Obrazy na stronie

Latin version, which is very old and very badly done. ers, and teeming productions of earth, and to have given

We perceive, from the letters of Julian that have come down to us, that Alypius was also a poet: and that

it to a nymph, Adrastea, who had charge, with others, of his earlier years.—A change had also been made in

he had commanded, mareover, in Britain, where his another part of the primitive legend. The goat Amal

mildness and firmness combined had gained him great praise. It was Alypius whom Julian charged with the execution of his order for rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem; a work that was broken off, in so remarkable a manner, by globes of fire bursting forth from the ground, and wounding and putting to flight the workmen. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 1, p. 657–Consuit Salverte, des Sciences Occultes, vol. 2, p. 224.) ALYpus, a statuary of Sicyon, pupil of Koło, the Argive. He cast in brass the statues of certain, Lacedæmonians who fought with Lysander in the battle of Ægos Potamos. (Pausan., 10, 9.) Alyzia ('Azvia), a town of Acarnania, about fifteen stadia from the sea, and, as Cicero informs us in one of his letters (ad Fam., 16, 2), one hundred and twenty stadia from Leucas. It appears to have been a place of some note, as it is noticed by several writers. The earliest of these are Scylax (Peripl., p. 13) and Thucydides (7, 31). A naval action was fought in its vicinity, between the Athenians under Timotheus, and the Lacedæmonians, not long before the battle of Leuctra. (Xen., Hist. Gr., 5, 4, 65.) Belong- | ing to Alyzia was a port consecrated to Hercules, with a grove, where was at one time a celebrated group, the work of Lysippus, representing the labours of Hercules; but a Roman general caused it to be removed | to Rome, as more worthy to possess such a chef. d'oeuvre. (Strabo, 459.) This port appears to answer to the modern Porto Candili. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 18, seqq.) AMAGEtobria. Vid. Magetobria. AMAlth/EA, I. the name of the goat that suckled Jupiter. The monarch of Olympus, as a reward for this act of kindness, translated her to the skies, along with her two young ones, whom she had put aside in order to accommodate the infant deity, and he made them stars in the northern hemisphere, on the arm of Auriga. The whole legend appears to be of a mixed character, and from a simple origin, adapted to the rude ideas of an early race, to have gradually assumed an astronomical character. Thus, according to the legend, the infant Jove was nurtured by the milk of the goat, while the wild-bees deposited their honey on his lips. We have here the milk and the honey that play so conspicuous a part in Oriental imagery, as o highest degree of human felicity and abundance, and, therefore, well worthy to be the food of an infant deity appearing in human form. From the milk and honey, Inoreover, of early fable, come the ambrosia and nectar of a later age, since nectar was regarded as a quintessence of honey, and ambrosia as an extract from the purest milk. (Böttiger, Amalthaea, vol. 1, p. 22.) The early legend goes on to state, that the infant Jove, when playing with his four-footed foster parent, accidentally broke off one of her horns. This was made at first to serve as a drinking cup, and thus recalls the custom of a primitive age, when the horns of animals were generally employed for this purpose; the horncup appearing as well in the earliest symposia and the Bacchanalian orgies of the Greeks, as in the legends of the Scandinavian Edda and in the halls of Odin. With the progress of ideas, a new feature was added to the fable. The horn of Amalthaea is no longer a mere cup. This use has ended, and Jupiter now ordains, that it shall be ever full to overflowing with whatever its possessor shall wish. (Apostolius, Cent., 2, 86, p. 30. — Compare Fischer, ad Palaphat., 46, p. 179.) Hence arose the beautiful fiction of the horn of plenty, the Cornu Copia, one of the happiest and nost prolific allegories of the plastic art. Jove was said, in this later version of the fable, to have broken off the horn, filled it with all the richest fruits, and slow

