Obrazy na stronie

critics (according to Quintilian, 10, 1) cited his The- Antakia, and has suffered severely by a rate earthbais as a work worthy of being compared with the quake. At the distance of four or five miles below poems of Homer, and of terminating the list of epic was a celebrated grove called Daphne; whence, for poems of the first class. They extolled the grandeur the sake of distinction, it has been called Antiochia of his ideas and the energy of his style, but they con- near Daphne, or Antiochia Epidaphnes (Avrièreta # sessed, at the same time, that he was deficient in ele- Tpoc Assovny. Hierocl. Synecdem, p. 711–Plin., 5, gance and grace. Antimachus was also the author 21—Antiochia Epidaphnes, rid. Daphne).-II. A city of an elegy entitled Lyde, which the ancients regarded of Lycaonia, near the northern confines of Pisidia, as a chef-d'oeuvre. It is now entirely lost. The An- sometimes called Antiochia of Pisidia ('Avrtóxetc. thology has preserved for us, one of his epigrams. IItaldiac). According to Strabo, it was founded by The fragments of Antimachus have been collected and a colony from Magnesia, on the Maeander. This probpublished by Schellenberg, under the title “Antimachi ably took place under the auspices of Antiochus, from Colophonii fragmenta, nunc primum conquisita,” &c., whom the place derived its name. It became, under Halae, 1786, 8vo. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 1, p. the Romans, the chief city of their province of Pisidia, 245, and 2, p. 126.)—II. A Trojan whom Paris bribed which extended farther to the north than Pisidia proper. to oppose the restoring of Helen to Menelaus and (Hierocles, p. 672.)—III. A city of Cilicia Trachea, Ulysses, who had come as ambassadors to recover her. situate on a rocky projection of the coast termed CraHe recommended to put them to death. His sons, gus, whence the place, for distinction' sake, was Hippolochus and Pisander, were killed by Agamem- called 'Avrtóreta éti Kptiyo. (Strabo, 669.) The

non. (Il., 11, 122, seqq.) ANTINoeia, annual sacrifices and quinquennial games in honour of Antinous, instituted by the Emperor Hadrian at Mantinea, where Antinous was worshipped as a divinity. They were celebrated also at Argos. (Potter, Gr. Antiq., vol. 1, p. 424.) ANTINoopólis or ANTINoe, a town of Egypt, built in honour of Antinous, opposite Hermopolis Magna, on the eastern bank of the Nile. It was previously an obscure place called Besa, but became a magnificent city. (Vid. Antinous.) It is now called Ensené, and a revered sepulchre has also caused it to receive the name of Shek-Abadé. (Ammian. Marcellin., 19, 12.-Dio Cass., 69, 11.-Spartian., Vit. Hadr., 14. —Description de l'Egypte, vol. 4, p. 197, seqq.) ANTINöts, I. a youth of Bithynia, of whom the Emperor Hadrian was so extremely fond, that at his death he erected temples to him, established a priesthood for the new divinity, built a city in honour of him (rid. Antinoopolis), and caused a constellation in the heavens to be called by his name. . According to one account, Antinous was drowned in the Nile, while another and more correct statement gives the occasion of his death as follows: Hadrian, consulting an oracle at Besa, was informed that he was threatened with great danger, unless a person that was dear to him was immolated for his preservation. Upon hearing this, Antinous threw himself from a rock into the Nile, as an offering for the safety of the emperor, who built Antinoopolis on the spot. Nor was this all. The artists of the empire were ordered to immortalize by their skill the grief of the monarch and the memory of his favourite. Painters and statuaries vied with each other, and some of the master-pieces of the latter have descended to our own times. The absurd and disgusting conduct of Hadrian needs no comment. —II. A native of Ithaca, son of Eupeithes, and one of Penelope's suiters. He was brutal and cruel in his manners, and was the first of the suiters that was slain by Ulysses on his return. (Od., 22, 8, &c.) ANtiochia, I. a city of Syria, once the third city of the world for beauty, greatness, and population. It was built by Seleucus R. in memory of his father Antiochus, on the river. Orontes, about 20 miles from its mouth, and was equidistant from Constantinople and Alexandria, being about 700 miles from each. Here the disciples of our Saviour were first called Christians, and the chief patriarch of Asia resided. It was afterward known by the name of Tetrapolis, being divided, as it were, into four cities, each having its separate wall, besides a common one enclosing all. The first was built by Seleucus Nicator, the second by those who repaired thither on its being made the capital of the Syro-Macedonian empire, the third by Seleucus Callinicus, and the fourth by Antiochus Epiphanes. (Strabo, 750.—Compare Manwert, vol. 6, part 1, p. 468, seqq.) It is now called

