Obrazy na stronie

for which precedent might not be found; and as there were far more bad than good writers, the authority and weight of numbers was likely to prevail, and the language, consequently, to grow more and more corrupt. #. was thought necessary, therefore, to draw a line between those classic writers, to whose authority an appeal in matter of language might be made, and the common herd of inferior authors. In the most cultivated modern tongues, it seems to have been found expedient to erect some such barrier against the inroads of corruption ; and to this preservative caution are we indebted for the vocabulary of the Academicians della Crusca, and the list of authors therein cited as affording “testi di lingua.” To this we owe the Dictionaries of the Royal Academies of France and Spain, of their respective languages ; and Johnson's Dictionary of our own. But, as for the example first set in this matter by the Alexandrean critics, its effects upon their own literature have been of a doubtful nature In so far as the canon has contributed to preserve to us some of the best authors included in it, we cannot but rejoice. On the other hand, there is reason to believe, that the comparative neglect into which those not received into it were sure to fall, has been the occasion of the loss of a vast number of writers, who would have been, if not for their language, yet for their matter, very precious; and who, perhaps, in many cases, were not easily to be distinguished, even on the score of style, from those that were preferred. (Moore's Lectures, p. 55, seqq.). The details of the canon are as follows: 1. Epic Poets. Homer, Hesiod, Pisander, Panyasis, Antimachus. 2. Iambic Poets. Archilochus, Simonides, Hipponax. 3. Lyric Poets. Alcman, Alcaeus, Sappho, Stesichorus, Pindar, Bacchylides, Ibycus, Anacreon, Simonides. 4. Elegiac Poets. Callinus, Mimnermus, Philetas, Callimachus. 5. Tragic Poets. (First Class): AEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Ion. Achaeus, Agathon. (Second Class, or Tragic Pleiades) : Alexander the AEtolian, Philiscus of Corcyra, Sositheus, Homer the younger, .Eantides, Sosiphanes or Sosicles, Lycophron. 6. Comic Poets. (Old Comedy) : Epicharmus, Cratinus, Eupolis, Aristophanes, Pherecrates, Plato. (Middle Comedy): Antiphanes, Alexis. (New Comedy); Menander, Philippides, Diphilus, Philemon, Apollodorus. 7. Historians. Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Theopompus, Ephorus, Philistus, Anaximenes, Callisthenes. 8. Orators. (The ten Attic Orators): Antiphon. Andocides, Lysias, Isocrates, Isaeus, AEschines, Lycurgus, Demosthenes, Hyperides, Dinarchus. 9. Philosophers. Plato, Xenophon, Æschines, Aristotle, Theophrastus. 10. Poetic Pleiades. (Seven poets of the same epoch with one another). Apollonius the Rhodian, Aratus, Philiscus, Homer the younger. Lycophron, Nicander, Theocritus. (Schöll, Hist. Lt. Gr., vol. 3, p. 186, se?q.) ALEx ANDRoPôlis, a city of Parthia, probably east of Nissea, built by Alexander the Great. (Plin., 6, 25.) Alex Archus, a Greek historian. Vid. Supplement. Alkxicxcus, an epithet applied to various deities, particularly to Jupiter, Apollo, Hercules, &c. It means “an arerter of evil,” and is derived from siześć), “to arert,” or “ward off,” and kaków, “evil.” Another Greek term of the same import is ditorpórator, and analogous to both is the Latin arerruncus. Fischer, ad Aristoph, Plut, 359.) Alexias, a Greek physician. Vid. Supplement. AlexTNus, a native of Elis, the disciple of Eubulides, and a member of the Megaric sect. He set him

self in array against almost all of his contemporaries a favourite theme with Horace.


