Obrazy na stronie

of Priam by the reduction of the tributary cities of Asia Minor. With a fleet of eleven vessels he rav

ed the coasts of Mysia, made frequent disembarcations of his forces, and succeeded eventually in destroying eleven cities, among which, according to Strabo (584), were Hypoplacian Thebe, Lyrnessus, and Pedasus, and in laying waste the island of Lesbos. (Compare Homer, Il. 9, 328.). Among the spoils of Lyrnessus, Achilles obtained the beautiful Briseis, while, at the taking of Thebe, Chryseis the daughter of Chryses, a priest of Apollo at Chrysa, became the prize of Agamemnon. A pestilence shortly after appeared in the Grecian camp, and Calchas, encouraged by the proffered protection of Achilles, ventured to attribute it to Agamemnon's detention of the daughter of Chryses, whom her father had endeavoured to ransom, but in vain The monarch, although deeply of fended, was compelled at last to surrender his captive, but, as an act of retaliation, and to testify his resentment, he deprived Achilles of Briseis. Hence arose “the anger of the son of Peleus,” on which is based the action of the Iliad. Achilies on his part withdrew his forces from the contest, and neither prayers, nor entreaties, nor direct offers of reconciliation, couched in the most tempting and flattering terms (Il. 9, 119, seqq), could induce him to return to the field. Among other things the monarch promised him, if he would forget the injurious treatment which he had received, the hand of one of his daughters, and the sovereignty of seven cities of the Peloponnesus. (Il. 9, 142 and 149.) The death of his friend Patroclus, however, by the hand of Hector (Il. 16, 821, seqq.), roused him at length to action and revenge, and a reconciliation having thereupon taken place between the two Grecian leaders, Briseis was restored. (Il 19, 78, seqq.—ld. 246, seqq.) As the arms of Achilles, having been worn by Patroclus, had become the prize of Hector, Vulcan, at the request of Thetis, fabricated a suit of impenetrable armour for her son. (Il 18, 468, seqq.) Arrayed in this, Achilles took the field, and after a great slaughter of the Trojans, and a contest with the god of the Scamander, by whose waters he was nearly overwhelmed, met Hector, chased him thrice around the walls of Troy, and finally slew him by the aid of Minerva (Il 22, 136, seqq.). According to Homer (Il 24, 14, seqq), Achilles dragged the corpse of Hector, at his chariot-wheels, thrice round the tomb of Patroclus and from the language of the poet, he would appear to have done this for several days in succession. Virgil, however, makes Achilles to have dragged the body of Hector twice round the walls of Troy. In this it is probable that the Roman poet followed one of the Cyclic, or else Tragic writers. (Heyne, Excurs. 18, ad AEn. 1.) The corpse of the Trojan hero was at last yielded up to the tears and supplications of Priam, who had come for that purpose to the tent of Achilles, and a truce was granted the Trojans for the performance of the funeral obsequies. (Il 24, 599–Id. 669.) Achilles did not long survive his illustrious opponent. Some accounts make him to have died the day after Hector was slain. The common authorities, however, interpose the combats with Penthesilea and Memnon previous to his death. (Compare Heyne, Excurs. 19, ad AEn. 1.—Quint. Smyrn. 1, 21, seqq.). According to the more received account, as it is given by the scholiast on Lycophron (v. 269), and also by Dictys Cretensis and Dares Phrygius, Achilles, having become enamoured of Polyxena, the daughter of Priam, signified to the monarch that he would become his ally on condition of receiving her hand in marriage. Priam consented, and the parties having come for that purpose to the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo, Achilles was treacherously slain by Paris, who had concealed himself there, being wounded by him with an arrow in the heel. Another tradition, related by Arctinus, makes him to have been