Byzantine writers call it the Isaurian Antiochia. Hierocles makes mention of it (Synecdem, p. 708), as also the writers on the Crusades, under the name of Antioceta. (Sanuti, secreta fidelium, l. 2, p. 4, c. 26. —Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 84.)—IV. A city at the foot of Mount Taurus, in Comagene, a province of Syria. (Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 497.)—V. A city of Caria, on the river Maeander, where that stream was joined by the Orsinus or Massinus. (Plin., 5, 29.) Steph. Byz. states, that it was founded by Antiochus, son of Seleucus, in honour of his mother. It had been previously called Pythopolis. The environs abounded in fruit of every kind, but especially in the fig called “triphylla.” The ancient site corresponds with Jenisher. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 209.)—VI. A city of Cilicia Trachea, in the district of Lamotis. (Ptol., p. 129.) ANT15chis, I, the name of the mother of Antiochus, the son of Seleucus.-II. A tribe of Athens. ANTiêchus, I. surnamed Soter, was the eldest son of Seleucus, the first king of Syria and Babylonia. He succeeded his father B.C. 280. When still young, he fell into a lingering disease, which none of his father's physicians could cure for some time, till it was discovered that his pulse was more irregular than usual when Stratonice, his stepmother, entered his room, and that love for her was the cause of his illness. This was told to the father, who willingly gave Stratonice to save a son on whom he founded all his hopes. When Antiochus came to the throne, he displayed, at the head of his forces, talents worthy of his sire, and gained many battles over the Bithynians, Macedonians, and Galatians. He attacked also Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, at the instigation of Magas, who had revolted against this prince, but without success. He failed also in an expedition which he undertook after the death of Phileterus, king of Pergamus, with a view of seizing on his kingdom, and he was vanquished near Sardis by Eumenes, the successor of that prince. He returned after this to Antioch, and died not long subsequently, having occupied the throne for nineteen years. He was called Soter (SoTop) or “Preserver,” for having preserved his subjects from an irruption of the Galatians or Gauls, whom he defeated in battle. His successor was Antiochus Theos. (Justin, 17, 2, &c.)—II. Son of Antiochus Soter, and surnamed Theos (9eóc), “God,” by the Milesians, because he put to death their tyrant Timarchus. He succeeded his father B.C. 261, and at the instigation of his sister Apamea, the widow of Magas, renewed the war with Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. He was as unsuccessful, however, as his father had been: and, being compelled to sue for peace, only obtained it on condition of repudiating his wife Laodice, and espousing Berenice the sister of Ptolemy. The male issue, moreover, of this latter marriage were to inherit the crown. It was during this war that he lost all his rovinces beyond the Euphrates by a revolt of the

