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Dardi), of Illyrian origin. (Mem. de l'Acad, des Inscr., &c., vol. 18, p. 75.) Apion, I. a surname of Ptolemy, one of the descendants of Ptolemy Lagus. (Vid. Ptolemaeus XIV.)— II. A grammarian and historical writer, born at Oasis Magna in Egypt, during the first century of the Christian era. He was surnamed Plistonices (IIZetatovíkmg), from his frequent successes over his literary opponents, but called himself the Alexandrean, from his having passed a part of his life in the ancient capital of the Ptolemies. Apion subsequently travelled into Greece, and finally established himself at Rome, where he taught grammar, or philological science, during the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. He attained to great celebrity. Although unquestionably a man of learning and research, he was in many respects an arrogant boaster, and in others a mere pretender; and it was in allusion, no doubt, to his vanity and noisy assumption of merit, that the Emperor Tiberius gave him in derision the name of Cymbalum mundi. He is renowned for much trifling on the subject of Homer, in order to trace whose family and country he had recourse even to magic, asserting that he had successfully invoked the appearance of shades to satisfy his curiosity, whose answers he was not allowed to make public. (Plin., 30, 2–Compare Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att, 5, 14.) These pretensions, silly as they were, made him very popular in Greece, although something might be owing to his commentaries on the same great }. which are mentioned by Eustathius and Hesychius. Pliny makes particular mention of the cstentatious character of this critic, who used to boast that he bestowed immortality on those to whom he dedicated his works; whereas it is only by the mention of others that these works are now known to have actually existed. One of the chief of them was, “On the Antiquity o the Jews,” to which people he opposed himself wit the hereditary resentment of an Egyptian. The reply of Josephus, “Against Apion,” has survived the attack, the author of which attack showed his enmity to the Jewish people by other means besides writing against them; for he was employed by his fellow-citizens of Alexandrea to head a deputation to the Emperor Caligula, complaining of the . who inhabited that city. Apion also wrote an account of the antiquities of Egypt, in which work he is supposed to have treated largely on the Pyramids, Pliny quoting him as the principal authority on the subject. After having ridiculed the rite of circumcision, he was compelled by a malady to submit to it, and, by a divine punishment, says Josephus, died soon after from the consequences of the operation. It is in allusion to Apion that Bayle observes, “how easily the generality of people may be deceived by a man of some learning, with a great share of vanity and impudence.” Extracts from Apion's commentary on Homer are given in the Etymologicum Gudianum, published by Sturz. (Joseph. contr. Ap. —Schöll, Hist. Lat. Gr., vol. 5, p. 16, seqq.) Apis, I. one of the earliest kings of the Peloponnesus, son of Phoroneus and Laodice, and o of Inachus. He is said to have reigned in Argos, after the death of his father, about 1800 B.C. Others make him to have been the son of Apollo, and king of Sicyon. He chased the Telchines from the Peloponnesus, according to a third statement, governed tyrannically, and lost his life in consequence. From him some have derived the old name, supposed to have been given at one time to the Peloponnesus, namely “Apian land.” (Wid. Apia.) Apis, in fact, is one of those mythological personages, to whose earlier legend each succeeding age adds its quota of the marvellous, until the whole becomes one mass of hopeless absurdity. Hence we find Varro and St. Augustine gravely maintaining, that the Grecian monarch Apis led a colony into Egypt, gavo laws and civilization to that country, was deified after death under the form of an ox, and was, of course,
identical with the Apis of Egyptian worship. (Pausan., 2, 5–Apollod., 2, 1.—Augustin., Cur. D., 18, 5.) And yet there is reason to believe, that the name o: is connected with that of a very early people, who dwelt along the European shores of the Mediter. ranean, and of whom the Italian Opici formed a part. (Wud. Apia)—II. The same with Epaphus, the sa, bled son of Jupiter and Io. Such at least is the statement of Herodotus, 6 & ‘AT1c karū r. v 'E27 ovov YZoagav čari ETagog (2, 153). Wesseling is inclined to regard the passage as spurious; but consult AElian (Hist. An., 11, 10), where the same thing is stated. Jablonski makes Epaphus mean “giant” (Voc. AEgypt., p. 65). Zoega, on the other hand, gives it the force of “bos pater” (Num. Ægypt., p. 81), and De Rossi, that of “taurus pracipuus.” (ko AEgypt., p. 15.) It is more than probable, however, that the name Epaphus was confounded by the Greeks with Apophis, one of the Egyptian appellations for Typhon, the evil genius, and hence may have arisen the legend which made the Grecian Apis a cruel tyrant. (Vid. Epaphus.)—III. A sacred bull, worshipped by the Egyptians. Its abode was at Memphis, near the temple of Phtha, or Vulcan, and it was in this city that peculiar honours were rendered it, an account of which is given by Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, Diodorus Siculus, Plutarch, and other ancient writers. The Apis was distinguished from other animals of the same kind by the following characteristics. He was supposed to be generated, not in the ordinary course of nature, but by a flashing from on high (ağaç k Toi oipan oi...— Hercq, 3, 27), or, according to others, by the contact of the moon (&Tago, Tig geoloc.—Plut, Sympos., 8, p. 718). As, however, this evidence of his divinity was rather dubious, several external marks were superadded, to satisfy his votaries of his claims to adoraticn. His colour was black, in older that the distinctive marks might the more clearly appear; these were a square white spot on the forehead, the figure of an ca