slain (in accordance with Hector's prophecy, Il 21, 452), in the Scaean gate, while rushing into the city. Hyginus states that Achilles went round the walls of Troy boasting of his exploit in having slain Hector, until Apollo, in anger, assumed the form of Paris, and slew him with an arrow (Hygin. fab. 107), but, with surprising inconsistency, he mentions in another place (fab. 110), that he was slain by Deiphobus and Alexander of Paris. The scholiast on Lycophron, cited above, says that the Trojans would not give up the corpse of Achilles until the Greeks had restored the various presents with which Priam had redeemed the dead body of Hector. The ashes of the hero were mingled in a golden urn with those of Patroclus, and the promontory of Sigaeum is said to mark the place where both repose. A tomb was here erected to his memory, and near it Thetis caused funeral games to be celebrated in honour of her son, which were afterward annually observed by a decree of the oracle of Dodona (pid. Sigaeum.) It is said, that, after the taking of Troy, the ghost of Achilles appeared to the Greeks, and demanded of them Pokoxena, who was accordingly sacrificed on his tomb by his son Neoptolemus, or Pyrrhus. (Eurip. Hec. 35, seqq.—Senec. Troad. 191.-Ovid, Met. 13, 441, scqq.—Q. Calab. 14.) Another account makes the Trojan princess to have killed herself through grief at his loss. (Teetzes, ad Lycophr. 323–Philostratus, Herouca., p. 714, ed. Morellus.) The Thessalians, in accordance with the oracle just mentioned, erected a temple to his memory at Sigaeum, and rendered him divine honours. Every year they brought thither two bulls, one white and the other black, crowned with garlands, and along with them some of the water of the Sperchius. (Gruber, Worterb. der altclassischen Mythologie, vol. i., p. 48.) Another and still stranger tradition informs us, that Achilles survived the fall of Troy and married Helen; but others maintain that this union took place after his death, in the island of Leuce, where many of the ancient heroes lived in a separate elysium (rud Leucc). When Achilles was young, his mother asked him whether he preferred a long life spent in obscurity, or a brief existence of military glory. He decided in favour of the latter. (Compare Il. 9, 410, seqq) Some ages after the Trojan war, Alexander, in the course of his march into the East, offered sacrifices on the tomb of Achilles, and expressed his admiration as well of the hero, as of the bard whom he had found to immortalize his name. (Plutarch, Vit. Alerand. 15.) —WII. Tatius, a native of Alexandrea, commonly assigned to the second or third century of the Christian era. The best critics, however, such as Huet, Chardon la Rochette, Coray, and Jacobs, make him to have flourished after the time of Heliodorus, since they have discovered in him what they consider manifest imitations of the latter writer. Nay, if it be true that Musaus, whom he has also imitated, composed his poem of Hero and Leander before 430 or 450 of our era, we must then place Achilles Tatius even as low as the middle of the 5th century. (Schoell, Hist. Litt. Gr. 6, 231.) According to Suidas, he became, towards the end of his life, a Christian and bishop. But as the lexicographer makes no mention of his episcopal see, and as Photius, who speaks in three different places of him, is silent on this head, it may be permitted us to doubt the accuracy of Suidas's statement. (Photii Bibliothec., vol. i., p. 33, ed. Bekker.—Id, ibid., p. 50– Id. ibid., p. 66.) Equally unworthy of reliance would appear to be another remark of the same lexicographer, that Achilles Tatius wrote a treatise on the sphere. If this were correct, we ought to put him one or two centuries earlier, inasmuch as Firmicus, a Latin writer of the middle of the fourth century, cites the “Sphere of Achilles.” (Astron. 4, 10.) Suidas, however, who is not accustomed to discriminate very nicely between persons bearing the same name, here confounds