arthians and Bactrians. Ptolemy dying two years after this, Antiochus repudiated Berenice and restored Laodice. The latter, resolving to secure the succession to her son, poisoned Antiochus and suborned Artemon, whose features were similar to his, to represent him as king. Artemon, subservient to her will, pretended to be indisposed, and, as king, recommended to them Seleucus, surnamed Callinicus, son of Laodice, as his successor. After this ridiculous imposture, it was made public that the king had died a natural death, and Laodice placed her son on the throne, and despatched Berenice and her son, B.C. 246. (Justin, 27, 1–Appian.)—III. Surnamed Hierar (Tépaş), “bird of prey,” son of Antiochus Theos and Laodice, was the brother of Seleucus Callinicus. From his early years this prince was devoured by ambition. In order to attain to power, no crime or evil act deterred him; his thirst for rule, as well as his wicked and turbulent spirit, obtained for him the appellation, so characteristic of his movements, which we have mentioned above. Under pretext of aiding his brother against Ptolemy Euergetes, he attempted to dethrone him. Seleucus having marched against him for the purpose of counteracting his ambitious designs, Hierax defeated him near Ancyra. He could not, however, derive any advantage from this victory, since the Gauls, who formed the principal part of his army, revolted and declared themselves independent; and it was only by paying a large sum of money that Hierax could save his life. Eumenes, king of Pergamus, took advantage of this circumstance to rid himself of an unquiet and troublesome neighbour. He attacked Hierax, defeated him, and compelled him to take refuge with his brother-in law Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia. Ariarathes soon became tired of him, and formed the design of puttin him to death; but Hierax, informed of his design, j into Egypt. He was thrown into prison by Ptolemy, and perished a few years after in attempting to make his escape.—IV. The Great, as he was surnamed, was the third of the name that actually reigned, and the son of Seleucus Ceraunus, and succeeded his father 223 B.C. He passed the first years of his reign in regulating the affairs of his kingdom, and in bringing back to their duty several of his officers who had made themselves independent. Desirous after this of regaining Syria, which had been wrested from Seleucus Callinicus by Ptolemy Euergetes of Egypt, he was met at * and defeated by Ptolemy Philopater, 218 B.C., and was compelled to surrender the whole of his conquests in Syria which he had thus far made. He was more successful, however, in Upper Asia, where he recovered possession of Media, and made treaties with the kings of Parthia and Bactria, who agreed to aid him in regaining other of his former provinces, if their respective kingdoms were secured to them. He crossed over also into India, and renewed his alliance with the king of that country. After the death of Philopater, he resumed his plans of conquest, and Ptolemy Epiphanes being yet quite young, he seized upon the whole of Syria. He granted, however, peace to Ptolemy, and even gave him his daughter Cleopatra in marriage, with Syria for her dowry. Antiochus then turned his arms against the cities of Asia Minor and Greece; but these cities having implored the aid of Rome, the senate sent to Antiochus to summon him to surrender his conquests. Excited, however, by Hannibal, to whom he had given an asylum, he took no notice of this order, and a war ensued. The plan, however, which Hannibal traced out for him, was not followed. Defeated at Thermopylae by Glabrio, he fled into Asia, where a second and more complete defeat, by Scipio Asiaticus, at Magnesia, compelled him to sue for peace, which he obtained only on the hardest conditions. He was obliged to retire beyond Mount Taurus. All his territories on this side of Taurus became Roman

provinces, and he had also to pay a yearly tribute of 2000 talents. His revenues being insufficient for this heavy demand, he attempted to plunder the treasures of the temple of Belus in Susiana; but the inhabitants of the country were so irritated at this sacrilege, that they slew him, together with his escort, B.C. 187. He .reigned thirty-six years. In his character of king, Antiochus was humane and liberal, the patron of learning, and the friend of merit. He had three sons, Seleucus Philopater, Antiochus Epiphanes, and Demetrius. The first succeeded him, and the two others were kept as hostages by the Romans. (Justin, 31 et 32–Liv., 34, 59.-Flor., 2, 1.--Appian, Bell. Syr.) —V. Surnamed Epiphanes, or Illustrious, was king of Syria after the death of his brother Seleucus Philopater, having ascended the throne 175 B.C. He was the fourth of the name, and was surnamed Epiphanes ('ETupavío), “the Illustrious,” and reigned eleven