containing pretended conversations between Philip and Alexander of Macedon, in which the character of the Stagirite was very rudely assailed. Full of vanity and self-conceit, he retired to Olympia for the purpose, as he gave out, of establishing a sect to which he wished to give the appellation of Olympiac, the unhealthy state of the neighbourhood, and its deserted condition, except at the period of the games, caused his disciples to abandon him He died in consequenco of being wounded in the foot by the point of a reed, as he was bathing in the Alpheus. (Diog. Laert.) Alexinus and his preceptor Eubulides are only known as the authors of certain captious questions (42 vra) which they levelled at their antagonists. (Duog Laert, 2, 108, seqq.—Cic, Acad., 4, 29.) Alexion, a physician, intimate with Cicero. ad Att., 13, ep. 25.) Alexis, I a comic poet of Thurium, uncle on the father's side to Menander, and his instructer in the drama. (Proleg. Aristoph., p. xxx) He flourished in the time of Alexander the Great, and, according to Suidas, wrote 245 pieces for the stage (oidaše optimata qué). Athenaeus calls him 6 rapieto, “the gracefully sportive,” and the extracts which he as well as Stobarus give from the productions of the poet appear to justify the appellation. If he did not invent the character of the parasite, he at least introduced it more frequently into his comedies, or portrayed it more successfully than any of his predecessors. The titles of several of his pieces have been preserved, besides the extracts which are given by Athenaeus and Stobaeus. (Athen., 2, 59, f—Schweigh. ad Athen., l.c.) The remains of this poet are also to be found in the Ercerpta er Trag. et Comoed. Gr. of Grotius, Paris, 1626, 4to.—II. An artist mentioned by Pliny as one of the pupils of Polycletus, but without any statement of his country or the works which he executed. (Plin., 34, 8.) Alff Nus, or Publius ALFENUs WARUs, a barber of Cremona, who, growing out of conceit with his line of business, quitted it and came to Rome. Here he attended the lectures of Servius Sulpicius, a celebrated lawyer of the day, and made so great proficiency in his studies as to become eventually the ablest lawyer of his time. His name often occurs in the Pandects. He was advanced to some of the highest offices in the empire, and was at last made consul, A U.C. 755. (Compare the commentators on Horace, Serm., 1, 3 130.) In some editions of Horace, Alfenus is styled Sutor, “a shoemaker.” Bentley, however, on the authority of two MSS., one of them a MS. copy of Acron. changes the lection to tonsor, “a barber.” His em endation has been very generally adopted. Algidum, a town of Iatium, on the Via Latina situate in a hollow about twelve miles from Rome. Antiquaries seem to agree in fixing its position at l'Osteria dell'Aglio. (Holstein, Adnot.. p. 158– Vulp. Lat. Vet., 15, 1, p. 248.-Nibby, Viag. Antiq., vol. 2, p. 62.) Algidus, a chain of mountains in Latium, stretching from the rear of the Alban Mount, and running parallel to the Tusculan Hills, being separated from them by the valley along which ran the Via Latina. The neighbourhood is remarkable for the numberless conflicts between the Roman armies and their unwearied antagonists the Equi and Volsci. Mount Algidus, in fact, was advantageously placed for making inroads on the Roman territory, either by the Via Latina or the Via Lavicana. The woods of the bleak Algidus are (Od., 1, 21, 6–3,

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that were in any way distinguished for talent, such as 23, 9–4, 4, 58–Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p.

Aristotle, Zeno, Menedemus, Stilpo, and the historian

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was nicknamed Elenrinus ('E2.Éyślvoc), or “the fault

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ALIMENtus, C., a Roman historian, who flourished “high,” and Broga, “land.” (Adelung's Mithridates, during the period of the second Punic war, of which vol. 2, p 50) he wrote an account in Greek. He was the author || Allucius, a prince of the Celtiberi in Spain, whose also of a biographical sketch, in Latin, of the Sicilian affianced bride having fallen into the hands of Scipio.

rhetorician Gorgias of Leontini, and of a work De Re

Militar. This last-mentioned production is cited by

Aulus Gellius, and is acknowledged by Vegetius as

the foundation of his more elaborate commentaries on

the same subject. (Dunlop's Roman Lit, vol 2, p 3, un notis.)

Africanus, was restored to him uninjured by the man commander; an act of self-control rendered still more illustrious by reason of the surpassing beauty of the maiden. (Lac., 26, 50.) AlMo, a small river near Rome, falling into the Tiber It is now the Dachia, a corruption of Aqua d'Acio

All NDA, a city of Caria, southeast of Stratonicea At the junction of this stream with the Tiber, the It was a place of some note and strength, and was held priests of Cybele, every year, on the 25th March, by Ada, queen of Caria, at the time that Alexander washed the statue and sacred things of the goddess. undertook the siege of Halicarnassus. (Arrian, Erp. Vid. Lara. (Orud, Fast., 4, 337–Lucan, 1, 600. Al, 1, 23.—Strah, 657.) The site has been iden- Compare Wales. et Lindenbr., ad Ammian. Marcell., tified by many antiquaries with the modern Moglah, 23. 3 –Lucan, ed. Cort. et Weber, vol. 1, p. 157, the principal town of modern Caria, but on what au- seqq) thority is not apparent. Another traveller, from the AlöA, a festival at Athens, in the month Poseidon (a similarity of names, places it at Aleuna, between month including one third of December and two thirds. lsoglah and Tshina. (Rennell's Geogr. of Western of January), in honour of Ceres and Bacchus. These Asia, vol. 2, p. 53.−Cramer's Asua Minor, vol. 2, deities were propitiated on this occasion, as by their

p. 208.) blessing the husbandmen received the recompense of Alipius. Vid. Alypius. their toil and labour. The oblations, therefore, conALIRRothius. Vid. Halirrothius. sisted of nothing but the productions of the earth.