le on the back, a white crescent on the right side, the mark of a beetle on the tongue, and double hair on the tail. (Hercd., 3, 28.—Strab., 806.-Plan. 8, 46–Crcuzer, Comment. Hercil., p. 132, seqq.) The marks in question, which thus stamped his claims to divinity, were of course the contrivance of the priests. though of this the people were kept profoundly ignorant. This animal was regarded with the highest veneration, and more than regal honours were rendered him. He was waited upon, also, by numerous attendants, a particular priesthood were set apart for him, stalls were provided, surnished with every convenience, and his food was presented to him in vessels of gold. He was frequently displayed to the view of the people, while strangers could also behold him in a species of cnclosed court, or through a kind of window. (Strab., l. c.) He also gave oracles, and the mode of giving them was as follows. The priests, having led him forth from his abode, caused food to be offered him by the person who had come for a response. If he received what was thus offered, it was a favourable omen; if otherwise, an unfavourable one. So also, after the food had been offered him, he was allowed to go into one or the other of two stalls, according as he might feel inclined. His going into one of these was locked upon as a good omen, into the other the reverse. Germanicus, when in Egypt, consulted in this way the sacred Apis ; and as the animal refused the food which was offered him by the Roman prince, this circumstance was regarded as an omen of evil, that was subsequently verified by the death of the latter. (Plin., 8, 46. —Amm. Marcell., 22, 14.) The annual festival of Apis was celebrated with the utmost splendour. It always began with the rising of the Nile, and presented, for seven successive days, a scene of uninterrupted rejoicing and festivity. The Greeks called this celebration Theophania, because during its continuance the god Apis was displayed to the view of the people arrayed in festal attire, his head surmounted with a kind of tiara, and his body adorned with embroidered coverings, while a troop of boys accompanied him singing hymns in his praise. These boys, becoming on a sudden inspired, predicted future events. During the continuance of this festival, the crocodiles in the Nile were harmless, but regained their ferocity at its close (Plin., l.c.) Sacrifices were seldom offered unto Apis; when this, however, was done, red cattle were always celected, red being the colour of Typhon, the enemy of Osiris. So also, when Apis died, a red steer, and two or three other animals that were deemed sacred to Typhon, were buried along with him, in order to thwart the joy which the evil spirits would otherwise have felt at the death of the sacred Apis. When Apis died a natural death, the whole of Egypt was plunged in mourning, from the king to the peasant; and this mourning continued until a new Apis was found. The deceased animal was embalmed in the most costly manner, and the priests after this traversed the whole land in quest of his successor. When a calf was found with the requisite marks, all sorrow instantly ceased, and the most unbounded joy prevailed. Herodotus alludes to one of these scenes in his account of the Persian Cambyses (3,27). When that monarch returned to Memphis, from his unsuccessful expedition against the AEthiopians, he found the Egyptians giving loose to their joy on account of the reappearance of Apis. Irritated at this, and fancying that they were rejoicing at his ill success, he ordered the sacred animal to be brought before him, wounded it in the thigh with his dagger (of which wound it afterward died), caused the priest to be scourged, and commanded the proper of. ficers to kill all the Egyptians they should find making public demonstrations of joy.—Whenever a new Apis was obtained, the priests conducted him first to Nilopolis, where they fed him forty days. He was then transported in a magnificent vessel to Memphis. During the forty days spent at Nilopolis, women only were allowed to see him ; but after this the sight of the god was forbidden them. (Diod. Suc., 1, 85.)—It is worthy of remark, that although so much joy prevailed on the finding of a new Apis, and so much sorrow when he died a natural death, yet, whenever one of these animals reached the age of 25 years, the period prescribed by the sacred books, the priests drowned him as a matter of course, in a sacred fountain, and there was no mourning whatever for his loss.-According to an Egyptian legend the soul of Osiris passed on his death into the body of Apis, and as often as the sacred animal died, it passed into the body of its successor. So that, according to this dogma, Apis was the perfect image of the soul of Osiris. (Plut., de Is. et Os., p. 472, ed. Wyttenb.) It is very easy, however, to see in the worship of the sacred Apis the connexion of Egyptian mythology with astronomy and the great movements of nature. The Egyptians believed that the moon, making her total revolution in 309 lunations, and in 9125 days, returned consequently, at the end of 25 years, to the same point of Sothis or Sirius. Hence the life of Apis was limited to 25 years, and hence the cycle known as the period of Apis, with reference, no doubt, to the passage of the moon into the celestial bull, which it would have to traverse in order to arrive at Sothis. In worshipping Apis, therefore, the Egyptian priesthood worshipped, in fact, the great fertilizing principle in nature, and hence we see why females alone were allowed to view the Apis at Nilopolis, that the sight of the sacred animal might bless them with a numerous progeny. (Compare Gungniaut, 1,905.—Vollmer, Wörterb. der Mythol., p. 279.)