thaa, though so kind to the infant deity, and though all white and beautiful of form, was said, nevertheless, to have had a look so fearful and terror-inspiring, that the Titans, unable to endure it, entreated the earth to hide the animal from view. (Eratosthemes, Cataster, 13, p. 10, seqq., ed. Schaub.--Hygun., Poet. Astron., 2, 13.) We have here a clew to the origin of the whole fable. The ancient navigators had observed that the constellations of the She-Goet and the Kids (Capella and Hadı) brought stormy and rainy weather, and they were therefore regarded as inauspicious for mariners and dangerous for ships. (Arat. Phaen., 156, seqq.— Schol. ad Arat., p. 46, ed. Buhle.— Voss., ad Î urg., Georg., 1, 205.) Hence probably the name aiš was applied to the constellation of the She-Goat, in its primitive meaning of a tempest, a primitive meaning which afterward disappeared from use, while the secondary one of a she-goat usurped its place. (Buttmann, ad Ideler, Sternnamen, p. 309.) With this earlier meaning of ai; is connected that of alytc., “a storm” or “tempest,” subsequently indicative of the AEgis of Jupiter, which he was believed to wield amid the warfare of the elements. From all this arose the early legend. The bright stars in the constellation of Capella become the fair, white she-goat Amalthaea. The storms and clouds which the constellation brings with it, become the fear-inspiring look on the part of the animal, and, by the rude simplicity of early times, the she-goat is made the foster-parent of Jove. (Compare Höck, Creta, vol. 1, p. 177, seqq. Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 424, seqq.)—II. A daughter of Melisseus, king of Crete. She and her sister Melissa had charge of the infant Jupiter, and fed him with goat's milk and honey. This is merely a later version of the early sable mentioned under Amalthaea I. The she-goat and bees are now two females. (Diod. Sc., 5, 70–Compare Bottiger, Amalthaea, vol. 1, p. 24.)—III. A sibyl of Cumae, called also Hierophile and Demophile. She is supposed to be the same who brought nine books of prophecies to Tarquin, king of Rome. (Wid. Sibyllae.) AMAlth EUM, a gymnasium, or, rather, gymnasium and study combined, which Atticus had arranged in his villa in Epirus. It was replete with all that could amuse or instruct, and here, too, were placed the statues of all the illustrious men by whom the glory of the Roman state had been advanced to its proud elevation, just as Jupiter had been nurtured by the goat Amalthasa. Hence its name Amaltheum ('Aua'atheion). (Cic., Ep. ad Att., 1, 16. — Compare Ernest, Clar. Cuc., Ind. Graco-Lat.)—Cicero appears to have had something of the kind in his villa at Arpinum, and which he calls his Amalthaea, in the singular (fem.) (Ep. ad Att., 2, 1.) AMXNUs, H. a continuation of the chain of Mount Taurus, stretching to the north as far as Melitene and the Euphrates. i. is situate at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean, near the Gulf of Issus, and separates Cilicia from Syria. The defile or pass in these mountains was called Portus Amanicus, or Pylae Syria. Its valleys and recesses were inhabited by wild and fierce tribes, who lived chiefly by plundering their neighbours, though they boasted of their freedom under the sonorous name of Eleuthero-Cilices, or Free Cilicians. The modern name of the chain is, according to Mannert, Almadag : but, according to D'Anville, Al-Lukan. (Strab., 521.—Lucan, 8, 224.—Cic., Ep. ad Att., 5, 20–Plin., 5, 27.)—II. A deity worshipped in Pontus and Cappadocia, and also called Omanus and Anandatus. (Compare Tschucke, ad Strab., 11, p. 512, ed. Casaub-vol. 4, p. 478.) Bochart identifies him with the sun (Geogr. Sacr., p.