ears. Taking advantage of the infancy of Ptolemy

hilometor, he seized upon Coelosyria, and even penetrated into Egypt, where he took Memphis, and obtained possession of the person of the young king, whom he kept prisoner for many years. The guardians of the young Ptolemy, however, having or. for aid to the Romans, the senate sent Popilius Laenas unto Epiphanes, who compelled him to renounce his' conquests and set the Egyptian monarch at liberty. The Jews having revolted during the reign of Epiphanes, he marched against Jerusalem, deposed the o: priest Onias, profaned the temple by sacrifices to Jupiter Olympius, plundered all the sacred vessels, and slaughtered, it is said, 80,000 inhabitants of this ill. city. After this he proceeded into Persia, and, while traversing Elymais, wished to plunder the temples that were there; but the inhabitants having revolted, he was compelled to retreat to Babylon. There he learned that the Jews, commanded by Matathias and Judas Maccabaeus, had gained several victories over the generals whom he had left in Judaea. Transported with fury at the intelligence, he assembled a new army, and swore to destroy Jerusalem; but, at the moment of his departure, he fell from his chariot, was subsequently seized with a disgusting malady, and died in the most agonizing sufferings. The Persians attributed the manner of his death to his impious enterprise against the temple of Elymais; the Jews saw in it the anger of Heaven, for his having profaned the temple of Jerusalem. He died B.C. 164. Epiphanes was not without some good qualities. He was generous, loved the arts, and displayed considerable ability in the wars in which he was engaged; but his vices and follies tarnished his character. (Justin, 34, 5.— Macchab., 1, 1, &c.)—VI. Eupator, son of the preceding (from ei and Tatip, “born of an illustrious sire”), succeeded to the throne at the age of nine years. The generals of this prince continued the war against the Jews, and Jerusalem was on the point of becoming, for the second time, the prey of the Syrians, when Demetrius Soter, the cousin-german of Eupator, by a sudden invasion, seized upon the capital of Syria. The generals of Eupator made peace with the Jews, and marched against Demetrius; but the soldiers, ashamed of serving a mere child, went over to the invader, who put Eupator to death after a reign of about eighteen months.--VII. (the sixth of the name) Son of Alexander Bala, took the surname of Theos (“God”), claiming descent, like his father, from Antiochus Theos already mentioned. To this surname he afterward added that of Epiphanes (“the illustrious"). Demetrius Nicator having disbanded his army, and being entirely without apprehension of any foe, Tryphon took advantage of this, and having brought Antiochus from Arabia, still young in years, caused him to be proclaimed king, about 144 B.C. The attempt succeeded. Demetrius was defeated, and Antiochus ascended the throne. He reigned, however, only in name The actual monarch was Tryphon, who had him put to death at the end of about two years, and caused himself to be proclaimed in his stead. (Justin, 36, 1.)— VIII. Surnamed Sidetes (Stónric), “the hunter,” son of Demetrius Soter, ascended the throne 139 B.C. He drove from Syria the usurper Tryphon, made war on the Jews, besieged Jerusalem, and compelled it to pay a tribute. He then marched against Phraates, king of Parthia, who menaced his kingdom, gained three victories over him, and obtained possession of Babylon. The following year he was vanquished in turn by the Parthian king, and lost his life in the conflict. He was a prince of many virtues, but he tarnished all by his habits of intemperance.—IX. The eighth of the name, surnamed Grypus (TpuTóc) from his aquiline nose, was son of Demetrius Nicanor and Cleopatra. He was raised to the throne B.C. 123, to the prejudice of his brothers, by the intrigues of his mother, who hoped to reign in his name. When he was declared king, the throne of Syria was occupied by Alexander Zebinas. He marched against this impostor, defeated, and put him to death. He then married Tryphena, daughter of Ptolemy Euergetes II., which ensured peaceable relations between Syria and Egypt. After having for some time yielded to the authority of his mother, he resolved at last to reign in his own name, a step which nearly cost him his life. His mother prepared a poisoned draught for her son, but, being suspected by him, was compelled to drink it herself. A bloody war soon after broke out between this prince and Antiochus the Cyzicenian, his brother, in which the latter compelled Grypus to cede to him Caelosyria. They thus reigned conjointly for some time. Grypus was at last assassinated by one of his subjects, B.C. 96. (Justin, 39, l. Joseph., Ant. Jud.)—X. Surnamed Cyzicenus, from his having been brought up in the city of Cyzicus, was the ninth of the name. He was son of Antiochus Sidetes, and succeeded his brother Grypus, after having reigned over Caelosyria, which he had previously compelled his brother to yield to him. He was a dissolute and indolent prince, and possessed of considerable mechanical talent. His nephew Seleucus, son of Grypus, dethroned him, B.C. 95.—XI. The tenth of the name, ironically surnamed Pius, because he married Selena, the wife of his father and of his uncle. He was the son of Antiochus IX., and he expelled Seleucus, the son of Grypus, from Syria; but he could not prevent two other sons of Grypus, namely, Philip and Demetrius, from seizing on a part of Syria. He perished soon after by their hands. (Appian. Joseph., Ant. Jud., 13, 21.)—After his death, the kingdom of Syria was torn to pieces by the factions of the royal family or usurpers, who, under a good or false title, under the name of Antiochus or his relations, established themselves for a little time either as sovereigns of Syria, or Damascus, or other dependant provinces. At last Antiochus, surnamed Asiaticus, the son of Antiochus the ainth, was restored to his paternal throne by the influence of Lucullus, the Roman general, on the expulsion of Tigranes, king of Armenia, from the Syrian dominions; but four years after, Pompey deposed him, and observed that he who hid himself while a usurper sat upon his throne, ought not to be a king. From that time, B.C. 65, Syria became a Roman province, and the race of Antiochus was extinguished.—There were also other individuals of the same name, among whom the most deserving of mention are the following: I. A native of Syracuse, descended from an ancient monarch of the Sicani. He wrote a history of Sicily, which was brought down to the 98th Olympiad, and which Diodorus Siculus cites among the sources whence he derived aid for his compilation. He composed also what appears to have been a very curious history of Italy, some fragments of which are pre