Apirius GALBA, a celebrated buffoon in the time of Tiberius. (Schol. ad Jun., 5, 4.—Compare Spalding, ad Quintil., 6, 3, 27–Wernsdorf, in Poet. Lat. Min., vol. 6, p. 418, seq.)
Apollini Res ludi. Vid. Ludi Apoll.INXREs. Apollin RRIs, I. Sidonius, a Christian poet. Vid. Sidonius. – II. Sulpitius, a grammarian. Vid. Sul. pitius. Apollinis ProMontorium, was situate on the coast of Africa, east of Utica, and north of Carthage. It is now Ras-Zebid. (Plan., 5, 4. — Mela, 1, 7.Lir., 30, 24.) Apollinopólis MAGNA, the capital of the 52d Egyptian nome, in the southern part of Upper Egypt, about twenty-five miles nearly north of the great cata. racts. It is now Edfou. (Ptol. — Steph. By2., s. v. — Anton. Itin. — AEluan, Hust. An., 10, 21.) There are two temples at Edfou, in a state of great preservation. One of them consists of high pyramidal propyla, a pronaos, portico, and sekos, the form most generally used in Egy, st; the other is peripteral, and is, at the same time, distinguished by having on its several columns the appalling figure of Typhon, the emblem of the Evil Principle. The pyramidal propylon, which forms the principal entrance to the greater temple, is one of the most imposing monuments extant of Egyptian architecture. (Russell's Egypt, p. 201.) Apollinopólis PAR v A, a city of Egypt in the Nome of Coptos, northwest of Thebes. It was a celebrated place of trade, and lay on the commercial road by which the products of the east were conveyed to Alexandrea. It is now Kous, and displays the ruins of a temple. (Ptol—Steph. Byz-Strabo, 561.) Apollo, the son of Jupiter and Latona. In Homer he is the god of archery, prophecy, and music. His arrows were not merely directed against the enemies of the gods, such as Otus and Ephialtes (Hom., Od., 11, 318): all sudden deaths of men were ascribed to his darts; sometimes as a reward (rid. Agamedes), at other times as a punishment (cwd. Niobe). He was, by his shafts, the god of pestilence, and he removed it when duly propitiated. At the banquets of the gods on Olympus, Apollo played on his lyre (póputy;), while the Muses sang. (Hom., Il., 1,601.) Eminent bards, as Demodocus, were held to have derived their skill from the teaching of Apollo or the Muses. (Od., 8, 488.) Prophets in like manner were taught by him. At Delphi he himself revealed the future. (Od., 8, 80.) According to the Homeric hymn to the Delian Apollo, the birth of the god took place in this manner: Latona, persecuted by Juno, besought all the islands of the Egean Sea to afford her a place of rest; but all feared too much the potent queen of heaven to assist her rival. Delos alone consented to become the birthplace of the future god, provided Latona would pledge herself that he would not contemn her humble isle, and would erect there the temple vowed by his mother. Latona assented with the oath most binding on the gods, namely, by the Styx, and the friendly isle received her. (H. in Apoll., 83.) All the goddesses save Juno and Lucina (whom the art of Juno kept in ignorance of this great event) were assembled in the floating isle to attend the delivery of Latona, whose labour continued for nine days and nights. Moved with compassion for her sufferings, they despatched Iris to Olympus, who brought Lucina secretly to Delos. Here then Apollo sprang to light, Earth smiled around, and all the goddesses shouted aloud to celebrate his birth. They washed and swathed the infant deity, and Themis gave him nectar and ambrosia. As soon as he had tasted the divine food, his bands and swaddling-clothes no longer retained him : he sprang up, and called to the goddesses to give him a lyre and a bow, adding that he would thenceforth declare to men the will of Jove. He then, to the amazement of the assembled goddesses, walked firmly on the ground; and Delos, exulting with joy, became covered with golden flowers. A somewhat different account of the birth of Apollo is given by Callimachus. (Hymn, in Apoll.)