277), and others with the Persian Hom, a type of the

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same luminary. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 164) Mount Amanus thus becomes the mountain of the sun, even as Lebanon appears in the Phoenician Cosmogony of Sanchoniathon AMARicus, a son of Cynaras, king of Cyprus, who, having fallen and broken a vase of perfumes which he was carrying, pined away, being either overpowered by the strong fragrance, or struck with grief at the loss he had sustained. The gods, out of compassion, changed him into the amaracus, or sweet-marjoram. Servius (ad Virg., AEn., 1,692) gives a somewhat dif. ferent account, and makes Amaracus, not a son, but an attendant, of the king's. As regards the plant amaracus itself, and its inity with the otiuipwrov of the Greeks, consult Fée, Flore de Virgile, p. clxxxv. AMARD1, a nation of Asia. Ptolemy (5, 13) places them in the greater Armenia, on the borders of Media; Nearchus, Pliny (6,17), and Strabo, in the mountains of Elymais, in Persia. Others assign Margiana as the country in which they lived. It is possible that there were several tribes of this same name spread over different countries, or perhaps several colonies of this people. Vossius thinks that all robbers and fugitives inhabiting the mountains were called Amardi by the Persians. (Voss, ad Pomp. Mel., b. 6. – Compare Pomp. Mel, French transl., vol. 1, p. 202.) AMARYLlts, the name of a female in Virgil's eclogues. Some commentators have supposed that the poet spoke of Rome under this fictitious appellation, but this supposition is a very improbable one. (Consult Heyne, ad Virg., Eclog., 1, 28, towards the conclusion of the note.) AMARYNThus, a town of Euboea, seven stadia from Eretria, celebrated for the temple and worship of Diana Amarynthia. (Strab., 448.—Liv., 35, 38.-Pausan, 1, 31.) AMAs;NUs, a small river of Latium, crossing the Pontine Marshes, and falling into the Tyrrhenian Sea, now La Toppia. (Virg., Žn, 7, 685.) AMAsia or AMAs; A ("Autiaeva, by the later Greeks 'Auaqia), a city of Pontus, on the river Iris, the origin of which is not ascertained. It was the birthplace of Mithradates the Great and of Strabo the geographer. At a later period, when under the Roman sway, it became the capital of Pontus Galaticus (Hierocles, p. 701), and bore upon its coins the title of Metropolis. Strabo (560) gives us a particular description of his native city. The modern Amasyah or Amassia is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient Amasea. (Mannert, 6, pt. 2, p. 461, seqq.) AMRsis, I. a king of Egypt, of one of the earlier dynasties. He rendered himself odious to his subjects by his violent and tyrannical conduct, and, on the invasion of Egypt by Actisanes, king of Æthiopia, the ater part of the inhabitants went over to the latter. uch is the account given by Diodorus Siculus (1,60), where many think we should read Amösis for Amasis. (Consult Steph. and Wesseling, ad Diod, l.c.) Justin Martyr (Parancs., p. 10) makes him to have been the first Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. Eusebius (Chron.) asserts that he was the same king during whose reign Jacob died. Olearius (ad Philostr., Wit.

Apoll., 42) maintains that he was monarch of Egypt

in the time of the Exodus. All is uncertainty respecting him.—II. An Egyptian, who, from having been a common soldier, became king of Egypt. He succeeded in gaining the favour of i. Apries, and was despatched by that monarch to quell a sedition which had broken out. As he was endeavouring to dissuade those who had revolted from the step they had taken, one of them came behind him and put a helmet on his head, saying that he put it on him to make him a king. Amasis was thereupon proclaimed king by the insur

ents, and immediately marched against and defeated #. former master, B.C. 569. He governed with pru

dence and energy. Under his reign Egypt enjoyed for many years uninterrupted prosperity. To prevent those offences which an idle and overflowing population might commit, he ordained that every one of his subjects should yearly give an account, to the ruler of the nome or district in which he resided, of the means of subsistence which he enjoyed, and the manner in which he lived. He showed also an enlightened spirit in the permission which he granted to strangers, and particularly to the Greeks, to visit Egypt; he gave them settlements along his coasts, and permitted ğ. to erect temples there for the performance of their national worship. Solon was one of those who visited Egypt during the reign of this prince. Amasis espoused a Grecian female, a native of Cyrene: he dis. played his attachment to the Greeks in various ways, and contributed liberally, not only to the rebuilding of the temple at Delphi, but to the improvement and embellishment of many cities and temples of Greece. In his own country he constructed numerous magnificent works, in the massy and gigantic style so peculiar to Egypt. He subjected also the isle of Cyprus, and made it tributary to his crown. The prosperity of Amasis, however, was disturbed, at last, by the preparations which Cambyses, king of Persia, made to attack his kingdom. The Persian monarch had demanded the daughter of Amasis in marriage; but the father, knowing that Cambyses meant to make her, not his wife, but his concubine, endeavoured to deceive him by sending in her stead the daughter of Apries. The female herself disclosed the imposition to Cambyses, and the latter, in great wrath, resolved to march against Egypt. The defection of Phanes, moreover, an officer among the Greek auxiliaries, who fled to Cambyses on account of some dissatisfaction with Amasis, proved a serious injury to the Egyptian prince. The Greek informed Cambyses how he might pass the intervening deserts, and gave him also very important information respecting the kingdom he was about to invade. Amasis escaped by death the perils which threatened his country. He died B.C. 525, after z. reign of 44 years, and the whole fury of the storm fell upon his son Psammeticus. Cambyses, however, determined not to be disappointed of his revenge, caused the body of the deceased monarch to be taken from the royal sepulchre at Sais; and, after having practised various indignities upon it, commanded it to be burned, an order equally revolting to the religious feelings of both the Persians and Egyptians. The story of Amasis and Polycrates is well known (rid. Polycrates), though the reason commonly assigned for the former's refusing to continue the alliance is perhaps less worthy of credit than that given by Diodorus Siculus, 1, 15. (Herodot., 2, 162, seqq.—Id, 3, 1, seqq.) Athenaeus (15, 25–vol. 5, p. 479, ed. Schweigh.) informs us, that Amasis first insinuated himself into the good graces of Apries by a chaplet of flowers which he presented to him on his birthday. The king, enchanted with the beauty of the chaplet, invited him to a feast, which he gave on that occasion, and received him among the number of his friends. AM stris, I, a daughter of the brother of Darius Codomannus. Alexander intended giving her in marrige to Craterus, but, in the confusion and political changes which followed the death of the conqueror, the plan, of course, fell to the ground, and she became the wife of Dionysius, tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus. (Memnon, c. 5.) Dionysius, at his death, left her as the guardian of his children, on account of the influence she enjoyed among the Macedonians. She was subsequently married to Lysimachus, and, though some time after separated from him by reason of the political movements of the day, continued to enjoy high consideration and respect. She founded a city at this period, and called it after her name. She was murdered by her own sons, who were punio Lysima.

