modern Volga. (Baehr, ad Herod., l.c.—Compare the remarks of the same editor, in the note to the Indez Rerum, vol. 4, p. 454, seqq.)—The name Araxes appears to have been originally an appellative term for a river, in the earlier language of the East, and hence we find it applied to several streams in ancient Oriental geography. (Compare Heeren, Ideen, vol. 1, p. 55 — Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. 2, p.658) ARBXces, a Median officer, who conspired with Belesis, the most distinguished member of the Chaldaen sacerdotal college, against Sardanapalus, king of Assyria. After several reverses, he finally succeeded in his object, defeated Sardanapalus near Nineveh, took this city, and reigned in it for the space of twenty-eight years. With him commenced a dynasty of eight kings, of whom Aspadas or Astyages was the last. The empire which Arbaces founded was a federative one, composed of several sovereignties which had arisen from the ruins of the Assyrian monarchy. The kingly power, though hereditary, was not absolute, the monarch not having the power to change any of the laws enacted by the confederate princes. Chronologists are not agreed as to the period of the revolt of Arbaces. Most place it under or about the archonship of Ariphron, the 9th perpetual archon of Athens; but they differ again about the precise period of this archonship, some assigning it to 917 B.C., others to 898 B.C. (Diod. Suc., 2, 24. — Well. Paterc., 1, 6. — Justin, l, 1.—Petap., Doctr. Temp., l. 9.) ARBELA, a city of Assyria, in the province of Adiabene, east of Ninus, near the Zabatus, or Zab. On the opposite side of this river, near Isbil, was fought the decisive battle of Arbela, between Alexander and Darius, October 2, B.C. 331. The field of battle was the plain of Gaugamela. The latter, however, being an obscure place, this conflict was named after Arbela. (Strabo, 399.-Diod. Sic., 17, 53.—Arrian, 3, 6.) ARBuscúLA, an actress on the Roman stage, who, being hissed, on one occasion, by the lower orders of the people, observed, with great spirit, that she cared nothing for the rabble, as long as she pleased the more enlightened part of her audience among the cquestrian ranks. (Horat., Serm., 1, 10, 77.)

Arcadia, a country in the centre of the Peloponne

sus, and, next to Laconia, the largest of its six provinces. It was a mountainous region, and contained the sources of most of the considerable rivers which flow into the seas surrounding the Peloponnesus. From its elevated situation, and the broken face of the country, intersected by small streams, it had a cold and foggy climate during some seasons ; in the plain of Argos, only one day's journey from the centre of Arcadia, the sun shines and the violets bloom, while snow is on the hills of Arcadia, and in the plain of Mantinea and Tegea. The most fertile part was towards the south, where the country sloped off, and contained many fruitful vales and numerous streams. This account of the land may serve in some degree to explain the character which the Arcadians had among the ancient Greeks: some of those who now occupy this district seem to be as rude as many of the former possessors. Their country is better adapted to pasturage than cultivation, and the Arcadians, who were scarcely a genuine Greek race, continued their pastoral habits and retained their rude manners amid their native mountains. To their pastoral mode of life may be ascribed their attachment to music ; and hence also the worship of Pan as the tutelary deity of Arcadia. Nature, observes a modern writer, has destined this country for herdsmen. The pastures and meadows in 3ummer are always green and unscorched; for the shade and moisture preserve them. The country has an appearance similar to that of Switzerland, and the

Arcadians, in some measure, resemble the inhabitants of the Alps. They possessed a love of freedom and a love of money; for wherever there was money, you might see Arcadian hirelings. But it is chiefly the western part of Arcadia (where Pan invented the shepherd's flute) which deserves the name of a pastoral country. Innumerable brooks, one more delightful than the other, sometimes rushing impetuously, and sometimes gently murmuring, pour themselves down the mountains. Vegetation is rich and magnificent; everywhere freshness and coolness are found. Onc flock of sheep here succeeds another, till the wild Taygetus is approached, where numerous herds of goats are also seen. (Bartholdy, Bruchstucke zu mahern Kenntniss Griechenlands, p. 239, seqq.) The inhabitants of Arcadia, devoted to the pastoral life, preferred, therefore, for a long time, to dwell in the open country rather than in the cities; and when some of these, particularly Tegea and Mantinea, became considerable, the contests between them destroyed the peace and liberties of the people. The shepherdlife among the Greeks, although much ornamented by the poets, betrays its origin in this, that it arose among a people who did not wander like the Nomades, but were in possession of stationary dwellings—The most ancient name of Arcadia was Drymotis (the woody region), from épic, “a tree.” The Arcadians themselves carried their origin very far back, and gave their nation the name .