—In the Homeric hymn to Apollo, the man ner of his first getting possession of Delphi (IIv66) is thus related: When Apollo resolved to choose the site of his first temple, he came down from Olympus into Pieria; he sought throughout all Thessaly; thence went to Euboea, Attica, and Boeotia; but could find no lace to his mind. The situation of Tilphussa, near ke Copais, in Baeotia, pleased him, and he was about to lay the foundations of his temple here, when the nymph of the stream, afraid of having her own fame eclipsed by the vicinity of the oracle of Apollo, dissuaded him by representing how much his oracle would be disturbed by the noise of the horses and mules coming to water at her stream. She recommends to him Crissa, beneath Mount Parnassus, as a quiet, sequestered spot, where no unseemly sounds would disturb the holy silence demanded by an oracle. Arrived at Crissa, the solitude and sublimity of the scene charm the god. He forthwith sets about erecting a temple, which the hands of numerous workmen speedily raise, under the direction of the brothers Trophonius and Agamedes. Meanwhile Apollo slays with his arrows the monstrous serpent which abode there and destroyed the people and cattle of the vicinity. As it lay expiring, the exulting victor cried, “Now rot (Tütev) there on the man-feeding carth; and hence the place and oracle received the appellation of Pytho. The fane was now erected, but priests were wanting. The god, as he stood on the lofty area of the temple, cast his eyes over the sea, and beheld far south of Peloponnesus a Cretan ship sailing for Pylos. He plunged into the sea, and, in the form of a dolphin, sprang on board the ship. The crew sat in terror and amazement; a south wind carried the vessel rapidly along ; in vain they sought to land at Taenarus; the ship would not obey the helm. When they came to the bay of Crissa, a west wind sprang up and speedily brought the vessel into port; and the god, in the form of a i. star, left the boat and descended into his temple Then, quick as thought, he came as a handsome youth, with long locks waving on his shoulders, and accosted the strangers, inquiring who they were and whence they came. To their question in return, of what that place was to which they were come, he replies by informing them who he is and what his purpose was in bringing them thither. He invites them to land, and says that, as he had met them in the form of a dolphin (dežđiv), they should worship him as Apollo Delphinius; and hence, according to the fanciful etymology of the earlier poetry, Delphi in Phocis derived its name. They now disembark: the god, playing on his lyre, precedes them, and leads them to his temple, where they become his priests and ministers.—A god so beautiful and accomplished as Apollo could not well be supposed to be free from the influence of the gentler emotions; yet it is observable that he was not remarkably happy in his love, either meeting with a repulse, or having his amour attended with a fatal termination. (Wud. Daphne, Coronis, &c.) After the death of AEsculapius his son, who fell by the thunderbolt of Jove for having extended his skill in the healing art so far as to bring even the dead to life, Apollo, incensed at the fate of his offspring, slew the Cyclopes, the forgers of the thunderbolts, and was for this deed exiled from heaven. Coming down to earth, he took service as a herdsman with Admetus, king of Pherae in Thessaly, and pastured his herds on the banks of the Amphrysus. The kindnesses bestowed by him on Admetus have been mentioned elsewhere. (Wid. Admetus and Alcestis.) – Apollo, it is said, was taught divination by Pan. For his lyre he was indebted to the invention of his half-brother Mercury, and the triumph of this instrument over the tones of the reed is recorded in the legend of Marsyas. (Vid. Marsyas.) Apollo is a personage entirely distinct from Helius
("Hålog) or the Sun, though, in all likelihood, original- nomical character.