ALLEctus, a praetorian prefect, who slew Carausius

in Britain, and took possession of his throne, holding
i. for three years, from 294 to 297 A.D. He was at rived from the Greek azas, “a threshing-floor.”

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tast defeated and slain by Asclepiodotus, a general of cording to Philochorus (p. 86. Fragm.), the Aloa was a

Constantius Chlorus, who landed on the coast of the

island with an army. (Aurel. Vict, 39.)

united festival in honour of Bacchus, Ceres, and Proserpina. (Compare Corsini, Fast. Att., 2, p. 302.)

Allia, a river of Italy, running down, according to We have written 'Azotic, &c., with the lenis in place

Livy, from the mountains of Crustumium, at the of the aspirate, although the root be azoc,

eleventh milestone, and flowing into the Tiber.

The un

It aspirated form is, in fact, the earlier of the two, and

was crossed by the Via Salaria, about four miles beyond the more likely, therefore, to be retained as a religious

the modern Marcigliano, and is now the Aia. Cluverius (Ital. Ant., vol. 1, p. 707) is mistaken when he identifies the Allia with the Rio di Mosso, as that rivulet is much beyond the given distance from Rome. (Nibby, delle Vie degli Antichi, p. 87.) On its banks the Romans were defeated by the Gauls under Brennus, July 17th, B.C. 387. Forty thousand Romans were either killed or put to flight. Hence in the Roman calendar, “Alliensis dies” was marked as a most unlucky day. (Livy, 5, 37. Florus, 1, 13. — Plut., Wit. Cam.) The true name of the river is Alia, with the first vowel short. Our mode of pronouncing and writing the name is derived from the poets, who lengthened the initial vowel by the duplication of the consonant. (Niebuhr, Roman Hist., vol. 2, p. 291, Walter's transl., in notis.) ALLIENI ForuM. Vid. Forum II. Allirae, a town of Samnium, northwest of the Wulturnus, the name of which often occurs in Livy. It was taken, according to that historian, by the consul Petilius, A.U.C. 429; and again by Rutilius. (Lir. 8, 25–Id., 9, 38.) This place was famous for the large-sized drinking-cups made there. (Horat., Serm., 2, 8.39). The ancient site is occupied by the modern Allife. For a description of the numerous antiquities existing at Allife, consult Trutta, Diss. sopr. le Antich. Alif. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 233.) Allobröges, a people of Gallia, between the Isara or Isere, and the Rhodanus or Rhone, in the country answering to Dauphiné, Piedmont, and Saroy. Their chief city was Vienna, now Vienne, on the left bank of the Rhodanus, thirteen miles below Lugdunum or Lyons. They were finally reduced beneath the Roman power by Fabius Maximus, who hence was honoured with the surname of Allobrogicus. (For the particulars of this war, consult Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois, vol. 2, p. 168, seqq., and the authorities there cited.) At a later day we find the ambassadors of this nation at Rome, tampered with by Catiline, but eventually remaining firm in their allegiance. (Sallust, Cat., 40, seqq.—Cic., in Cat., 3, 3, seqq.) The name Allobroges means “Highlanders,” and is formed from Al,