Heyne, de Pontibus Hist. Diod. vol. 1, p. lxxxv. ed. Bip.)— II. A rhetorician and sophist of Ægea, the pupil of Dionysius of Miletus. Dio Cassius (77, p. 878) relates, that, in order to rouse the spirits of the Roman army, who were worn out with fatiguin marches, he assumed the character of a cynic, an rolled about in the snow. This conduct gained for him the favour of Septimius Severus and Caracalla. He af. terward went over to Tiridates, king of the Parthians, whence Suidas styles him Airóuozoc, or “the deserter.”—III. A native of Ascalon, the last preceptor of the Platonic school in Greece. He was the disciple of Philo, and one of the philosophers whose lectures Warro, Cicero, and Brutus attended, for he taught, at different times, at Athens, Alexandrea, and Rome. He attempted to reconcile the tenets of the different sects, and maintained that the doctrines of the Stoics were to be found in the writings of Plato. Cicero greatly admired his eloquence o the politeness of his manners, and Lucullus took him as his companion into Asia. He resigned the academic chair in the 175th Olympiad. After his time the professors of the Academic philosophy were dispersed by the tumults of war, and the school itself was transferred to Rome. (Schöll, Hist. Lt. Gr., vol. 5, p. 199, seqq.—Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 258, scqq.)

ANTiópe, I. a daughter of Nycteus, who was a son of Neptune and king of Thebes, received the addresses of Jupiter, the god having appeared to her under the form of a satyr. #. at the threats of her father, on the consequences of her fault becoming apparent, Antiope fled to Sicyon, where she married Epopeus, Nycteus, out of grief, put an end to himself, having previously charged his brother Lycus to punish Epopeus and Antiope. Lycus accordingly marched an army against Sicyon, took it, slew Epopeus, and ied away Antiope captive. On the way to Thebes, she brought forth twins at Eleuthera. The unhappy babes were exposed on a mountain; but a shepherd having found them, reared them both, calling the one Zethus, the other Amphion. The former devoted himself to the care of cattle, while Amphion passed his time in the cultivation of music, having been presented with a lyre by Mercury. Meanwhile, Lycus had put Antiope in bonds, and she was treated with the utmost cruelty by him and his wife Dirce. But her chains became loosed of themselves, and she fled to the dwelling of her sons in search of shelter and protection. Having recognised her, they resolved to avenge her wrongs. Accordingly, they attacked and slew Lycus, and tying Dirce by the hair to a wild bull, let the animal drag her until she was dead. (Wid. Dirce, Amphion, Zethus.-Apollod., 3, 5. — Keightley's Mythology, p. 299.)—II. A queen of the Amazons. According to one account, Hercules, having taken her prisoner, gave her to Theseus as a reward of his valour. The more common tradition, however, made her to have been taken captive and carried off by Theseus himself, when he made an expedition with his own fleet against the Amazonian race. She is also called Hippolyta. Justin says that Hercules gave Hippolyta to Theseus, and kept Antiope for himself. (Plut., Wit. Thes., 27. —Justin, 2, 4.)

ANTIPKRos, a small island in the AEgean, ranked by Artemidorus among the Cyclades, but excluded from them by Strabo (10, p. 484, ed. Casaub.). It lay opposite to Paros, and was separated from this latter island, according to Heraclides of Pontus (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Qatapoc), by a strait eighteen stadia wide. The same writer affirms (Plan., H. N., 4, 12), that it had been colonized by Sidonians. Its more ancient name was Oliarus. It is now Antiparo. This island is famed for its grotto, which is of great depth, and was believed by the ancient Greeks to communicate, beneath the waters, with some of the neighbouring