him with the author of the “Introduction to the Phao-
nomena of Aratus” (vid. No. VIII). Achilles Tatius
is the author of a romance, cntitled, Tū karū Aev-
kittni kal KAtropovra, “The loves of Leucippe and
Clitophon, as it is commonly translated. Some crit-
ics, such as Huet and Saumaise, have preferred it to
the work of Heliodorus; but Willoison, Coray, Wyt-
tenbach, Passow, Willemain, and Schoell, restore the
pre-eminence to the latter (Schoell, Hist. Lut. Gr.,
vol. vi., p 23.3—Foreign Quarterly Review, No 9, p.
131.) “ The book," says Willemain, “is written under
an influence altogether pagan, and in constant allusion
to the voluptuous fables of mythology.” The remark
is perfectly correct Pictures of the utmost licen-
tiousness, and traces of everything that is infamous in
ancient manners, are seen throughout. Unchaste in
imagination, and coarse in sentiment, the author has
made his hero despise at once the laws of morality
and those of love. Clitophon is a human body, unin-
formed by the human soul, but delivered up to all the
instincts of nature and the senses. He neither com-
mands respect by his courage nor affection by his
constancy. Struggling, however, in the writer's mind,
some finer ideas may be seen wandering through the
gloom, and some pure and lofty aspirations contrasting
strangely with the chaos of animal instincts and de-
sires. His Leucippe glides like a spirit among actors
of mere flesh and blood. Patient, high-minded, re-
signed, and firm, she endures adversity with grace;
preserving, throughout the helplessness and tempta-
tions of captivity, irreproachable purity, and constancy
unchangeable. The critics, while visiting with proper
severity the sins both of the author and the man, do
not refuse to render full justice to the merits of the
work. It possesses interest, variety, probability, and
simplicity. “The Romance of Achilles Tatius,” says
Villemain, “purified as it should be, will appear one
of the most agreeable in the collection of the Greek
Romances. The adventures it relates present a preg-
nant variety ; the succession of incidents is rapid; its
wonders are natural ; and its style, although some-
what affected, is not wanting in spirit and effect.”
Photius also, as rigorous in morals as a bishop should
be, praises warmly the elegance of the style, observ-
ing that the author's periods are precise, clear, and eu-
phonous. (Porcign Quarterly Review, No. 9, p. 131.)
Saumaise was of opinion, that Achilles Tatius had
given to the world two several editions of his romance,
and that some of the manusc ipts which remain be-
long to the first publication of the work, while others
supply us with the production in its revised state. Ja-
cobs, however, in the prolegomena to his edition, has
shown that the variations in the manuscripts, which
gave rise to this opinion, are to be ascribed solely to
the negligence of copyists, as they occur only in those
words which have some resemblance to others, and in
which it was easy to err. Few works, moreover, were
as often copied as this of Achilles Tatius. The best
edition is that of Jacobs, 2 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1821, in
which may be seen a very just, though unfavourable,
critique on the editions of Saumaise and Boden, the
former of which appeared in 1640, 12mo, Lugd. Bat,
and the latter in 1776, 8vo, Lips. A French version
of the work is given in the “Collection des Romans
Grecs, traduits cn Français; arec des notes, par MM.
Courier, Larcher, et autres Hellénistes,” 14 vols.
16mo, Paris, 1822–1828. — VIII. Tatius, an astro-
nomical writer, supposed to have lived in the first half
of the fourth century, since he is quoted by Firmicus
(Astron. 4, 10), who wrote about the middle of the
same century. Suidas confounds him with the indi-
vidual mentioned in No. VII. We possess, under the
title of Elaayo tic 'Apárov salvöueva, “Intro-
duction to the Phaenomena of Aratus,” a fragment of
his work on the sphere. This fragment is given in the
Uranologia of Petavius (Petau), Paris, 1630, fol.

Achilliou M, a town on the Cimmerian Bosporus
where anciently was a temple of Achiiles. It lay i.eal
the modern Buschuk. (Mannert, 4, 326.)

Achillèus, I. a relation of Zenobia, invested with
the purple by the people of Palmyra, when they revolt-
ed from Aurelian. (Wopusc.) Zosimus calls him An-
tiochus (1, 60). — II. A Roman commander, in the
reign of Dioclesian, who assumed the purple in Egypt.
The emperor marched against him, shut him up in
Alexandrea, and took the place after a siege of eight
months. Achilleus was put to death, having been ex-
posed to lions, and Alexandrea was given up to pil-
lage (Oros. 7, 25.—Aurel. Vict, de Cas., c. 39.)

Achivi, properly speaking, the name of the Achaean
race (Axalot) Latinized. f. derivation through the
AEolic dialect is marked by the digammated sound of
the letter v ("Aratfot). This appellation was gener-
ally applied by the Roman poets, especially Virgil, as
a rame for the whole Greek nation, in imitation of the
Homeric usage. In legal strictness it should have
been confined by the Romans to the inhabitants of the
province of Achaia. - -

Achly's. Wid. Supplement.
AchMET. Vid. Supplement.
Acholics. Vid. Supplement.

Acichorius, a general with Brennus in the expe-
dition which the Gauls undertook against Paeonia.
(Paus. 10, 19.) He was chosen by Brennus as his
lieutenant, or, rather, as a kind of colleague, which of.
fice the name itself, in the original o of the
Gauls, is said to designate. Thus the true Gallic ap-
pellation was Kukhouaour, or Akıkhouiaour, which the
Greeks softened into Koptoc (Ducd. Suc. frag lub.
22—vol. ix., p. 301, ed. Bip.) and "Aku optoc (Paus.
10, 19), and which they mistook for a proper name.
(Compare Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois, vol. i. p. 145,
and Ouren's Welsh Dictionary, s. v. Cycwmawr.) Dio-
dorus Siculus (l.c.) makes Cichorius to have succeed-
ed Brennus.
Acid Ali A, a surname of Venus, from a fountain of
the same name at Orchomenus, in Boeotia, sacred to
her. The Graces bathed in this fountain.
Acidinus. Wid. Supplement.
Acilia, I. gens, a plebeian family of Rome, of whom
many medals are extant. (Rasche, Lex Rcn Num.,
vol. i., col. 47.) The name of this old and distinguish-
ed line occurs five times in the consular fasti, during
the time of the republic, and twelve times in those of
the empire, down to the reign of Constantine. (Sigon.
Fast. Cons.) The two most celebrated branches of
the house were those of Acilius Glabrio and Acilius
Balbus.-II. Ler, a law introduced by Acilius the
tribune, A.U.C. 556, for the planting of five colonies
along the coast of Italy, two at the mouths of the Vul-
turnus and Liternus, one at Puteoli, one at Salernum,
and one at Buxentum. (Liv. 32, 29.)— III. Calpur-
nua Lez (introduced A.U.C. 686), excluded from the
senate, and from all public employments, those who
had been guilty of bribery at elections. Cicero calls
it merely Calpurnia Lea, but others Acilia Calpurnia
Ler. (Ernesti, Ind. Leg.)—IV. Ler, a law introdu-
ced A.U.C. 683, by the consul Manius Acilius Gla-
brio, relative to actions de pecunis repetundis. It de-
termined the forms of proceeding, and the penalties
to be inflicted. (Compare Ernesti, Ind. Leg.)
Acilius, I. a Roman, who wrote a work in Greek
on the history of his country, and commentaries on
the twelve tables. He lived B.C. 210, and was a con-
temporary of Cato's. His history was translated into
Latin by an individual named Claudius, and was enti-
tled, in this latter language, Annales Acilienses. (Voss.
Hist. Gr. 1, 10.)—II. Quintus, appointed a commis-
sioner, about 200 B.C., for distributing among the new
colonists the conquered lands along the Po.—III. A
tribune, author of the law respecting the maritime col-
onies. (Vid. Acilia II.)—JV. Glabrio M., a consul