#},...}. (before the moon). They seem to have derived the first rudiments of civilization, if not their origin itself, from the Pelasgi; and hence the tradition that a king, named Pelasgus, taught them to build huts, and clothe themselves with the skins of animals. Arcas, a descegdant of this same Pelasgus, taught them the art of baking bread, and of weaving. From this second benefactor the people and their country were respectively called Arcades and Arcadia. A republican form of government arose subsequently, after the first Messenian war, Aristocrates II. having been stoned to death by the Arcadians for his treachery towards the Messenians. Arcadia eventually attached itself to the Achaean league, and fell under the Roman power. — It is commonly believed that a colony of Arcadians settled in Italy in very early times. This, however, is a mere fable, and is contradicted by the inland nature of the country, and by the oil. never having been a maritime people. (Wid. Pelasgi and Italy, and also Evander— Polyb., 4, 20.—Diod, Sic., 4, 34.—Thucyd. 7, 57.Plin., 4, 5.-Apollod., 2, 1.—Pausan., 8, 4.) ARCADIUs, eldest son of Theodosius the Great, succeeded his father A.D. 395, who, at his death, divided the empire between his two sons, giving Arcadius the eastern, and Honorius the western division. Arcadius was only eighteen years of age when he ascended the throne, and he only occupied it to become the vile slave of the ambitious, who each in turn distracted the state by their perfidies, their quarrels, and their connivance with the Goths, Huns, and Vandals, to whom they surrendered the provinces and treasures of the empire. The history of Arcadius, in fact, is that of one, whose weakness and vices made him subservient to, and excited the audacity of, a Rufinus, who, charged by Theodosius with the guidance of the young monarch, wished to give him his daughter in marriage, and become his colleague in the empire, and who, disappointed in his ambitious schemes, invited the Huns and Goths into Asia and Greece: a Eutropius, a vile eunuch, who attained to the influence of a Rufinus, after the tragical death of the latter, and, still more unprincipled, succeeded by his violent conduct in degrading and discouraging the people: a Gainas, a gen” eral who ravaged instead of defending the empire, but who contributed nevertheless to the ruin of Eutropius: and an Empress Eudoxia, at one moment the enemy, at another the support of the ambitious, and who perse. cuted the virtuous Chrysostom, patriarch of Constantinople. Arcadius was in succession the tool of all these designing individuals. He saw, with equal indifference, Alaric ravaging his territories, his subjects groaning under oppression, the succours brought him by Stilicho, general of Honorius, rendered of no avail by the perfidy of his own ministers, the best citizens falling by his proscriptions, and, finally, Arianism desolating the religion which Chrysostom in vain attemptcd to defend. Such was the reign of this prince, which lasted for fourteen years. He died A.D. 408, at the age of thirty-one. Nature had given him an exterior corresponding to his character; a small, illmade, disagreeable person, an air of imbecility, a lazy cnunciation, everything, in fact, announcing the weakest and most cowardly of emperors. He had by his wife Eudoxia a son named Theodosius, who succeeded him as the second of that name. (Socrat., Hist. Eccles., 5.-Cassiod., Chron., &c.) ArcAs, a son of Jupiter and Callisto. (Wid. Callisto.) The fabulous legend relative to him and his mother is given by the ancient writers with great difference in the circumstances. According to the most common account, Jupiter changed Caliisto into a bear, to screen her from the jealousy of Juno, and Arcas her son was separated from her and reared among men. When grown up, he chanced to meet his mothor in the woods, in her transformed state, and was on the point of slaughtering her, but Jupiter interfered, and translated both the parent and son to the skies. Arcas, previously to this, had succeeded Nyctimus in the government of Arcadia, the land receiving this name first from him. He was the friend of Triptolemus, who taught him agriculture, which he introduced among his subjects. He also showed them how to manufacture wool, an art which he had learned from Aristaeus. (Apollod., 3, 8–Or., Met., 2,401, seqq.) Arce, a city of Phoenicia, north of Tripolis, and south of Antaradus. It was the birthplace of Alexander Severus, the Roman emperor. (Lamprid., Wit. Alez., c. 5–Plin., 5, 18.) The name is sometimes given as Arcte. (Socrat. Hist. Eccles. 