were introduced into Greece, these deities were united. or, perhaps, we might say, reunited. Apollo, at the same period, also usurped the place of Paeon, and became the god of the healing art.—This god was a favourite object of Grecian worship, and his temples were numerous. Of these the most celebrated were, that of Delphi in Phocis, of Delos, of Patara in Lycia, Claros in Ionia, Grynium in AEolis, and Didymi at Miletus; in all of which his oracles gave revelations of the future.—The favourite animals of Apollo were the hawk, the swan, the cicada, &c. His tree was the bay. He himself was represented in the perfection of united manly strength and beauty. His long curiing hair hangs loose, and is bound behind with the strophium; his brows are wreathed with bay; in his hands he bears his bow or lyre. The wonderful Apollo Belvidere shows at the same time the conception which the ancients had of this benign deity, and the high degree of perfection to which they had attained in sculpture.—Few deities had more appellations than the son of Latona. He was called Delian, Delphian, Pataraan. Clarian, &c., from the places of his worship. He was also styled: 1. The Lcrian god, from the ambiguity of many of his predictions; 2. Herding, as keeping the flocks and herds of Admetus; 3. Silver-bowed; 4. Far-shooter; 5. Light-producer; 6. Well-haired; 7. Gold-haired; 8. Gold-sworded, &c. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 87, seqq.)—Proclus assures us that the Orphic doctrine recognised the identity of Apollo and the Sun. (Orph., Hymn., 8.-1d., 12. — 1d., 34. — Fragm., 28, ed. Herm. —AEschyl., in Eratosth. Catast., p. 19, ed. Schaub.) The Oriental origin of the god is clearly shown even in his very name, for which the Greeks so often and so vainly sought an etymology in their own language. The Cretan form for Helios (HZuog) was Abellos ("A6éAtoc), i. e., 'AéAtoc, with the digamma inserted. (Matt., Dial., p. 185, ed. Sturz. —-Compare the Doric 'Arrézzov for 'Atróżawy, Maitt., p. 206, and the form Apellinem for Apollinem, cited by Festus.) We have here the Asiatic root Bel or Hel, an appellation for the sun in the Semitic languages. (Creuzer's Symbolik, par Guigniaut, vol. 2, p. 131. —Compare Selden, de D. S., 2, 1, p. 144.—Buttmann, Mythologus, vol. 1, p. 167.)—A very striking analogy exists between the Apollo of the Greeks and the Crishna of the Hindus. Both are inventors of the flute. (Compare Asiatic Researches, vol. 8, p. 65.) Crishna is deceived by the nymph Tulasi, as Apollo is by Daphne, and the two maidens are each changed into trees, of which the tulasi is sacred to Crishna, as the bay-tree is to Apollo. The victory of Crishna over the serpent Caliya-naga, on the borders of the Yamuna, recalls to mind that of Apollo over the serpent Python: and it is worthy of remark, that the vanquished reptiles respectively participate in the homage that is rendered to the victors. Nor dces the legend of Apollo betray a resemblance merely with the fables of India. A very strong affinity exists, in this respect, between the religious systems also of Egypt and Greece. We find the same animal, the wolf, which, by its oblique course, typified the path of the star of day, consecrated to the sun, both at Lycopolis and Delphi. This emblem transports into the Greek traditions the sables relative to the combats of Osiris. The Egyptian deity comes to the aid of his son Horus, under the figure of a wolf, and Latona disguises herself under the form of this same animal, when she quits the Hyperborean regions to take refuge in Delos. (Compare Pausanias, 2, 10 – Diod, Sic. 1, 88.1 Syncs., de Prorid., 1, 116–Eusebo, .."; Ev., 1, 50. —Aristot. Hist. An., 6, 35–AElian, Hist. An., 4, 4.) In the festival of the Daphnephoria, which the Thebans celebrated every ninth year in honour of Apollo, it is impossible to avoid seeing an astro. It took its name from the bay. in solemn procession, and which was adorned with flowers and branches of olive. To an olive-tree, decorated in its turn with branches of bay and flowers intertwined, and covered with a veil of purple, were suspended globes of different sizes, types of the sun and planets, and ornamented with garlands, the number of which was a symbol of the year. On the altar, too, burned a flame, the agitation, colour, and crackling of which served to reveal the future, a species of divination peculiar to the sacerdotal order, and which prevailed also at Olympia in Elis, the centre of most of the sacerdotal usages of the day.—The god of the sun became also the god of music, by a natural allusion to the movements of the planets and the mysterious harmony of the spheres; and the hawk, the universal type of the divine essence among the Egyptians, is, with the Greeks, the sacred bird of Apollo. (AElian, Hist. An... 10, 14.)