with P. Corn. Scipio Nasica, A.U.C. 561, and the conqueror of Antiochus at Thermopylae. (Liv. 35, 24.—Id. 36, 19.)—W. Glabrio M., son of the preceding, a decemvir. He built a temple to Piety, in fulfilment of a vow which his father had made when fighting against Antiochus. He erected also a gilded statue (statuam auratam) to his father, the first of the kind ever seen at Rome. (Val. Maz. 2, 5.-Liv. 40, 34. Compare Hase, ad loc.)—VI. A consul, A.U.C. 684, appointed to succeed Lucullus in the management of the Mithradatic war. (Cuc. in Verr. 7, 61.)—VII. Aviola Manius, a lieutenant under Tiberius in Gaul, A.D. 19, and afterward consul. He was roused from a trance by the flames of the funeral pile, on which he had been laid as a corpse, but could not be rescued. (Plin. 7, 53.-Val. Mar. 1, 8.)—VIII. Son of the preceding, consul under Claudius, A.D. 54.—IX. A consul with M. Ulpian Trajanus, the subsequent emperor. He was induced to engage with wild beasts in the arena, and, proving successful, was put to death by Domitian, who was jealous of his strength. Aciris, now the Agri, a river' of Lucania, rising near Abaellinum Marsicum, and falling into the Sinus Tarentinus. Near its mouth stood Heraclea AcINDYNus. Wid. Supplement. Acis, a Sicilian shepherd, son of Faunus and the nymph Simaethis. He gained the affections of Galataea, but his rival Polyphemus, through jealousy, crushed him to death with a fragment of rock, which he hurled upon him. Acis was changed into a stream, which retained his name. According to Servius (ad Virg. Eclog 9,39) it was also called Acilius. Cluverius places it about two miles distant from the modern Castallo di Acci. Fazellus, however, without much reason, assigns the name of Acis to the Fiume Freddo, near Taormina. Sir Richard Hoare describes the Acis of Cluverius as a limpid though small stream. The story of Acis is given by Ovid (Met. 13,750, seq.) Acoetes. Wid. Supplement. AcoxiiNRTus. Wid. Nicetas. Acontius, a youth of Cea, who, when he went to Delos to sacrifice to Diana, fell in love with Cydippe, a beautiful virgin, and, being unable to obtain her, by reason of his poverty, had recourse to a stratagem. A sacred law obliged every one to fulfil whatever promise they had made in the temple of the goddess; and Acontius having procured an apple or quince, wrote on it the following words: “I swear by Diana I will wed Acontius.” This he threw before her. The nurse took it up, and handed it to Cydippe, who read aloud the inscription, and then threw the apple away. After some time, when Cydippe's father was about to give her in marriage to another, she was taken ill just before the nuptial ceremony. Acontius thereupon hastened to Athens, and, the Delphic oracle having declared that the illness of Cydippe was the punishment of her perjury, the parties were united. AcöRis. Wid. Supplement. AcRA, I. a village on the Cimmerian Bosporus. (Strab., p. 494.)—II. A promontory and town of Scythia Minor, now Ekerne or Canarna. AchradíNA, one of the five divisions of Syracuse, and deriving its name from the wild pear-trees with which it once abounded (árpác, a wild pear-tree). It is sometimes called the citadel of Syracuse, but incorrectly, although a strongly fortified quarter. It was very thickly inhabited, and contained many fine buildings, yielding only to Ortygia. (Laporte Du Theil, ad Strab., vol. 2., p. 358, not. 3, French transl.) As regar is the situation of Achradina, and its aspect in more modern times, compare Surinburn, Trarels in the Two Sicilies, 3, 382 (French transl.), and Galler, de Situ et Origine Syracusarum, p. 49, seqq. AchAoA. Wid. Supplement. AcmAeph NiA, a city of Boeotia, situate on Mount Ptou's, towards the northeast extremity of the Lake Co