appellation. (Compare the remarks of Bergler, ad Alcuphron, 1, ep. 33.) Reitz, however, favours the opposite form, though less correctly. (Ad Luc., Dial. Meretr., 1.) Creuzer gives Azúa for the name of the festival, as we have done. (Symbolik, vol. 4, p. 308.) Alofus, I. son of Apollo and Circe. From him, through his son Epopeus, was descended the Marathon, after whom the famous plain in Attica was named. (Suid., s. v. Mapatav.) Callimachus applied to this same Marathon, son of Apollo, the epithets of div) poc, “all humid,” and Evvépoc, “ducelling in the water” (Suid., l.c.), a remark that will serve as an introduction to the explanation given by Creuzer to the sable of the Aloidae. Vid. Aloidae.—II. Son of Neptune and Iphimedia. He married Iphimedia, the daughter of his brother Triops; but Iphimedia having a stronger attachment for Neptune than for her own husband, became by the former the mother of two sens, Ctus and Ephialtes, whom Aloeus, however, brought up as his own (Homer makes them to have been nurtured by Earth), and who were hence called Alouda. Wid. Aloidae. (Hom., Od., 11, 304, seqq.) AloíDAE ('AZoeiðar), sons of Aloeus in name, but in reality the offspring of Neptune and Iphimedia. (Vid. Aloeus II.) They were two in number, Otu. and Ephialtes, and, according to Homer (Od., 11, 31s seqq.), were, in their ninth year, nine cubits in width and nine fathoms in height. At this early age, they undertook to make war upon heaven, with the intention, of dethroning Jupiter; and, in order to reach the heav, ens, they strove to place Mount Ossa upon Olympus, and Pelion upon Ossa ; but they were destroyed by Apollo before, to use the graphic language of Homer, “the down had bloomed beneath their temples, and had thickly covered their chin with a well-flowering beard.” According to the animated narrative of the same bard, they would have accomplished their object had they made the attempt, not in childhood, but after having “reached the measure of youth.” (Od., l.c.) Such is the Homeric legend respecting the Aloidae, as given in the Odyssey. In the Iliad (5, 385) they are said to have bound Mars, and kept him captive for the space of thirteen months, until Mercury “stole him away” (85éxWeihev). Later writers add, of course, many other particulars. Apollodorus makes Ephialtes to have aspired to a union with Juno, and Otus with Diana. (Compare Nonnus, Dionys., 48,402. Hygin., Fab., 28.) He farther states, that Diana effected their destruction in the island of Naxos. She changed herself, it seems, into a hind, and bounded between the two brothers, who, in their eagerness each to slay the animal, pierced one another with their weapons (Ég éavrotic hkóvrta av). Diodorus Siculus (5, 51) gives an historical air to the narrative, making the two brothers to have held sway in Naxos, and to have fallen in a quarrel by each other's hand. (Compare Pind., Pyth., 4, 88, ed. Böckh, and the scholiast, ad loc.) Virgil assigns the Aloidae a place of punishment in Tartarus (AEm., 6,582), and some of the ancient fabulists make them to have been hurled thither by Jupiter, others by Apollo. So in the Odyssey (l.c.) they are spoken of as inhabiting the lower world, though no reason is assigned by the poet for their being there, except what we may infer from the legend itself, that they were cut off in early life, lest, if they had been allowed to attain their full growth, they might have obtained the empire of the skies. (Heyne, ad Apollod., l.c.) Pausanias makes the Aloidae to have founded Ascra in Boeotia, and to have been the first that sacrificed to the Muses on Mount Helicon (9, 29). Müller regards the Aloidae as the mythic leaders of the old Thracian colonies, heroes by land and sea. They appear in Pieria (at Aloium, near Tempe) and at Mount Helicon, and in both quarters have reference to the digging of canals and the draining of mountain-dales. (Orchomenus, p. 387.) Creuzer, on the other hand, sees in the fable of the Aloidae a figurative allusion to a contest, as it were, between the water and the land. Aloeus is “the man of the threshing-floor” (à20c), whose efforts are all useless on account of the infidelity of his spouse (the Earth, “the very wise one,” lot and ujöoc). She unites against him with Neptune, and the sea thereupon begets the mighty energies of the tempests (Otus and Ephialtes), which darken the day ('Qroc, from &réc, “the horned owl,” the bird of night), which brood heavily over the earth, and cause the waves of ocean to leap and dash upon the cultivated regions along the shore ('Eguížrmo, from étí, and ā220aat, “to leap,” as indicating “the one that attacks” or “leaps upon,” the spirit that oppresses and torments, “the nightmare”). At last the god of day (Apollo) comes forth, and the storm ceases, first along the mountain-tops, and at last even on the shore. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p. 386.) If we adopt the other version of the fable, that the Aloidae were destroyed by Diana, the storm will then be hushed by the influence and changing of the moon. Aloium, otown of Thessaly, near Tempe. (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Azotov.) ALópe, I, daughter of Cercyon, king of Eleusis, and mother of Hippothoon by Neptune. She was put to death by her father, and her tomb is spoken of by Pausanias (1, 29). Hyginus says that Neptune, not being able to save her life, changed her corpse into a fountain ( Fab., 187). The son, on having been exposed by order of its mother, was at first suckled by a mare (irrog), whence his name Hippothoon ; and was afterward taken care of and brought up by some shepherds. When he had attained to manhood, he was placed on his grandfather's throne by Theseus, who had slain Cercyon. (Pausan. 1, 5, et 39–Hygin., l.c.)—II. A town of Thessaly, situate, according to Steph. Byz. (s. v. 'A26orm), between Larissa Cremaste and Echinus. (Compare Straho, 432.-Pomp. Mel., 2, 3.) It is probably the same with the Alitrope noticed by Scylax (p.24), and retains its name on the shore of the Melian Gulf, below Makalla.—III. A town of the Locri Ozolae, ac