7, 36.) Arcesilius, I. son of Battus, king of Cyrene, was driven from his kingdom in a sedition, and died B.C. 575. The second of that name died B.C. 550. (Polyan, 8, 41–Herodot., 4, 159.)—II. A philosopher, born at Pitane, in AEolis, and the founder of what was termed the Middle Academy. The period of his birth is usually given as 316 B.C., while according to Apollodorus, as cited by Diogenes Laertius (4,45), he flourished about B.C. 299. If these numbers are accurate, he must have had an early reputation, as he would at the latter date have been only seventeen years of age. There is therefore some error here in the remark of Apollodorus. (Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. 1, p. 179, and 367, not.) Arcesilaus at first applied himself to rhetoric, but subsequently passed to the study of |...". in which he had for teachers, first Theophrastus, then Crantor the Academician, and probably also Polemo. (Diog. Laert., 4, 24, 29. — Cuc., Acad., 1, 9.) The statement of Numenius (ap. Eus., Pr. Er., 14, 5), that Arcesilaus was the disciple of Polemo at the same time with Zeno, appears to be ill-grounded, and to involve great chronological difficulties. It is very probably a mere fiction, designed to suggest some outward motive for the controversial relation of the Porch and the Academy —Besides the instructers above named, Arcesilaus is also said to have diligently attended the lectures of the Eretrian Menedamus, the Megarian Diodorus, and the sceptic Pyrrho. His love for the philosophemes of these individuals has been referred to as the source of his scepticism, and his skill in refuting philosophical principles. At the same time, it is on all hands admitted that, of philosophers, Plato was his favourite. He seems to have been sincerely

of opinion, that his view of things did not differ from the true spirit of the Platonic doctrine; nay, more, that it was perfectly in agreement with those older philosophemes, from which, according to the opinion of many, Plato had drawn his own doctrines, namely, those of Socrates, Parmenides, and Heraclitus.—Upon the death of Crantor, the school in the Academy was transferred by a certain Socratides to Arcesilaus, who here introduced the old Socratic method of teaching in dialogues, although it was rather a corruption than an imitation of the genuine Socratic mode. Arcesilaus does not appear to have committed his opinions to writing, at least the ancients were not acquainted with any work which could confidently be ascribed to him. Now, as his disciple Lacydes also abstained from writing, the ancients themselves appear to have derived their knowledge of his opinions only from the works of his opponents, of whom Chrysippus was the most eminent. Such a source must naturally be both defective and uncertain, and accordingly we have little that we can confidently advance with respect to his doctrines. According to these statements, the results of his opinions would be a perfect scepticism, expressed in the formula that he knew nothing, not even that which Socrates had ever maintained that he knew, namely, his own ignorance. (Cic., Acad., 1, 12.) This expression of his opinion implicitly ascribes to Arcesilaus a full consciousness that he differed in a most important point from the doctrine of Socrates and Plato. But, as the ancients do not appear to have ascribed any such conviction to Arcesilaus, it seems to be a more probable opinion, which imputes to him a desire to restore the genuine Platonic dogma, and to purify it from all those precise and positive determinations which his successors had appended to it. Indeed, one statement expressly declares, that the subject of his lecture to his most accomplished scholars was the doctrine of Plato (Cic., l.c.); and he would therefore appear to have adopted this formula with a view to meet more easily the objections of the dogmatists. Now if we thus attach Arcesilaus to Plato, we must suppose him to have been in the same case with many others, and unable to discover in the writings of Plato any fixed and determinate principles of science. The ambiguous manner in which almost every view is therein advanced, and the results of one investigation admitted only conditionally to other inquiries, may perhaps have led him to regard the speculations of Plato in the light of mere shrewd and intelligent conjectures. Accordingly, we are told, that Arcesilaus denied the certainty, not only of intellectual, but also of sensuous knowledge. (Cir., de Orat. 3, 18.) For his attack upon the former, Plato would furnish him with weapons enough; and it is against it principally that his attacks were directed, for the Stoics were his chief opponents.