chus for the unnatural deed.—II. A city on the coast to the Greek word 'Aussov, was Omorp sa, cr" manof Paphlagonia, near the mouth of the Parthenius. It slayer.” We have here what are sometimes called the Was |. by Amastris, the niece of Darius Codo- Scythian Amazons, making, in fact, a third class—Dimannus, and wife of Dionysius, tyrant of Heraclea, odorus gives an account of the victories of the Asiatic who gave her name to the new settlement. The ear- Amazons, as he had done in the case of the African. lier town of Sesamus, mentioned by Homer (Il., 2, He makes them to have conquered a large portion of 853), served for its citadel. It is praised as a beauti- Asia, extending their victorious arms from the regions ful city by both the younger Pliny (Ep., 10, 99) and beyond the Tanais (or Don) as far as Syria (2,46) the later ecclesiastical writers. (Compare Niceta. Other accounts tell of their invasion of Attica, in onPaph. Or, in S. Hyacint., 17.) Amastris, like Sinope, der to recover their queen Antiope, who had been carwas built on a small peninsula, and had, in conse-ried off by Theseus (Plut, Wit. Thes, c. 26, scqq.); quence, a double harbour. (Strabo, 544.) The mod- of their previous wars with Hercules; and still more. ern name is Amastra. (Mannert, 6, pt. 3, p. 25.) anciently of their contest with Bacchus. (Pausan., AMRTA, the wife of King. Latinus, and mother of 1, 15–1d., 7, 2.—Plut., Quast. Gr., p. 541–Justin, Lavinia. She hung herselfin despair, on finding that 2, 4) They are also mentioned by Homer, who speaks. she could not prevent the marriage of her daughter of their wars with the kings of Phrygia (Il., 3, 184), with Æneas. (Virg., AEn., 12, 603.) and of their defeat by Bellerophon (Il., 6, 186). They AMAthus (gen. untis), a city on the southern side are said also to have been among the allies of the Troof the island of Cyprus, and of great antiquity. Ado- jans in the war with the Greeks, and their queen Pennis was worshipped here as well as Venus. Scylax thesilea was slain by Achilles. (Hygin, Fab., 112– affirms that the Amathusians were autochthonous (Per- Dict. Crit., 4, 2, 3. — Tzetz. ad Lycophron, 999. — ipl., p. 41); and it appears from Hesychius that they Diod. Sic., 2, 46.) They make their appearance again, had a peculiar dialect (s. v. 'Ettoai, Kubatóa, Mú- in a later age, in the history of Alexander's expedition *uka). Amathus was celebrated as a favourite resi- into Asia, and their queen Thalestris is said to have tlence of Venus. (AEn; 10, 51—Catull, Ep., 36.) paid a visit to the victorious monarch, having come The goddess, as an author who wrote a history of for that purpose from the vicinity of Hyrcania; but Amathus, and is quoted by Hesychius (s. v. 'Aopóði- Quintus Curtius, who gives us this information, deals, Toc), reported, was represented with a beard. Ama- as usual, in the marvellous, and with his wonted ignothus was the see of a Christian bishop under the By- rance of geography, places the plains of Themiscyra, zantine emperors. (Hierocl., p. 706.) Its ruins are and the river Thermodon which waters them, contiguto be seen near the little town of Limmeson or Lim- ous to the country of the Hyrcanians. (Q. Curt., 6, 5, mesol, somewhat to the north of Cape Gatto. (Cra- 25.—Compare Freunshem, ad loc.)—The Amazons are mer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 377, seqq.) | described as armed with bow and arrows, and as having AMRzóNEs, a name given by the ancient writers to also battle-axes and crescent shields (“pelta lunata.” certain female warriors, and derived, according to the — Virg., AEm., 1,490). Some writers, differing from popular opinion, from a, priv., and plašog, “a female Diodorus, as cited above, make the Amazons to have breast,” because it was believed that they burned off had no males among them, but to have merely visited, the right breast in order to handle the bow more con- at stated times, the neighbouring communities, for the veniently. The men among them were held in an in- purpose of a temporary union and the obtaining of offferior, and, as it were, servile condition, attending to all spring. They farther state, that the female children the employments which occupy the time and care of thus born to them were carefully reared, after having females in other nations, while the Amazons them- the right breast seared with a red-hot iron, but that all selves took charge of all things relating to government the male ones were destroyed immediately after birth. and warfare. (Diod. Sic., 2, 45.—Id., 3, 52.) The Diodorus, however, informs us, in speaking of the Greek writers speak of African and Asiatic Amazons. Asiatic Amazons, that they merely mutilated (£T7(Diod. Suc., l.c.) The Amazons of Africa were the povv) the legs and arms of the male children, in order more ancient, and were also the more remarkable for to render them unfit for war. About the treatment of the number and splendour of their warlike achieve- the male offspring among the African Amazons he is ments. They dwelt in the western regions of Africa, altogether silent—Thus much for the Amazons, as occupying an island in a lake called Tritonis, and they have been described or referred to by the ancient which was near the main ocean. Diodorus describes writers. Various explanations, as may well be supthis island as beautiful and productive, and names it posed, have been given of this curious legend Some Hesperia. Under the guidance of a warlike queen, see in it an old tradition, founded, in a measure, on whom he calls Myrina, they conquered the people of historical truth, of a community of women, who acAtlantis, their neighbours, traversed a large portion of tually formed themselves into a regular state, after Africa, established friendly relations with Horus, son getting rid of, or subjugating their husbands. This is of Isis, then on the throne of Egypt, subdued Arabia, too improbable to need any serious refutation. R. P. Syria, various parts of Asia Minor, and penetrated Knight thinks that “the fable” of the Amazons (for so. even into Thrace. After this long career of conquest he terms it) “arose from some symbolical composition they returned to Africa, and were annihilated by Her- of an androgynous character, and which sought to excules. At this same time, too, the Lake Tritonis dis- press the blending of the two sexes into one shape; appeared as such, and became part of the ocean, the the full, prominent form of the female breast being intervening land having been swallowed up. (Diod. given on one side, and the flat form of the male on Suc., 3, 54.)—The Amazons of Asia are described by the other.” (Inquiry into the Symbol. Lang., &c., § the same writer (2, 45) as having dwelt originally on 50–Class. Journ., vol. 23, p. 238.) Creuzer agrees the banks of the Thermodon in Pontus, and with this with Knight in making the legend a religious one, but statement the ancient poets all agree. Herodotus he sees in the story of the Amazons evident traces of also (9, 27) places the Amazons on this same river, some accounts that must have reached the early Greeks, and he affirms that it was from thence they advanced respecting a female priesthood of a warlike character, into Greece and invaded Attica. He likewise speaks connected with the worship of the great powers of naof an expedition undertaken by the Greeks against ture, and on whom, as a part of that worship, either a these warlike females, in which the latter were defeat- periodical or perpetual continence was enjoined. The ed near the Thermodon and led away captive. A part change of vestments and of characters, so common of them, however, escaped to Scythia, and became the in this same class of Asiatic religions, was indicated, mothers of the Sauromatae (4, 110). The same his- according to this same writer, by the removal of one torian adds, that the Scythian term, which answered of the breasts. The Amazons, therefore, according