cording to Strabo (427). It is, perhaps, no other than

the Olpe of Thucydides (3, 101).--IV. A town of the Locri Opuntii, above Daphnus. It was here that, according to Thucydides, the Athenians obtained some advantages over the Locrians in a descent they made on this coast during the Peloponnesian war. (Thucyd., 2, 26.) AlopécE, I. an island in the Palus Maeotis, near the mouth of the Tanais. Strabo and Ptolemy call it Alopecia ('A2 orexia), but Pliny (4, 26) names it Alopece. — II. An island in the Cimmerian Bosporus, near Panticapteum. Constantine Porphyrogenitus (de adm. imp., c. 42) calls it Atech ("Arér).--III. A borough of Attica, north of Hymettus, and near the Cynosarges, consequently close to Athens. According to Herodotus (5,63), it contained the tomb of Anchimolius, a Spartan chief, who fell in the first expedition undertaken by the Spartans to expel the Pisistratidae. According to AEschines (in Tumarch., p. 119), it was not more than eleven or twelve stadia from the walls of the city. This was the borough or demus of Socrates and Aristides. It was enrolled in the tribe Antiochis. (Steph. Byz., s. v. 'Azorékm.) Chandler thought that he passed some vestiges belonging to it in his journey from Athens to Hymettus. (Travels, vol. 2, c. 30.) Alopeconnæsus, a town on the northern coast of the Thracian Chersonese. It was an AEolian colony, according to Scymnus (p. 705), and it is mentiomed as one of the chief towns of the Chersonese by Demosthenes (de Cor., p. 256). It was taken by Philip, king of Macedon, towards the commencement of his wars with the Romans (Liv., 31, 16). According to Athenaeus (2,60), truffles of excellent quality grew near it. The site of the ancient town still retains the name of Alexi. (Mannert, 7, p. 197.) Alos, or HAllos, I. a city in Thessaly, situate near the sea, on the river Amphrysus. It was founded by Athamas, whose memory was here held in the highest veneration. (Strab., 432. — Herodot., 7, 197.) This place was called the “Phthiotic” or “Achaean” Alos, to distinguish it from another city of the same namo among the Locri-II. A city of the Locri Opuntii. Alpf Nus, a town of the Locri Epicnemidii, south of Thermopylae, whence, as Herodotus (7, 229) informs us, Leonidas and his little band drew their supplies. It is also called Alpeni ('Azrmot). This is probably the same town which -Eschines names Alponus, since he describes it as being close to Thermopylae. (AEsch., de Fals. Leg., p. 46.) Alpes, a chain of mountains, separating Italia from Gallia, Helvetia, and Germania. Their name is derived from their height, Alp being the old Celtic appellation for a lofty mountain. (Adelung, Mithridates, vol. 2, p. 42.-Compare remarks under the article Albion II.) They extend from the Sinus Flanaticus, or Gulf of Carnero, at the top of the Gulf of Venice, and the sources of the river Colapis, or Kulpe, to Vada Sabatia, or Savona, on the Gulf of Genoa. The whole extent, which is in a crescent form, Livy makes only 250 miles, Pliny 700 miles. The true amount is nearly 600 British miles. They have been divided by both ancient and modern geographers into various portions, of which the principal are, 1. The Maritime Alps (Alpes Maritima), beginning from the environs of Nice (Nicaea), and extending to Mons Vesulus, Monte Viso. 2. The Cottian Alps (Alpes Cottie), reaching from the last-mentioned point to Mont Cenis. (Vid. Cottius.) 3. The Graian Alps (Alpes Graiae), lying between Mont Iseran and the Little St. Bernard inclusively. The name Graia is said to refer to the tradition of Hercules having crossed over them on his return from Spain into Italy and Greece. 4. The Pennine Alps (Alpes Penninae), extending from the Great St. Bernard to the sources of the Rhone and Rhine. The name is deri. ved from the Celtic Penn, “a summit,” and not, as Livy and other ancient writers, together with some modern ones, pretend, from Hannibal having crossed into Italy by this path, and who, therefore, make the orthography Poeninae, from Poenus. 