pais. It was founded either by Athamas, or by Acraepheus, a son of Apollo. Pausanias calls the place Acraephnium (9, 23–Compare Steph. Byz. s. v.). AcRAGALLIDAE. Wid. Crauallidae. AcroGAs, I. The Greek name of Agrigentum.—II. A river in Sicily, on which Agrigentum was situate. It gave its Greek name to the city. The modern name is San Blasio. (Mannert, 9, 2, 354.)—III. An engraver on silver, whose country and age are both uncertain. He is noticed by Pliny (33, 12, 55), who speaks of cups of his workmanship, adorned with sculptured work, preserved in the temple of Bacchus at Rhodes. His hunting pieces on cups were very famous. (Sillig, Duct. Art. s. v.) AcRATUs, a freedman of Nero, sent into Asia to plunder the temples of the gods, which commission he executed readily, being, according to Tacitus (Ann. 15, 45), “cuicumque tio promptus.” Secundus Carinas was joined with him on this occasion, whom Lipsius (ad Tac. l. c.) suspects to be the same with the Carinas sent into exile (Dio Cassius, 59, 20) by the Emperor Caligula, for declaiming against tyrants. Compare Juvenal, 7, 204. Acridophigi, an AEthiopian nation, who fed upon locusts. Diodorus Siculus (3, 28) says, that they never lived beyond their 40th year, and that they then perished miserably, being attacked by swarms of winged lice (Tréporoi offeipeg), which issued forth from their skin. The account given of their diet is much more probable. The locust is said to be a very common and palatable food in many parts of the East, after having been dried in the sun. This is thought by some to have constituted the food of the Israelites on the occasion mentioned in Exodus (16, 14). Wesseling (ad Diod. Sic. 3, 28) is of this opinion. But the salrim of Moses evidently mean quails, as the received version has rendered the word. Acrion, a Locrian, was a Pythagorean philosopher; he is mentioned by Valerius Maximus (8, 7) under the name of Arion, which is a false reading instead of Acrion. (Cuc. Fin. 5, 9.) Acrision Eis, a patronymic appellation given to Danae, as daughter of Acrisius. (Virg. Æn. 7,410, and Servius, ad loc.) AcRisioni KDEs, a patronymic of Perseus, from his grandfather Acrisius. (Ovid, Met. 5, p. 70.) Acrisius, son of Abas, king of Argos, by Ocalea, daughter of Mantineus. He was born at the same birth as Proetus, with whom it is said that he quarrelled even in his mother's womb. After many dissensions, Pruetus was driven from Argos. Acrisius had Danae by Eurydice, daughter of Lacedaemon ; and an oracle having declared that he should lose his life by the hand of his grandson, he endeavoured to frustrate the prediction by the imprisonment of his daughter, in order to prevent her becoming a mother (ridianae). His efforts failed of success, and he was eventually killed by Perseus, son of Danae and Jupiter. Acrisius, it seems, had been attracted to Larissa by the reports which had reached him of the prowess of Per

seus. “At Larissa, Perseus, wishing to show his skill

in throwing a quoit, killed an old man who proved to be his grandfather, whom he knew not, and thus the oracle was fulfilled. Acrisius reigned about 31 years. (Hygin. fab. 63.—Orid, Met. 4, fab. 16.—Horat. 3, od. 16-Apollod. 2, 2, &c.—Paus. 2, 16, &c.—Wid. Danaë, Perseus, Polydectes.) AcRitas, a promontory of Messenia, in the Peloponnesus. (Plin. 4, 5–Mela, 2, 3.) Now Cape Gallo. Across thos, or AcrothéUM. The name of Acroathog properly denotes the promontory of the peninsula of Athos, now Cape Monte Santo. It is the lower one