to this explanation, will be a band of warlike priestesses or Hierodulae, who, in renouncing maternity, and in giving themselves up to martial exercises, sought to imitate the periodical sterility of the great powers of light, the sun and moon, and the combats in which these were from time to time engaged, against the

loomy energies of night and winter. (Creuzer, Symolik, par Gungniaut, vol. 2, p. 90, seqq.) That the legend of the Amazons rests on a religious basis, we readily admit, but that any Amazons ever existed, even as warlike priestesses, we do not at all believe. The first source of error respecting them is the etymology commonly assigned to the name. To derive this from the negative a and utioc, and to make it indicate the loss of one of the breasts, is, we think, altogether erroneous. If a Greek derivation is to be assigned to the term Amazon, it is far more correct to deduce the word from the intensive a, and uáčoç, and to regard it as denoting, not the absence of one breast, but the presence of many. The name 'Autowy (Amazon) then becomes equivalent to the Greek IIoãvuitarog (Polymastus) and the Latin Multinammia, both of which epithets are applied by the ancient mythologists to the Ephesian Diana, with her numerous breasts, as typifying the great mother and nurse of all created beings. i. is curious to connect with this the well-known tradition, that the Amazons founded the city of Ephesus, and at a remote period sacrificed to the goddess there. (Callim., H. in Duan., 238. — Dionys. Perieg., 828.) . But how does the view which we have just taken of the erroneous nature of the common etymology, in the case of the name Amazon, harmonize with the remains of ancient sculpture : In the most satisfactory manner. No monument of antiquity represents the Amazons with a mutilated bosom, but, wherever their figures are given, they have both breasts fully and plainly developed. Thus, for example, the Amazons on the Phigaleian frieze have both breasts entire, one being generally exposed, while the other is concealed by drapery, but ctill in the latter the roundness of form is very perceptible. Both breasts appear also in the fine figure of the Amazon belonging to the Lansdowne collection ; and so again in the basso-relievo described by Winckelmann in his Monumenti Inediti. The authorities, indeed, on this head are altogether incontrovertible. (Winckelmann, Gesch. der Kunst des Alterthums, vol. 2, p. 131. – Id, Mon. Ined., pt. 2, c. 18, p. 184. — Muller, Archaologie der Kunst, p. 530. Elgin and Phigaleian Marbles, vol. 2, p. 179.-Heyne, ad Apollod., 2, 5, 9.) The first Greek writer that made mention of females who removed their right breast was Hippocrates (IIept dépov, K. T. A., § 43). His remarks, however, were meant to apply merely to the females of the Sauromatae, a Scythian tribe; but subsequent writers made them extend to the fabled race of the Amazons.—It appears to us, then, from a careful examination of the subject, that the term Amazon originally indicated neither a warlike female, nor a race of such females, but was merely an epithet applied to the Ephesian Diana, the great parent and source of nurture, and was intended to express the most striking of her attributes. The victories and conquests of the Amazonian race are nothing more, then, than a figurative allusion to the spread of her worship over a large so. of the globe, and the contests with Bacchus,

ercules, and Theseus refer in reality to the struggles of this worship with other rival systems of faith, for Bacchus, Hercules, and Theseus are nothing more than mythic types of three different forms of belief Hence we see why the conflict of the Amazons with Theseus, who was nothing more than the symbol of the establishment of the Ionic worship, became a most appropriate ornament for the frieze of the Parthenon, the temple of the great national goddess Minerva. It was, in fact, a delineation of the downfall of a rival sys