—As soon, however, as this Apollo, whether his origin is to be traced to the banks of the Nile or to the plains of India, assumes a marked station in the Grecian mythology, the national spirit labours to disengage him of his astronomical attributes. Henceforward every mysterious or scientific idea disappears from the Daphnephoria, and they now become only commemorative of the passion of the god for a young female, who turns a deaf ear to his suit. A new deity, Helios ("Häuot), discharges all the functions of the sun. This god, in his quality of son of Uranus and Terra, is placed among the cosmogonical personifications; he has no part to play in the fables of the poets, and he is only twice named in Homer, once as the father of Circe, and again as revealing to Vulcan the infidelity of his spouse. He has no priests, no worship; no solemn festival is celebrated in his praise. Thereupon, freed from every attribute of an abstract nature, Apollo appears in the halls of Olympus, participates in the celestial banquets, interferes in the quarrels of earth, becomes the tutelary god of the Trojans, the protector of Paris and Æneas, the slave of Admetus, and the lover of Daphne. So true is it, that all these changes in the character of this divinity were effected by the transmuting power of the Grecian spirit, that we see Apollo preserve in the mysteries, which formed so many deposites of the sacerdotal traditions, the astronomical attributes of which the public worship had deprived him; and at a later period we find the New Platonists endeavouring to restore to him these same attributes, when they wished to form an allegorical system of religious science and philosophy out of the absurdities of polytheism. But, in the popular religion, instead of being the god from whom emanate fecundity and increase, he is a simple shepherd, conducting the herds of another. Instead of dying and arising again to life, he is ever young. Instead of scorching the earth and its inhabitants with his devouring rays, he darts his fearful arrows from a quiver of gold. Instead of announcing the future in the mysterious language of the planets, he prophesies in his own name. Nor does he any longer direct the harmony of the spheres by the notes of his mystic lyre; he has now an instrument, invented by Mercury and perfected by himself. The dances, too, of the stars cease to be conducted by him; for he now moves at the head of the nine Muses (the nine strings of his divine cithara), the divinities who each preside over one of the liberal arts. (Constant, de la Religion, vol. 2, p. 93.) Apollodorus, I. a native of Phalèrum, one of the intimate friends of Socrates. (Plat., Phaed.)—II. A celebrated painter of Athens, who brought the art to a high degree of perfection, and handed it in this state to his pupil Zeuxis. Two of his celebrated productions are noticed by Pliny (35,9). One of these was a priest at the altar; the other an Ajax struck by a thunderbolt. These two chefs-d'oeuvre still existed in Pliny's time at Pergamus, and were highly admired. Apollodorus first discovered the art of softening and degraX.
ly the same. When mysteries and secret doctrines |tree, which the fairest youths of the city carried round
ding, as it is technically termed, the colours of a paint. ing, and of imitating the exact effect of shades. Pliny speaks of him with enthusiasm. He became at last so arrogant as to style himself the prince of painters, and never to go forth into public without wearing a kind of tiara, after the fashion of the Medes. His fame, however, was eventually eclipsed by Zeuxis, who perfected all his discoveries. (Plin., l. c.—Sillig, Dict. Art... s. v.)—III. A famous sculptor, whose country is uncertain, but who flourished about Olymp. 114. He possessed great acuteness of judgment, but exhibited also, on many occasions, great violence of temper; so much so as frequently to break to pieces his own works when they chanced not to please him. Silanion, another artist, represented him in bronze during one of these fits of anger, and the work resembled, according to Pliny, not a human being, but choler itself personified. (Plin., 34, 8,)—IV. A comic poet of Athens, who flourished about 300 B.C. He was a writer of much repute among the poets of the New Comedy. Terence copied the Hecyra and Phormio from two of his dramas; all his productions, though very numerous, are now lost, except the titles of eight, with a few fragments. He was one of the six writers whom the ancient critics selected as the models of the New Comedy. The other five were Philippides, Philemon, Menander, Diphilus, and Posidippus. (Theatre of the Greeks, 2d ed., p. 188,)—V. A comic poet of Carystus in Euboea. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 3, p. 80.) —WI. A comic poet of Gela in Sicily, contemporary with Menander. (Suidas, s. v. 'Atrož2.66.—Clinton's Fast, Hellenici, 2d ed., p. xlvi.)