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discretion. and privileges, but were obliged to deliver up the orators Demosthenes and Hyperides, who had instigated the war, and to receive a Macedonian garrison into the Munychia. Antipater was equally successful in reducing the other states of Greece, who were making a noble struggle for their freedom; but he settled their respective governments with much moderation. In conjunction with Craterus, he was the first who attempted to control the growing power of Perdiccas; and after the death of that commander he was invested with all his authority. He exercised this jurisdiction over the other governors with unusual fidelity, integrity, and impartiality, and died in the 80th year of his age, B.C. 319. At his death, he left his son Cassander in a subordinate station; appointed Polysperchon his own immediate successor; and recommended him to the other generals as the fittest person to preside in their councils. Antipater received a learned education, and was the friend and disciple of Aristotle. He appears to have possessed very eminent abilities, and was peculiarly distinguished for his vigilance and fidelity in every trust. It was a saying of Philip, father of Alexander, “I have slept soundly, for Antipater has been awake.” (Justin, 11, 12, 13, &c.—Diod., 17, 18, &c.)—II. The Idumaean, was the

father of Herod the Great, and was the second son of

Antipas, governor of Idumaa. He embraced the party of Hyrcanus against Aristobulus, and took a very active part in the contest between the two brothers respecting the office of high-priest in Judaea. Aristobulus at first, however, succeeded ; but when Pompey had deposed him and restored Hyrcanus to the pontifical dignity, Antipater soon became the chief director of affairs in Judaea, ingratiated himself with the Romans, and used every effort to aggrandize his own family. He gave very effectual aid to Caesar in the Alexandrean war, and the latter, in return, made him a Roman citizen and procurator of Judaea. In this latter capacity he exerted himself to restore the ancient Jewish form of government, but was cut off oy a conspiracy, the brother of the high-priest having been bribed to give him a cup of poisoned wine. Josephus makes him to have been distinguished for piety, justice, and love of country. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 14, 3.)—III. A son of Cassander, ascended the throne of Macedonia B.C. 298. He disputed the crown with his brother Philip IV., and caused his mother Thessalonica to be put to death for favouring Philip's side. The two brothers, however, reigned conjointly, notwithstanding this, for three years, when they were dethroned by Demetrius Poliorcetes. Antipater thereupon retired to the court of Lysimachus, his father-inlaw, where he ended his days. (Justin, 26, 1.)—IV.

The Athenians were routed at Cranon, and compelled to submit at They were allowed to retain their rights

A native of Tarsus, the disciple and successor of Diogenes the Babylonian, in the Stoic school. He flourished about 80 B.C., and is applauded by both Cicero and Seneca as an able supporter of that sect. His chief opponent was Carneades. (Cic., de Off, 3, 12. —Sen., Ep., 92.)—V. A native of Cyrene, and one of the Cyrenaic sect. He was a disciple of the first Aristippus, and the preceptor of Epitimides. – VI. A philosopher of Tyre, who wrote a work on Duty. He is supposed to have been of the Stoic sect. Cicero (de Orat., 3, 50) speaks of him as an improvisator. Crassus, into whose mouth the Roman orator puts this remark, might have known the poet when he was quaestor in Macedonia, the same year in which Cicero was born (106 B.C.). Pliny relates (7, 51) that he had every year a fever on the day of his birth, and that, without ever experiencing any other complaint, he attained to a very advanced age. Some of his epigrams remain, the greater part of which fall under the class of epitaphs (oritiufta). Boivin (Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr., &c., vol. 3) states, that the epigrams of this poet are written in the Doric dialect; the remark, however, is an incorrect one, since some are in Ionic. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 4, p. 45.)— VII. A poet of Thessalonica, who flourished towards the end of the last century preceding the Christian era....We have thirty-six of his epigrams remaining. —VIII. A native of Hierapolis. #.". the secretary of Septimius Severus, and Præfect of Bithynia. He was the preceptor also of Caracalla and Geta, and reproached the former with the murder of his brother. ANTiPATRIA, a town of Illyricum, on the borders of Macedonia. It was taken and sacked by I. Apustius, a Roman officer detached by the consul Sulpicius to ravage the territory of Philip, in the breaking out of the war against that prince. (Lit., 31, 27.) ANtor Atris, or CAph Aksjoba, a town of Palestine, situate in Samaria, near the coast, southeast of Apollonias. It was rebuilt by Herod the Great, and called Antipatris, in honour of his father Antipater. (Joseph., B.J., 16, 1,4–Id, Ant., 16, 5, and 3, 15.) The city still existed, though in a dilapidated state, in the time of Theophanes (8th century). Its site is at present unknown : the modern Arsuf does not coincide with this place, but rather with Apollonias. (Mannert, vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 271, seqq.) ANtipHKNEs, I. a comic poet of Rhodes, Smyrna, or Carystus, was born B.C. 408, of parents in the low condition of slaves. This most prolific writer (he is said to have composed upward of three hundred dramas), notwithstanding the meanness of his origin, was so popular in Athens, that on his decease a decree was passed to remove his remains from Chios to that city, where they were interred with public honours. (Suidas, s. v. Theatre of the Greeks, 2d ed., p. 183.)— II. A statuary of Argos, the pupil of Pericletus, one of those who had studied under Polycletus. He flourished about 400 B.C. Several works of this artist are mentioned by Pausanias (10, 9). He formed statues of the Dioscuri and other heroes; and he made also a brazen horse, in imitation of the horse said to have been constructed by the Greeks before Troy. The inhabitants of Argos sent it as a present to Delphi. Other imitations performed by this artist are enumerated by Heyne. (Ercurs., 3, ad AEm., 11. — Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) — III. A poet of Macedonia, nine of whose epigrams are preserved in the Anthology. He flourished between 100 B.C. and the reign of Augustus. (Consult Jacobs, Catal. Poet. Epig., s.r.) ANTIph KTEs, a king of the Laestrygones, descended from Lamus. Ulysses, returning from Troy, came upon his coasts, and sent three men to examine the country. Antiphates devoured one of them, and pur. sued the others, and sunk the fleet of Ulysses with stones, except the ship in which the hero himself was (Od., 10, 81, seqq.)