of the two, the upper one being called Nymphaeum

(Promontorium). By Acrothoum (or Acrothoi) is

meant a town on the peninsula of Athos, situate some

distance up the mountain, and of which Mela observes (2, 3), that the inhabitants were supposed to live beyond the usual time allotted to man. (Compare Thucyd. 4, 109.—Scylar, p. 26.—Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Adoc. —Strab. epit. lib. 7, 331.) Acrocer AUNIA, or Acrock RAUNII Montes. Wid. Ceraunia. Acrocorinthus, a high hill, overhanging the city of Corinth, on which was erected a citadel, called also by the same name. This situation was so important a one as to be styled by Philip the fetters of Greece. The fortress was surprised by Antigonus, but recovered in a brilliant manner by Aratus. (Strab. 8, 380.Paus. 2, 4.—Plut. Wit. Arat.—Stat. Theb. 7, p. 106.) “The Acrocorinthus, or Acropolis of Corinth,” observes Dodwell, “is one of the finest objects in Greece, and, if properly garrisoned, would be a place of great strength and importance. It abounds with excellent water, is in most parts precipitous, and there is only one spot from which it can be annoyed with artillery. This is a pointed rock, at a few hundred yards to the southwest of it, from whence it was battered by Mohammed II. Before the introduction of artillery, it was deemed almost impregnable, and had never been taken except by treachery or surprise. Owing to its natural strength, a small number of men was deemed sufficient to garrison it ; and in the time of Aratus, according to Plutarch, it was defended by 400 soldiers, 50 dogs, and as many keepers. It was surrounded with a wall by Cleomenes. It shoots up majestically from the plain to a considerable height, and forms a conspicuous object at a great distance : it is clearly seen from Athens, from which it is not less than fortyfour miles in a direct line. Strabo affirms that it is 31-2 stadia in perpendicular height, but that the ascent to the top is 30 stadia by the road, the circuitous inslections of which render this no extravagant computation. The Acrocorinthus contains within its walls a town and three mosques. Athenaeus commends the water in the Acrocorinthus as the most salubrious in Greece. It was at this fount that Pegasus was drinking when taken by Bellerophon.” (Dodwell, vol. 2, p. 187.) All modern travellers who have visited this spot, give a glowing description of the view obtained from the ridge. Consult, in particular, Clarke's Trapels, vol. 6, p. 750. Acron, I. a king of the Caeninenses, whom Romulus slew in battle, after the affair of the Sabine women. His arms were dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius, and his subjects were incorporated with the Roman people. (Plut. Wit. Rom.) Propertius styles him Caenunus Acron, from the name of his city and people (4, 10, 7), and also Herculeus (4, 10, 9), from the circumstance of all the Sabine race tracing their descent from Hercules or Sancus.-II. A celebrated physician of Agrigentum in Sicily, contemporary with Empedocles (Diog. Laert. 8, 65). Plutarch speaks of his having been at Athens during the time of the great plague, which occurred B.C. 430. He aided the Athenians on that occasion, by causing large fires to be kindled in their streets. (Plut. Is... et Os. 383.) Acron is generally regarded as the founder of the sect of Empirics or Experimentalists (Pseud. Gal. Isag. 372). As this school of medicine, however, had a much later date, it is probable that he was merely one of the class of physicians called Treptodevrai, who did not confine themselves to mere theory, but went round and visited patients. His contempt for the mysterious charlatanism of Empedocles drew upon him the hatred of that philosopher. At least it is fair to suppose that this was the cause of their enmity. Acron wrote, according to Suidas, a treatise in Doric Greek, on the healing art, and another on diet. He appears also, from the words of the lexicographer, to have turned his attention in some degree to the influence of climate. (Consult Sprengel, Hist. Med. 1, 273.)—III. Helenius Acron, an ancient commentator. The period