—VII. A native of Athens, and disciple of Aristarchus, Panatius, and Diogenes the Babylonian. He flourished about 146 B.C., and was celebrated for his numerous productions, both in prose and verse. Of the former, we have with the exception of a few fragments, only the work entitled Bto%toshīkm (Bibliothèca), being a collection of the fables of antiquity, drawn from the poets and other writers, and related in a clear and simple style. It has not reached us, however, in a perfect state, since it breaks off with the history of Theseus; whereas it would seem, from citations made from it, that the work was originally carried down to the return of the Greeks from the Trojan war. Faber (Le Fevre), one of the editors of the Bibliotheca, pretends that we merely have an extract from the original work of Apollodorus; while another editor, Clavier, maintains that & pollo, dorus never wrote a work of this kind, but that what has come down to us is nothing more than a mere abridgment, extracted most probably from several of his works, especially that on the gods (repl 9eów), which consisted of at least 20 books. The best edition of the Bibliotheca is that of Heyne, Götting, 2 vols. 8vo, 1803. The edition of Clavier, Paris, 1805, 2 vols. 8vo, is also worthy of notice.—Of the poetical works of Apollodorus, the most remarkable was the Xpovuká, or poetical Chronicle, which is unfortunately lost. It was divided into four books, and contained, according to Scymnus (n. 16–35, and 45–49), a statement of all the remarkable events, famous sieges, migrations, establishments of colonies, treaties, exploits, &c., from the fall of Troy, which Apollodorus fixed at 1184 B.C., down to 144 B.C. It was written in a brief style, in iambic trimeters. We are indebted to this work, through the citations of other writers, for the knowledge of various important dates, such as the fall of Troy, the invasion of the Heraclidae, the Ionian emigration, the first Olympiad, &c. That part of the Chronicle which gave the dates when the various great men of antiquity lived, served as a basis for the Chronicle composed by Cornelius Nepos, but which is also lost. Apollodorus composed also a Description of the Earth (Tic Treptodoc), in iambic verse, which gave Scymnus of Chios and Dionysius of Charax the idea of their respective Periegeses. (Schöll, # Lit. Gr., 161
vol. 4, p. 57, seqq. — Id., 5, 36. — Clavier, in Biogr. Univ., vol. 2, p. 313.) — VIII. An Epicurean philosopher, supposed to have been contemporary with Cicero. He governed, as chief, the school of Epicurus, and the severity of his administration caused him to receive the appellation of Knitoripavvoc (tyrant of the garden). According to Diogenes Laertius, he wrote more than 400 works, and among them a life of Epicurus. (Diog. Laert., 10, 2 et 25.-Consult Menage, ad loc., where Gassendi's explanation of the term KmToropavvoc is given.)—IX. A native of Damascus, and an architect of great ability in the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian, by the former of whom he was employed in constructing the famous stone bridge over the Ister or Danube, A.D. 104. Various other bold and magnificent works, both at Rome and in the provinces, contributed to his high reputation. The principal of these were the Forum of Trajan, in the middle of which arose the Traşun Column, an immense library, an odeum, the Ulpian basilica, thermas, aqueducts, &c. Falling into disgrace with Hadrian, he lost his life through that emperor's caprice. The occasion is variously related; by some it has been ascribed to an old grudge, which originated in the time of Trajan, when Hadrian, giving an ignorant opinion, in presence of the then emperor, respecting some architectural designs, was so seriously mortified by a sarcastic rebuke from Apollodorus, that he never forgave him. This old offence was heightened by another on the part of Apollodorus, when Hadrian had ascended the imperial throne. The emperor pretended to submit to him, for his opinion, the design of a recently-built temple of Venus. The plainness of speaking, for which the architect was famed, got the better of his policy, and drew from him an observation, in allusion to the want of proportion between the edifice and the statue it contained, that if “the goddess wished to rise and go out” of her temple, it would be impossible for her to accomplish her intention. The anger of the monarch knew no bounds. Apollodorus was banished; and finally, after having been accused of various crimes, was put to death. (Xiph., Vit. Hadr.)—X. A name common to several medical writers. The most distinguished of these was a physician and naturalist, born at Lemnos, about a century before the Christian era. He lived under Ptolemy Soter and Lagus, to one of whom, according to Strabo, he dedicated his works. The scholiast to Nicander states that he wrote also on plants. He is mentioned by Pliny, who says that he boasted of the juice of cabbage and of horseradish as a remedy against poisonous mushrooms. Athenæus often cites him. He wrote also on venomous animals, and there is reason to believe that it was from this work that Galen derived his antidote against the bite of vipers. (Plin., 14, 9.