. ANTiPhili (oppidum), a town and harbour, according to Ptolemy, on the Sinus Arabicus, in 42gyptus

Inferior. Others, however, place it in AEthiopia, to the north of Saba. (Bisch. und Moll., Worterb., &c., J. p.)

ANtifsiilus, I. a painter born in Egypt, and mentioned by Quintilian (12,10) as possessing the greatest readiness in his profession, and compared by many to the most eminent artists, Apelles, Protogenes, and lysippus. He is twice alluded to in Pliny, with an enumeration of his most remarkable productions (35, 10 and 11). One of his pictures represented a boy blowing the fire, with the effect of the light on the boy's countenance and the surrounding objects strikingly delineated. The subject of another and very famous piece was a satyr, arrayed in a panther's skin. He flourished during the ages of Alexander the Great and Ptolemy I. of #. This makes him a contemporary of Apelles, whom, according to Lucian, he endeavoured to rival. (Sullig, Dict, Art., s. v.)—II. An architect, whose age and country are uncertain. In connexion with Pothaeus and Megacles, he constructed, at Olympia, for the Carthaginians, a repository for their presents. (Pausan., 6, 19.—Sullig, Dict. Art., s. r.)

ANTiPhon, I. a tragic poet, who lived at the court of Dionysius the elder, and was eventually put to death by the tyrant. Aristotle cites his Meleager, Andromache, and Jason. — II. A native of Attica, born at Rhamnus about 479 B.C. (Compare Spaan, de Antiphont., Lugd. Bat., 1765, 4to, and Ruhnken, Dissert. de Antiph.-Orat. Gr., ed. Reiske, vol. 7, p. 795.) He was the son of the orator Sophilus, who was also his preceptor in the rhetorical art. He was a pupil also of Gorgias. According to the ancient writers, he was himself the inventor of rhetoric. Their meaning, however, in making this assertion, is simply as follows: Before his time, the Sicilian school had taught and practised the art of speaking; but Antiphon was the first who knew how to apply this art to judiciary eloquence, and to matters that were treated before the assemblies of the people. Thus, Hermogenes (de Form. Or., 2, p. 498) says, that he was the inventor Toi Tūrou trožarukoi). Antiphon exercised his art with great success, and gave instructions also in a school of rhetoric which he opened, and in which Thucydides formed himself. If reliance is to be placed on the statement of Photius, Antiphon put up over the entrance of his abode the following inscription : “Here consolation is given to the afflicted.” He composed, for many. speeches to be delivered by accused persons, which the latter got by heart; and also harangues for demagogues. This practice, which he was the first to follow, exposed him to the satire of the poets of the day. He "... only spoke once in public, and this was for the purpose of defending himself against a charge of treason. Antiphon, during the Peloponnesian war, frequently commanded bodies of Athenian troops; he equipped, also, at his own expense, sixty triremes. He had, moreover, the principal share in the revolution which established at Athens the government of the four hundred, of which he was a member. During the short duration of this oligarchy, Antiphon was sent to Sparta for the purpose of negotiating a piece. The ill-success of this embassy overthrew the government at home, and Antiphon was accused of treason and condemned to death. According to another account, given by Photius (Biblioth., 2, p. 486, ed. Bekker), which, however, is wholly incorrect, Antiphon was put to death by Dionysius of Syracuse, either for having criticised the tragedies of the tyrant, or else for having hazarded an unlucky bonmot in his presence. Some one having asked Antiphon what was the best kind of brass, he Yeplied, that of which the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton were made.—The ancient writers cite a

petrated upon their sister.