5. The Rhaetic or Tridentine Alps (Alpes Rhaetical sive Tridentina), from the St. Gothard, whose numerous peaks bore the name of Adula, to Mont Brenner in the Tyrol. 6. The Noric Alps (Alpes Norica'), from the latter point to the head of the river Plavis, or la Piave. 7. The Carnic or Julian Alps (Alpes Carnica sive Juliae), terminating in the Mons Albius on the confines of Illyricum.—It was not till the reign of Augustus that the Aips became well known. #. emperor finally subdued the numerous and savage clans which inhabited the Alpine valleys, and cleared the passes of the banditti that infested them. He improved the old roads and constructed new ones; and finally succeeded in *stablishing a free and easy communication through !hese mountains. (Strab., 204.) It was then that the whole of this great chain was divided into the seven Nortions which have just been mentioned. Among the ennine Alps is Mont Blanc, 14,676 feet high. The principal passes at the present day are, that over the Great St. Bernard, that over Mont Simplon, and that over Mont St. Gothard. The manner in which Hannibal is said to have effected his passage over these mountains is now generally regarded as a fiction. (Vid. Hannibal, under which article some remarks will also be offered upon the route of the Carthaginian commander in crossing the Alps.) Besides the divisions of the Alps already mentioned, we sometimes meet with others, such as the Lepontine Alps o Lepontiae), between the sources of the Rhine and the Lacus Verbanus (Lago Maggiore); the Alpes Summa: (Caes., B. G., 3, 1, and 4, 10), running off from the Pennine Alps, and reaching as far as the Lake Verbanus, &c. Alphesiboea, daughter of Phygeus, or Phegeus, king of Psophis in Arcadia, married Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus, who had fled to her father's court after the murder oi nis mother. She received, as a bridal present, the fatal collar and robe which had been given to Eriphyle, to induce her to betray her husband Amhiaraus. The ground, however, becoming barren on is account, Alcmaeon left Arcadia and . newlymarried wife, in obedience to an oracle, and came, first to Calydon unto king CEneus, then to the Thesprotii, and finally to the Achelous. Here he was purified by the river-god from the stain of his mother's blood, and married Callirrhoe, the daughter of the stream. Callirrhoe had two sons by him, and begged of him, as a i. the collar and robe, which were then in the lands of Alphesiboea. He endeavoured to obtain them, under the pretence that he wished to consecrate them at Delphi; but the deception being discovered, he was siain by the two brothers of Alphesiboea, who had lain in wait for him. Alphesiboea, showing too much sorrow for the loss of her former husband, was conveyed by her brothers to Tegea, and given into the hands of Agapenor. The more usual name by which Alphesiboea is known among the ancient fabulists is Arsinoë, (Apollod., 3, 7.—Heyne, ad loc.) Aloists and Alph EUs ("Azoetóc, and 'A7066c, the short penult marking the earlier, the long one the later and more usual, pronunciation), I. a river of Peloponnesus, flowing through Arcadia and Elis. It rose in the Laconian border of Arcadia, about five stadia from Asea, and mingled its waters, at its source, with those of the Eurotas. The united streams continued their course for the space of twenty stadia, when they disappeared in a chasm. The Alpheus was seen to rise again at a place called Pēga (Tnyat), or “the sources,” in the territory of Megalopolis, and the Eurotas in that of Belmina, in Laconia. Flowing onward from this quarter, the Alpheus passes through the intervening part of Arcadia, enters Elis, passes through the plain of Olympia, and discharges its waters, now swelled by uumerous tributary streams, into the Sicilian Sea.