when he lived is uncertain: he is thought, however, to have been later than Servius. Acron's scholia on Horace have descended to us in part, or at least only a part was ever published. They are valuable on ac. count of their containing the remarks of C. A. milius, Julius Modestus, and Q. Terentius Scaurus, the oldest commentators on Horace. Acron also wrote scholia on Terence, which are cited by Charisius, but they have not reached us. Some critics ascribe to him the scholia which we have on Persius. (Schoell, Hist. Litt. Rom. 3, 326.) Acropólis, in a special sense, the citadel of Athens, an account of which will be given under the article Athenae. Acropolita. Vid. Supplement. AcRotATUs, I. son of Cleomenes, king of Sparta, died before his father, leaving a son called Areus, who contended for the crown with Cleonymus his uncle, and obtained it through the suffrages of the senate. Cleonymus, in his disappointment, called in Pyrrhus of Epirus. (Paus. 3, 6.—Plut. vit. Pyrrh.—Paus. 1, 13.)—II. A king of Sparta, son of Areus, and grandson of the preceding. He reigned one year. Before ascending the throne, he distinguished himself by courageously defending Sparta against Pyrrhus. (Plut. rit. Pyrrh.) Acrothéu M. Vid. Acroathos. AcTA or Acte, strictly speaking, a beach or shore on which the waves break, from dyo, “to break.” According to Apollodorus (Steph. B. s. v. 'Aktm), the primitive name of Attica was 'Aktí (Acte), from the circumstance of two of its sides being washed by the sea. The name is also applied by Thucydides to that part of the peninsula of Athos which is below the city of Sane and including it. Besides Sane, the historian mentions five other cities as being situate upon it. (Thucyd. 4, 109.) Act. EoN, a celebrated hunter, son of Aristaeus and Autonoë the daughter of Cadmus. Having inadvertently, on one occasion, seen Diana bathing, he was changed by the goddess into a stag, and was hunted down and killed by his own hounds. (Or. Met. 3, 155, seqq.) The scene of the fable is laid by the poets at Gargaphia, a fountain of Boeotia, on Mount Cithaerom, about a mile and a half from Plataea. From a curious passage in Diodorus Siculus (4, 81), a suspicion arises, that the story of Actaeon is a corruption of some earlier tradition, respecting the fate of an intruder into the mysteries of Diana. Wessel.ng's explanation does not appear satisfactory, although it may serve as a clew to the true one. (Wesseling, ad Diod. Sic. l.c.) Actaeus, the first king of Attica, according to the ancient writers. He was succeeded by Cecrops, to whom he had given one of his daughters in marriage. (Paus. 1, 2.—Clem. Aler. 1, 321.) He is called i. some Actaeon. (Strab. 397.-Harpocr. s. v. 'Akro. —Consult Siebells, ad Paus. l.c.) Acte, a freed woman of Asiatic origin. Suetonius (Vat. Ner. 28) informs us, that Nero, at one time, was on the point of making her his wife, having suborned certain individuals of consular rank to testify, under oath, that she was descended from Attalus. From a passage in Tacitus (Ann. 14, 2) it would appear, that Seneca introduced this female to the notice of the tyrant, in order to counteract, by her means, the dreaded ascendency of Agrippina. (Compare Dio Cass. 61, 7.) Actia, games renewed by Augustus in commemoration of his victory at Actium. They are also styled Ludi Actiaci by the Latin writers, and were celebrated in the suburbs of Nicopolis. Strabo makes them to have been quinquennial. Previously, however, to the battle of Actium they occurred every three years. (Strab. 7,325.) Actis, one of the Heliades, or offspring of the Sun, who, according to Diodorus Siculus (5, 57), migrated from Rhodes into Egypt, founded Heliopolis, and taught the Egyptians astrology. The same writer states, that the Greeks, having lost by a deluge nearly all their memorials of previous events, became ignorant of their claim to the invention of the science in ques, tion, and allowed the Egyptians to arrogate it to themselves. Wesseling considers this a mere fable, based on the national vanity of the Greeks, who, it is well known, inverted so many of the ancient traditions, and in this case, for example, made that pass from Greece into Egypt, which came in reality from Egypt to Greece. (Wess. ad Diod. Sic. l. c.) Actis KNEs, according to Diodorus Siculus (1, 60), a king of Æthiopia, who conquered Egypt and dethroned Amasis. He was remarkable for his moderation towards his new subjects, as well as for his justice and equity. All the robbers and malefactors, too, were collected from every part of the kingdom, and, having had their noses cut off, were established in Rhinocolura, a city which he had founded for the purpose of receiving them. We must read, no doubt, with Stephens and Wesseling, in the text of Diodorus, 'Auuwaic instead of "Auagic, for the successor of Apries cannot here be meant. Who the Actisanes of Diodorus was, appears to be undetermined. According to Wesseling (ad loc.), Strabo is the only other writer that makes mention of him. (Strabo, 759.) Actium, originally the name of a small neck of land, called also Acte ("Aktú), at the entrance of the Sinus Ambracius, on which the inhabitants of Anactorium had erected a small temple in honour of Apollo. On the outer side of this same promontory was a small harbour, the usual rendezvous of vessels which did not wish to enter the bay. Scylax (p. 13) calls this harbour Acte. Thucydides, however, applies this name to the temple itself. Polybius (4, 63) makes mention of the temple, under the appellation of Actium, and speaks of it as belonging to the Acarnanians. Actium became famous, in a later age, for the decisive victory which Augustus gained in this quarter over the fleet of Marc Antony. From the accounts given of it by the Roman writers, Actium appears to have been, about the time of this battle, nothing more than a temple on a height, with a small harbour below. The conqueror beautified the sacred edifice, and very probably a number of small buildings began after this to arise in the vicinity of the tomple. (Strab,325–Sueton. Wit. Aug. 17.—Cuc. ep." ad fam. 16, 9.) Hence Strabo (451) applies to it the epithet of 3 optov. It never, however, became a regular city, although an inattentive reader would be likely to form this opinion from the language of Mela (2, 3) and Pliny (4, 1). Both these writers, however, in fact, confound it with Nicopolis. There are no traces of the temple at the present day, but Pouqueville found some remains of the Hippodrome and Stadium. More within the Sinus Ambracius (Gulf of Arta) lies the small village of Azio. Hence robably, according to Mannert, originated the error of D'Anville, who places Actium, in contradiction to all ancient authorities, at some distance within the bay. (Vul. Nicopolis, and compare Mannert, 8, 70.— Pouquerille, 3, 445.) Actius, a surname of Apollo, from Actium, where he had a temple. (Virg. Æn. 8, p. 704.) Actius NAvius. Vid. Attus Navius. Actor, the father of Menoetius, and grandfather of Patroclus, who is hence called Actorides. The birth