work of Antiphon's on the Rhetorical Art, Texun finroptosí, and they remark that it was the oldest work of the kind; which means merely that Antiphon, as has already been remarked, was the first that applied the art in question to the business of the bar. #. make mention also of thirty-five, and even sixty, of his discourses, that is, discourses held before the assembly of the people (żóyot &mumyópucot); judiciary discourses (duktivukot), &c. We have fifteen harangues of Antiphon remaining, which are all of the class termed by Hermogenes A6, of 96vukos, that is, having reference to criminal proceedings. Twelve of them, however, are rather to be ...i. as so many studies, than discourses actually completed and pronounced. Hermogenes passes the following judgment upon Antiphon: “He is clear in his expositions, true in his delineation of sentiment, faithful to nature, and, consequently, persuasive ; but he possesses not these qualities to i. extent to which they were carried by the orators who came after him. His diction, though often swelling, is nevertheless polished: in general, it wants vivacity and energy.” The remains of Antiphon are given in Reiske's edition of the Greek Orators, in that of Bekker, Berol., 1823, 5 vols., 8vo. and in that of Dobson, Lond, 1828, 16 vols. 8vo. Three of his discourses, 1. Karmyopia papuanetag, kara rāg unrpvíaç : 2. IIepi Toij ‘Hpodov bövov : 3. IIepi Toi ropevroi, deserve the attention of scholars, as giving an idea of the form of proceeding in Athens in criminal prosecutions. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 2, p. 202, seqq.)—II. A sophist of Athens. Plutarch and Photius, in speaking of the conversation which Socrates had with this individual, and of which Xenophon (Mem. Socr., I, 6) has preserved an account, confound him with the orator of the same name. Hermogenes ascribes to him a work on truth (Tepi 'A276etaç), of which Suidas cites a f ent (s. v. 'Aóeñroc), wherein the sophist speaks of the Deity, (Schöll, Hist. Lt. Gr., vol. 2, p. 332.) ANTIphus, brother of Ctymenus, and son of Ganyctor the Naupactian. He and Ctymenus slew the poet Hesiod, for a supposed connivance in an outrage per(Vid. Hesiodus.) ANtipúlis, a city of Gaul, on the coast of the Mediterranean, southeast of the river Varus, built and colonized by the Massilians. It is now Antibes. (Strabo, 180.—Id, ibid., p. 184.) ANTIRRhiuM, a promontory of Etolia, so called from its being opposite to Rhium, another point of Achaia. It was sometimes surnamed Molycricum, from its vicinity to the town of Molycrium (Thucyd, 2, 86), and was also called Rhium AEtolicum (Polyb., 5, 94). Here the Crissaean, or, as Scylax terms it, the Delphic, Gulf H. commenced. (Peripl., p. 14.) Thucydides states that the interval between the two capes was barely seven stadia; the geographer just quoted says ten stadia. The narrowness of the strait rendered this point of great importance for the passage of troops to and from AEtolia and the Peloponnesus. (Polyb., 4, 10 and 19.) On Antirrhium was a temple sacred to Neptune. The Turkish for tress, which now occupies the site of Antirrhium, is known by the name of Roumelia. (Gell's Itiner., p. 293.) ANtissa, a city of Lesbos, between the promontory Sigeum and Methymne. Having offended the Romans, it was depopulated by Labeo, and the inhabitants were removed to Methymne. It was afterward rebuilt, and is supposed to have been insulated by an arm of the sea from the rest of the island. Hence the name Antissa, it being opposite to Lesbos, whose more ancient name was Issa. (Plin., 5, 31.—Id., 2, 91.— Liv., 45, 31.-Lycophron, p. 219.-Eustath. ad Hom., Il., 2, 129.) ANTIsthéNEs, an Athenian philosopher, founder of the Cynic sect, born about 420 B.C., of a Phrygian or

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