-Athen., 15, p. 675, e.) Apollonia, I. a festival at Sicyon, in honour of Apollo and Diana. It arose from the following circumstance. These two deities came to the river Sythas, in the vicinity of Sicyon, which city was then called AEgialea, intending to purify themselves from the slaughter of the serpent Python. They were frightened away, however, and fled to Crete. Ægialea being visited by a pestilence soon after this, the inhabitants, by the advice of soothsayers, sent seven boys and the same number of girls to the Sythas, to entreat the offspring of Latona to return. Their prayer was granted, and the two deities came to the citadel. In commemoration of this event, a temple was erected on the banks of the river to the goddess of Persuasion, IIetto, and every year, on the festival of Apollo, a band of boys conveyed the statues of Apollo and Diana to the temple of Persuasion, and afterward brought them back again to the temple of Apollo. (Pausan., 2, 7.)—II. A celebrated city of Illyricum, near the mouth of the river Aous, or Aeas, and the ruins of which still retain the name of Pollina. It was found
ed by a colony from Corinth and Corcyra, and, according to Strabo, was renowned for the wisdom of its laws, which appear to have been framed, however, rather on the Spartan than the Corinthian model. AElian states, that decrees to the exclusion of foreigners were enforced here as at Lacedaemon; and Aristotle affirms, that none could aspire to the offices of the republic but the principal families, and those de' scended from the first colonists. (AEl., W. H., 13, 6 —Arist., Polit., 4, 4.) Apollonia was exposed to frequent attacks from the Illyrians, and it was probably the dread of these neighbours, and also of the Macedonians, that induced the city to place itself under the protection of the Romans on the first appearance of that people on their coast. (Polyb., 2, 11.) Throughout the war with Macedon they remained faithful to the interest of their new allies. From its proximity to Brundisium and Hydruntum in Italy, Apollonia was always deemed an important station by the Romans; and among the extravagant projects of Pyrrhus, it is said he had contemplated the idea of throwing over a bridge to connect it with the last-mentioned place; a distance not less than fifty miles ' (Plin., 3, 11.) Augustus spent many years of his early life in Apollonia, which were devoted to the study of literature and philosophy. (Suet., Aug., 10.—Cramer's Anc. Gr., vol. 1, p. 56, seqq.)—III. A town in the interior of Chalcidice, on the Egnatian way. (Scylax, p. 27– Xen., Hist. Gr., 5, 2.) Mention is made of it in the Acts of the Apostles (17, 1), St. Paul having passed through it on his way from Philippi to Thessalonica. The ruins are called Pollina. (Cramer's Anc. Gr., vol. 1, p. 264.)—IV. A city of Thrace, at the mouth of the river Nestus. (Mela, 3, 2–Liv., 38, 41.) It was called, in a later age, Sozopolis, and is now Size. boli.—W. A city of Assyria, to the northwest of Ctesi. phon. (Amm. Marcell., 23, 20.) Hardouin and oth. ers make it the same with Antiochia Assyria, mentioned by Pliny (6, 27).—VI. A city of Palestine, in Samaria, on the Mediterranean coast. It lay northwest of Sichem. (Plin., 5, 13–Joseph., Antiq. Jud., 13, 23.—Id., Bell., 1, 6.)—WII. A city of Phrygia, to the southeast of Apamea, on the road to Antioch in Pisidia. Its earlier name was Margium. (Strab., 576. — Steph. Byz.) Colonel Leake is inclined to place it at Ketsi Bourlou, not far from the Lake Boudour.—VIII. A city of Lydia, called also Apollonis, about 300 stadia from Pergamus, and the same distance from Sardis. It was named after the wife of Attalus. Cicero often alludes to it. (Cic, Orat. pro Flacc., c. 21 et 32.-Ep. ad Quint., 1, 2, &c.) Some ruins are visible near a small hamlet called Bullene.— IX. A city of Mysia, at the northern extremity of the Lake Apolloniatis, and near the point where the Rhyndacus issues from it. Its site is now occupied by the Turkish town of Abulliona. (Strab., 575.)—X. A city of Cyrenaica, regarded as the harbour of Cyrene. It was the birthplace of the geographer Eratosthenes. Under the lower empire this place took the name of Sozusa, and it is now called Marza Susa, or Sosush. (Mela, 1, 8.-Ptol.) ApollóNis, wife of Attalus of Pergamus. She was a native of Cyzicus, and of obscure family. Apollonis became the mother of Eumenes, Attalus, Philetaerus, and Athenaeus, who were remarkable for fraternal attachment as well as for filial piety. After the death of their mother they erected a temple to her at Cyzicus, on the columns of which were placed nineteen tablets, sculptured in relief, and displaying the most touching incidents in history and mythology relative to filial attachment. At the bottom of these tablets were inscriptions in verse, which have been preserved for us in the Vatican manuscript of the Greek Anthology. These are given by Jacobs, at the end of his edition of the Anthology (Paralipomena cr codice Vaticano), and were previously published by