The modern name of the river is the Rouphia.—There are few streams so celebrated in antiquity as the Alpheus. Its proximity to the scene of the Olympic contests connects its name continually with the mention of those memorable games, on the part of the ancient poets, and gives it, in particular, a conspicuous place in the verses of Pindar. There is also a pleasing legend connected with the stream. According to the poets, the god of the Alpheus became enamoured of and pursued the nymph Arethusa, who was only stved from him by the intervention of Diana, and chang. ed for that purpose into a fountain. This fountain she placed in the island of Ortygia, near the coast of Sicily, and forming in a later age one of the quarters of the city of Syracuse. The ardent river-god, however, did not even then desist, but worked a passage for his stream amid the intervening ocean, and, rising up again in the Ortygian island, commingled its waters with those of the sountain of Arethusa. Hence, according to popular belief, if anything were thrown upon the Alpheus in Elis, it was sure to reappear, after a certain lapse of time, upon the bosom of the Ortygian fountain. (Pausan., 5, 7–1d., 8, 54.—Strab., 269 ct 343. —Pind., Nem., 1, 1, seqq.—Moschus, Id., 8–Virg., AEm., 3, 692, seqq.—Id., Georg., 3, 180—Nonnus, in Creuz, Melet., 1, p. 78.) According to another version, however, of * same legend, it was Diana herself, and not the nymph Arethusa, whom the river-god of the Alpheus pursued, and, when this pursuit had ended in the island of Ortygia, the sountain of Arethusa arose there. (Schol. ad Pand., Nam., 1, 3– vol. 2, p. 428, ed. Bockh.) The account last given will afford us a clew to the true meaning of the entire fable The goddess Diana had, it secms, a common altar at Olympia with the god of the Alpheus. (Herodotus, in Schol ad Pund, Olymp., 5, 10. — Tausam., 5, 14.) To the same Diana water was held sacred. (Böckh, ad Pond, Nem., 1. — Creuzer's Sym. boluk, vol. 2, p. 182.) This part of the worship of Diana having passed from the Peloponnesus into Sicily, the worship of the Alpheus accompanied it; or, in other words, a common altar for the two divinities was erected by the Syracusans in Ortygia, similar in its attendant rites and ceremonies to the altar at Olympia. For in the island of Ortygia all water was held sacred (Schol. ad Pind., Nam., 1, 1–2, p. 428, ed. Eockh), and Diana, besides, was worshipped at the fountain of Arethusa, under the titles of notapita and 'AZ ptača. From this commingling of rites arose, therefore, the poetic legend, that the Alpheus had passed through the ocean to Ortygia, and blended its waters with those of Arethusa, or, in other words, its rites with those of Diana. (Böckh, ad Pind, Nem., l.c.)—II. An engraver on gems, who executed many works in connexion with Arethon, one of his contemporaries. A head of Caligula, engraved by him when a young man, is still extant. (Bracci, pt 1, tab 16.) Alphius Avitus, a Roman poet, who wrote an account of illustrious men, in two volumes. Terentianus Maurus has cited some verses of the work, having reference to the story of Camillus and the schoolmaster of Falisci. (Compare Burmann, Anthol. Lat., vol. 1, p. 452.) - - Alpinus (Cornelius), a wretched poet, ridiculed by Horace (Serm., 1, 10, 36, seqq). In describing Memnon slain by Achilles, he kills him, as it were, according to Horace, by the miserable character of his own description. So also the same poet is represented by the Venusian bard as giving the Rhine a head of mud. Who this Alpinus actually was cannot be exactly ascertained, and no wonder, since it would have been strange if any particulars of so contemptible a poet had escaped oblivion. Cruquius, without any authority, discovers in Alpinus the poet Cornelius Gallus, the friend of Virgil. Nor is Bentley's supposition of any great value. According to this latter critic, Horaco alludes, under the name of Alpinus, to Furius Bibaculus; and Bentley thinks that the appellation was given him by Horace, either on account of his being a native of Gaul, or because he described in verse the Gallic war, or else, and what Bentley considers most probable, in allusion to a foolish line of his composition, “Jupiter hibernas cana nive conspunt Alpes.” (Bentl, ad Horat., l, 10, 36.) Alpis, a river falling into the Danube. Mannert {Geogr., vol. 3, p. 510) supposes this to have been the same with the AEnus, or Inn. It is mentioned by Herodotus (4, 29). Alsium, a maritime town of Etruria, southeast from Caere, now Palo. (Sil. Ital., 8, 475.) ALTHAEA, daughter of Thestius and Eurythemis, married OEneus, king of Calydon, by whom she had many children, among whom was Meleager, considered by some to be the son of Mars. Seven days after the birth of Meleager, the Destinies came unto Althaea, and announced that the life of Meleager depended upon a brand then burning on the hearth, and that he would die when it was consumed. The mother saved the brand from the flames, and kept it very carefully; but when Meleager killed his two uncles, Althaea's brothers, Althaea, to revenge their death, threw the piece of wood into the fire, and, as soon as it was burned, Meleager expired. She was afterward so deeply grieved for the loss of her son, that she made away with her own existence. (Apollod., 1, 8, 1. – Ovid, Met., 8, 446, seqq.). Another version of the story is also given (Apollod., l.c.), which appears to have been derived from Homer (Il., 9, 551–Compare with this Anton. Lib, c. 2, and Heyne, ad Apollod., l.c.). AlthEMENEs ('AAthuévnç, more correct than Althamenes, 'Aztatuévnç, the common form. Heyne, ad Apollod., 3, 2, 1, not. crut.), son of Catreus, king of Crete. Hearing that either he or his brothers were to be their father's murderer, he fled to Rhodes, where he made a settlement, to avoid becoming a parricide, and built, on Mount Atabyrus, the famous temple of Jupiter Atabyrius. After the death of all his other sons, Catreus went after his son Althemenes: when he landed in Rhodes, the inhabitants attacked him, supposing him to be an enemy, and he was killed by the hand of his own son. When Althemenes knew that he had killed his father, he entreated the gods to remove him; and the earth immediately opened, and swallowed him up. (Apollod., 3, 2.) According to Diodorus Siculus, however, he shunned the society of men after the fatal deed, and died eventually of grief. (Diod. Sic., 5, 59.) ALTINUM, a flourishing city near Aquileia. According to Cluverius, the precise site of the ancient Altinum seems uncertain. D'Anville, however, asserts (Anal. Geogr. de l'Ital., p. 84) that its place is yet marked by the name of Altino, on the right bank of the river Silis (Sile), and near its mouth. According to Strabo (214), the situation of Altinum bore much resemblance to that of Ravenna. The earliest mention of it is in Welleius Paterculus (2, 76). At a later period of the Roman empire it must have become a place of considerable note, since Martial compares the appearance of its shore, lined with villas, to that of Baiae. (Ep., 4, 25.) It was also celebrated for its wool. (Martial, Ep., 14, 153.) Altis, the sacred grove of Olympia, on the banks of the Alpheus, in the centre of which stood the temple of Jupiter. It was composed of olive and planetrees, and was surrounded by an enclosure. Besides the temple just mentioned, the grove contained those of Juno and Lucina, the theatre, and the prytaneum. In front of it, or, if we follow Strabo, within its precincts, was the stadium, together with the race-ground or hippodromus. The whole grove was filled with monuments and statues, erected in honour of gods, heroes, and conquerors. Pausanias mentions more than