tem of belief—Before we conclude, it may not be amiss to examine more closely into the etymology of the term Amazon. We have thus far regarded the word as of Grecian origin. What if, after all, it be of Oriental birth, and have reference to the far-famed Asi of Oriental and Scandinavian mythology Salverte sees in them a class of female divinities, the spouses of the Asi, and he traces the first part of the name to the Pehlvi am, denoting “a mother,” or “a female” generally. (Essai sur les Noms, &c., vol. 2, p. 178.) Ritter also detects in the name an allusion to the Asi (Vorhalle, p. 465, seqq.); and, in connex ion with this view of the subject, we may state that the name of Asia (the land of the Asi) was first given to a small district near the Cayster, and in the very vicinity of Ephesus, the city which the Amazons had founded. Ephesus, moreover, first bore, it is said, the name of Smyrna, an appellation afterward bestowed on the city of Smyrna, which was founded by an Ephesian colony. This term Smyrna is said to have been originally the name of an Amazonian leader. Would it be too fanciful to deduce it from Asa-Myrina, and thus blend together the name of the African Amazon Myrina with the sacred appellation of the Asi AMAzoNius, a surname of Apollo at Pyrrhicus, in Laconia, from the protection he is said to have afforded to the inhabitants when attacked by the Amazons. (Pausan., 3, 25.) AMBARRI, a people of Gallia Celtica, situate between the Ædui and Allobroges, along either bank of the Arar or Saône. Following D'Anville's authority, we would place them in the present Department de l'Ain. Livy enumerates them among the Gallic tribes that crossed the Alps in the time f Tarquinius Priscus. (Lit., 5, 34–Caes., B. G., 1, 11, et 14.) AMBAR v ALIA, sacred rites in honour of Ceres, previous to the commencement of reaping, which were called sacra ambarvalua, because the victim was carried around the fields (arva ambiebat.—Wid. Arvales). AMB1RNI, a people of Gallia Belgica, whose capital was Samarobriva, afterward called Ambiani or Ambianum, now Amens. Their territory corresponds to what is now the Department de la Somme. (Caes., B. G., 2, 4.--Id. ab., 7, 75.) AMBLATINUs Vicus, a village of Germany, where the Emperor Caligula was born. It was situate between Confluentes and Baudobriga, and is supposed by some to be now Capelle, on the Rhine, by others, Königstuhl. Mannert, without fixing the modern site, thinks it lay on the Moselle. (Geogr., 2, p. 210.Sueton., Vit. Calig., 8.) AMBIG7tus, a king of the Celtae, in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. According to the account given by Livy (5,34), he sent his two nephews, Sigovesus and Bellovesus, in quest of new settlements, with the view of dininishing the overflowing numbers at home. The two cheftains drew lots respecting their course, and Sigovesus obtained the route that led towards the Hercynian forest, Bellovesus the road to Italy. What is here stated, however, appears to be a mere fable, owing its origin to the simultaneous emigrations of two hordes of Gallic warriors. (Compare Thierry, Histoire des Gaulous, vol. 1, p. 39.) AMbiörix, a king of one half of the Eburones in Gaul, Cativolcus being king of the other half. He was an inveterate foe to the Romans, and after inflicting several serious losses upon, narrowly escaped the pursuit of Caesar's men, on being defeated by that commander. (Caes., B. G., 5, 24, et 26.