-The true distinction between the Sceptics and the members of the Middle Academy, at its first formation by Arcesilaus, appears to have been this. The former made the end of life to be the attainment of a perfect equanimity, and derived the difference between #. and bad, as presented by the phaenomena of life, from conversion, and not from nature. The Academicians, on the other hand, taught, as a general rule, that, in the pursuit of good and the avoidance of evil, men must be guided by probabilities. They admitted that the sage, without absolutely mortifying his sensual desires, will live like any other in obedience to the general estimate of good and evil, but with this simple difference, that he does not believe that he is regulating his life by any certain and stable principles of science. It is on this account that we do not meet with any statements concerning the strangeness of their habits of life, like to those about Pyrrho: on the contrary, Arcesilaus is usually depicted as a man who, in the intercourse of life, observed all its decencies and proprieties, and was somewhat disposed to that splendour and luxury which the prevailing views of morality allowed and sanctioned. His doubts, therefore, as to the possibility of arriving at a knowledge of the truth, may probably have had no higher source than a high idea of science, derived perhaps from his study of Plato's works, and compared with which all human thought may have appeared at best but a probable conjecture.—Arcesilaus continued to flourish as late as the 134th Olympiad, B.C. 244. (Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. 1, p. 179. — Ritter's History of Philosophy, vol. 3, p. 600, seqq.) — III. A painter of Paros, acquainted, according to Pliny, with the art of enamelling, some time before Aristides, to whom the invention is commonly assigned. He appears to have been contemporary with Polygnotus. (Plin., 35, 11. — Sillig, Dict. Art, s. v.) — IV. A painter, subsequent to the preceding, and who appears to have flourished about the 128th Olympiad, B C. 268. (Plin., 35, 11. — Sillig, Dict. Art., s. n.) — V. A sculptor of the first century before our era. His country is uncertain. (Plin., 35, 12–Id., 36, 5.) Archel Rus, I. a king of Sparta, of the line of the Agidae, who reigned conjointly with Charilaus. During this reign Lycurgus promulgated his code of laws. (Pausan, 3, 2.)—II. A king of Macedonia, natural son of Perdiccas, who ascended the throne, after making away with all the lawful claimants to it, about 413 B.C. He proved a very able monarch. Under his sway Macedonia flourished, literature and the arts were patronised, and learned men and artists were invited to his court. Euripides and Agatho, the two tragic poets, spent the latter part of their days there, and the painter Zeuxis received seven talents (about 8000 dollars) for adorning with his pencil the royal palace. The celebrated philosopher Socrates was also invited to come and reside with the monarch, but declined. Archelaus died after a reign of about 14 years. Diodorus Siculus makes him to have lost his life by an accidental wound received in hunting, but Aristotle states that he fell by a conspiracy. (Diod. Sic., 13, 49.—Id., 14, 37– Aristot., Polit., 5, 10.—Compare the remarks of Wesseling, ad Diod, 14, 37.)—III. Son of Amyntas, king of Macedonia. He was put to death by his half-brother Philip, the father of Alexander the Great. (Justin, 7, 4.) — IV. A native of Cappadocia, and one of the ablest generals of Mithradates. He disputed with the Romans the possession of Greece, but was defeated by Sylla at Chaeronea, and again at Orchomenus. Archelaus, convinced of the superiority of the Romans, prevailed upon Mithradates to make peace with them, and arranged the terms of the treaty along with Sylla, whose esteem he acquired. Some years after he became an object of suspicion to Mithradates, who thought that he had favoured too much the interests ofthe Roman people. Well aware of the cruelty of the monarch, Archelaus fled to the Romans, who gave him a friendly reception. Plutarch thinks that he had been actually unfaithful to Mithradates, and that the present which he received from Sylla, often thousand acres in Euboea, was a strong confirmation of this. He informs us, however, at the same time, that Sylla, in his commentaries, defended Archelaus from the censures which had been east upon him. (Plut., Wit. Syll, c. 23.)—V. Son of the preceding, remained attached to the Romans atter the death of his father, and was appointed by *ompey high-priest at Comana. As the temple at Comana had an extensive territory attached to it, and a large number of slaves, the high-priest was in fact a Yind of king. This tranquil office, however, did not suit his ambitious spirit; and when Ptolemy Auletes had been driven from Egypt, and Berenice his daughter had ascended the throne, he obtained her hand in marriage. Ptolemy, however, was restored by the Roman arms, and Archelaus fell in battle, bravely defending his new dignity, Marc Antony, who had been on friendly terms with him, gave him an honourable fune