of Actor is by some placed in Locris, by others in
Thessaly. As a Thessalian, he is said to have been Sarus, or Sihon.

AcroRides, I. a patronymic given to Patrocius, grandson of Actor. (Ovid, Met. 13, fab. 1.)—II. The sons of Actor and Molione. (Wud. Molionides.)

Actorius. Vid. Supplement. Actuarius. Vid. Supplement. Aculeo. Wid. Supplement. AcuMENUs. Wid. Supplement.

Acusilius, a Greek historian, born at Argos, and who lived, according to Josephus (contr. Ap. 1, 2), a short time previous to the Persian invasion of Greece, being a contemporary of Cadmus of Miletus. He wrote a work entitled “Genealogies,” in which he gave the origin of the principal royal lines among his countrymen. He made historic times commence with Phoroneus, son of Inachus, and he reckoned 1020 years from him to the first Olympiad, or 776 B.C. We have only a few fragments of his work, collected by Sturz, and placed by him at the end of those of Pherecydes, published at Gera, 2d ed., 1824.

Acuticus, M., an ancient comic writer, author of various pieces, entitled, Leones, Gemini, Bacotia, &c., and ascribed by some to Plautus. (Voss. de Poet. Lat. c. 1.)

Ad Aquas, Ad Aquilas, &c., a form common to very many names of places. The Roman legions, on many occasions, when stopping or encamping in any quarter, did not find any habitation or settlement by which the place in question might be designated, and therefore selected for this purpose some natural object, or some peculiar feature in the adjacent scenery. Thus Ad Aquas indicated a spot near which there was water, or an encampment near water, &c. Another form of common occurrence is that which denotes the number of miles on any Roman road. Thus, Ad Quartum, “at the fourth mile-stone,” supply lapidem. So also, Ad Quintum, Ad Decimum, &c.

Ada, the sister of Artemisia. She married Hidrieus, her brother (such unions being allowed among the Carians), and, after the death of Artemisia, ascended the throne of Caria, and reigned seven years conjointly with her husband. On the death of Hidrieus she reigned four years longer, but was then driven from her dominions by Pixodarus, the youngest of her brothers, who had obtained the aid of the sairap Orontobates. Alexander the Great afterward restored her to her throne. She was the last queen of Caria. (Quint. Curt. 2, 8.)

ADAD, an Assyrian deity, supposed to be the sun. Macrobius (Sat. 1, 23) states, that the name Adad means “One” (Unus), and that the goddess Adargatis was assigned to this deity as his spouse, the former representing the Sun, and the latter the Earth. He also mentions, that the effigy of Adad was represented with rays inclining downward, whereas they extend upward from that .# Adargatis. Selden (de Diis Syris, c. 6, synt. 1) thinks that Macrobius must be in error when he makes Adad equivalent to “One,” and that he must have confounded it with the word Chad, which has that meaning.

AdAEus. Wid. Supplement.

ADAMANTAEA, Jupiter's nurse in Crete, who suspended him in his cradle from a tree, that he might be found neither on the earth, the sea, nor in heaven. To drown the infant's cries, she caused young boys to clash small brazen shields and spears as they moved around the tree. She is probably the same as Amalthea.

ADAMANTius. Wid. Supplement.

ADRNA, a city of Cilicia, southeast of Tarsus, on the It was at one time a large and well

the son of Myrmidon and Pisidia, the daughter of AEo-, known place, and was said to have been founded by

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and to have conceded his kingdom, on account of the rebellion of his sons, to Peleus. Consult, on the different individuals of this name, the


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(Op. Trist. 1, 9.) in the Rhaetian Alps, traversing the Lacus Larius, an

falling into the Po to the west of Cremona. In the

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