—ld., 6, 20.) AMbivak Eti and AMbiv ARETI (for we have, in the Greek Paraphrase of Caesar, b. 7, c. 75, 'Aubutapérov, and at c. 90, 'Aubisapırwy), a Gallic tribe, ranked among the clients of the AEdui, whence Glareanus and Ciacconius suspect them to be the same with the Ambarri. Almost all the MSS. of Caesar call them Ambluareti. The ancient geographical writers are silent respecting them. AMBIvar Iti, a tribe of Gallia Belgica, a short distance beyond the Mosa or Meuse. (Caes., B. G., 4, 9.) AMBRAcía, a celebrated city of Epirus, the capital of the country, and the royal residence of Pyrrhus and his descendants. It was situate on the banks of the Aracthus or Arethon, a short distance from the waters of the Ambracian Gulf. The founders of the place were said to have been a colony of Corinthians, headed by Tolgus or Torgus, 650 B.C., who was either the brother or the son of Cypselus, chief of Corinth. (Strabo, 325 — Scymn., Ch., v. 452.) It carly acquired some maritime celebrity, by reason of its advantageous position, and was a powerful and independent city towards the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, in which it espoused the cause of Corinth and Sparta. At a later period we find its independence threatened by Philip, who seems to have entertained the project of annexing it to the dominions of his brother-in-law, Alexander, king of the Molossians. (Demosth., Phil., 3, 85.) Whether it actually fell into the possession of that monarch is uncertain, but there can be no doubt of its having been in the occupation of Philip, since Diodorus Siculus (17, 3) asserts that the Ambraciots, on the accession of Alexander the Great to the throne, ejected the Macedonian arrison stationed in their city. Ambracia, however, i. not long enjoy the freedom which it thus regained, for, having fallen into the hands of Pyrrhus, we are told that it was selected by that prince as his usual place of residence. (Strabo, 325 — Liv., 38, 9.) Ovid (Ibis, v. 306) seems to imply that he was interred there. Many years after, being under the dominion of the AEtolians, who were at that time involved in hostilities with the Romans, this city sustained a siege against the latter almost unequalled in the anmals of ancient warfare for the gallantry and perseverance displayed in defence of the place. (Polyb., Frag., 22, 13.) Ambracia, at last, opened its gates to the foe, on a truce being concluded, and was stripped by the Roman consul, M. Fulvius Nobilior, of all the statues and pictures with which it had been so richly adorned by Pyrrhus. From this time Ambracia began to sink into a state of insignificance, and Augustus, by transferring its inhabitants to Nicopolis, completed its desolation. (Strabo, 325–Pausan., 5, 23.) In regard to the topography of this ancient city, most travellers and antiquaries are of opinion, that it must have stood near the town of Arta, which now gives its name to the gulf (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 145, seqq.) Ambracius SINUs, a gulf of the Ionian Sea between Epirus and Acarnania. Scylax (Peripl., p. 13) calls it the Bay of Anactorium, and observes that the distance from its mouth to the farthest extremity was one hundred and twenty stadia, while the entrance was scarcely four stadia broad. Strabo (325) makes the whole circuit three hundred stadia. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 153.) AMBRöNEs, a Gallic horde, who invaded the Roman territories along with the Teutones and Cimbri, and were defeated with great slaughter by Marius. The name is thought to mean, “dwellers on the Rhone” (Amb-rones). So Ambidravii, “dwellers on the Draave;” Sigambri, “ dwellers on the Sieg,” &c. Compare Pfister, Gesch. der Teutschen, vol. 1, p. 35.) Ambrosia, the celestial food on which the gods were supposed to subsist, and to which, along with mectar, they were believed to owe their immortality. The name is derived from subporoc, “immortal.” (Compare Heyne, Ercurs. 9, ad Il., 1–1d., Obs. ad Hom., Il., 1, 190.) There is a striking resemblance between the Grecian and Hindoo mythology in this respect. The Amrita, or water of life, recalls imme