ral. (Dio Cass., 39, 12, seqq Id, 39, 55.... Epit. Liv., 105—Plut., Vit. Anton., c. 3.)—WI. A natural son of the preceding by Glaphyre. He is called by Appian Sicinnes. (Bell. Cir., 5, 7–Consult Schweigh., ad loc.) After his father's death, he succeeded to the high-priesthood at Comana, but was deposed by Julius . Caesar. Some years after (B.C. 36), Antony made him king of Cappadocia, in place of Ariarathes X., whom he deprived of the throne. Archelaus took par. with Antony at the battle of Actium, but was pardoned by Augustus. The emperor even subsequently added Armenia and Cilicia Trachea to his territories, because he had aided Tiberius in restoring Tigranes the Armenian king. When Tiberius retired to Rhodes, into a kind of exile, Archelaus, fearful of offending Augustus, treated the former with neglect. In consequence of this, when Tiberius came to the throne,

Archelaus was enticed to Rome by a letter from Livia,

which held out the hope of pardon, but on reaching the capital, he was accused of designs against the state. His age, however, and feeble state of health, together with the imbecility of mind which he feigned on the occasion, disarmed the anger of the emperor. He died at Rome, B.C. 17, having reigned 52 years. After his death Cappadocia became a Roman province. (Dio Cass., 57, 17. — Tacit., Ann., 2, 42. – Sueton., Tib., 37.)—VII. A son of Herod the Great. His father intended him for his successor, and named him as such in his will ; but as Philip Antipas, another son of Herod's, had been designated as successor to the throne in a previous will, a dispute arose between the two brothers, and they repaired to Rome to have the question settled by Augustus. The emperor, after having heard both parties, gave to Archelaus, under the title of tetrarch, one half of the territorics of his father Herod, comprising Judaea, properly so called together with Idumaca. On his return home, Archelaus indulged in the hereditary cruelty of his family, and be. ing complained of to Augustus, was deposed (B.C. 6), and sent to Vienna (Vienne in Dauphiné) as an exile. This happened in the tenth year of his reign. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 17, c. 2–Id, ibid., c. 12, seq.—Id., Bell. Jud., 2, 4.—Noldius, de Vita et Gestis Herodum, p. 219, seqq.)—VIII. A philosopher, a native of Athens, though others, with less probability, make him to have been born at Miletus. (Simpl. Phys., fol. 6, b.) He was a pupil of Anaxagoras, whom he accompanied in exile to Lampsacus, and to whom he succeeded as a head of the Ionic sect. After the death of this philosopher, he returned to Athens, and is said to have had Socrates and also Euripides among his pupils; but as to the former of the two, this is very doubtful. Of his life and actions we have very scanty information, as also of his doctrines; so that it is extremely difficult to arrive at any certain result with respect to his pe. culiar views. He received the appellation of bugtróg, (Physicus, i.e., “Natural Philosopher"), because, like Anaxagoras, he directed his principal attention to physical inquiries. He is said to have adopted the same primal substance as Anaxagoras; but to have aimed at . an explanation of his own of the mode in which the universe was produced, and of some other details. (Simpl. Phys., fol. 7, a.) His mode of accounting for the separation of the elements, and of connecting therewith the origin of men and animals, indi cates in the most remarkable manner the affinity of his theory with that of Anaxagoras. First of all, he taught, fire and water were separated, and, by the action of the fire on the water, the earth was reduced to a slimy mass, which was afterward hardened; but water, by its motion, gave birth to air, and thus was the earth held together by air, and the air by fire. While the earth was hardening by the action of heat, a certain mixture of warmth with cold and moist par. ticles was effected, of which animals of various kinds were formed, each animal different, but all having the

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