diately to mind the Ambrosia of Olympus. (Compare Hom., Od., 1, 359, where ambrosia and nectar appear to be used as synonymous terms.-Heyne, Excurs. 9, ad Îl., 1, and consult the remarks of Buttmann in his Lerilogus, s r. 'Aubpóquoc, &c.) AMbrosius, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, and one of the latest and most distinguished of what are denominated the Fathers of the Christian Church. He was born at Arelate (Arles), then the metropolis of Gallia Narbonensis, according to some authorities, A.D. 333, according to others, 340. His father was the emperor's lieutenant in that district, and, after his death, Ambrose, who was the youngest of three chil. dren, returned with the widow and family to Rome. Here, under the instructions of his mother and his sister Marcellina, who had vowed virginity, he received a highly religious education, and that bias in favour of Catholic orthodoxy by which he was subsequently so much distinguished. Having studied law, he pleaded causes in the court of the praetorian prefect, and was in due time appointed proconsul of Liguria. He thereupon took up his residence at Milan, where a circumstance occurred which produced a sudden change in his fortunes, and transformed him from a civil governor into a bishop. Auxentius, bishop of Milan, the Arian leader in the west, died, and left that see vacant, when a warm contest for the succession ensued between the Arians and Catholics. In the midst of a tumultuous dispute, Ambrose appeared in the midst of the assembly, and exhorted them to conduct the election peaceably. At the conclusion of his address, a child in the crowd exclaimed, “Ambrose is bishop " and, whether accidentally or by management, the result throws a curious light upon the nature of the times; for the superstitious multitude, regarding the exclamation as a providential and miraculous suggestion, by general acclamation declared Ambrose to be elected. After various attempts to decline the episcopal office, Ambrose at length entered upon the discharge of its duties, and rendered himself conspicuous by his decided and unremitting opposition to the tenets of Arianism. To his zealous endeavours also was owing the failure of the attempt made by the remains of a pagan party to re-establish the worship of paganism. The strength and ability of Ambrose were such, that, although opposed to him on ecclesiastical points, Valentinian and his mother respected his talents, and in moments of political exigency, required his assistance. The most conspicuous act on the part of Ambrose was his treatment of Theodosius for the massacre at Thessalonica. The emperor was consigned to a retirement of eight months, and not absolved even then until he had signed an edict, which ordained that an interval of thirty days should pass before any sentence of death, or even of confiscation, should be executed. After having paid the funeral honours to Theodosius, who died soon after obtaining peaceable possession of the entire Roman empire, the bishop departed from this world with a composure worthy of his firm character, in the year 397. It is evident that Ambrose was one of those men of great energy of mind and temperament, who, in the adoption of a theory or a party, hold no middle course, but act with determination towards the fulfilment of their purposes. Regarded within their own circles, there is generally something in such characters to admire; and, beyond that, as certainly much to condemn. It must be conceded, however, that men resembling Ambrose effected much to advance the Roman Catholic Church to the power to which it afterward attained, and, by necessary sequence, to the abuse of it which produced the Ref. ormation. The writings of this father are numerous, and the great object of almost all of them was to maintain the faith and discipline of the Catholic Church, while some of them are written to recommend celibacy as the summit of Christian perfection. His

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