two hundred and thirty statues; of Jupiter alone idescribes twenty-three, and these were, for the most part, works of the first artists. (Pausan., 5, 13.) Pliny (34, 17) estimates the whole number of these statues, in his time, at three thousand. The Altis contained also numerous treasuries, belonging to different Grecian cities, similar to those at Delphi. These were situated on a basement of Porine stone, to the north of the temple of Juno. (Wud. Olympia.) Alu NtiuM, a town of Sicily, on the northern coast, not far from Calacta. Now Alontuo. Cicero (in Verr, 4, 29) calls the place Haluntium. ALYATTEs, a king of Lydia, father of Croesus, succeeded Sadyattes. He drove the Cimmerians from Asia, and made war against Cyaxares, king of the Medes, the grandson of Deioces. He died after a reign of 57 years, and after having brought to a close a war against the Milesians. An immense barrow or Inound was raised upon his grave, composed of stones and earth. This is still visible within about five miles of Sardis or Sart. For some curious remarks on the resemblance between this tomb, as described by Herodotus, and that said to have been erected in memory of Porsenna (Varro, ap. Plin., 36, 13), and which alfords a new argument in favour of the Lydian origin of Etrurian civilization, consult the Excursus of Creuzer, ad Herod., 1, 93 (ed. Bahr, vol. 1, p. 924).-It is also related that an eclipse of the sun terminated a battle between this monarch and Cyaxares, and that this eclipse had been predicted by Thales. (Herod., 1, 74.—Bahr, ad loc.) Modern investigations make it to have been a total one. (Oltmann, Act. Soc. Berolin. Mathemat., 1812.) It is worthy of notice, too, that the same eclipse is mentioned in the Persian poem Schahnameh, as having taken place under king Keikawus, who is thought to have been the Cyaxares of the Greek writers. (Von Hammer, Wiener Jahrbuch., 9, p. 13.) For remarks on the chronology of this reign, consult Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, vol. 1, 2d ed., p. 296 et 298, and also Larcher, Histoire d'Herodote, vol. 7, p. 537. (Table Chronol.) Alypius, I. a philosopher of Alexandrea in Egypt, contemporary with Jamblichus. He was remarkably small of size, but possessed, according to Eunapius, a very subtle turn of mind, and was very skilful in dialectics. Alypius wrote nothing; all his instruction was given orally. Jamblichus composed a life of this philosopher. (Biogr. Univ., vol. 1, p. 657.)—II. A native of Alexandrea, who wrote a work on music, entitled, Elaaywy) uovauks, or “Introduction to Music.” He divides the whole musical art into seven portions: 1. Sounds. 2. Intervals. 3. Systems. 4. Kinds. 5. Tones. 6. Changes. 7. Compositions. He treats, however, of only one of these, the fifth; whence Meibomius concludes that only a fragment of his work has reached us. There is some difference of opinion as to the period when Alypius flourished. Cassiodorus (De Musica, sub fin.) believes, that he was anterior to Ptolemy, and even to Euclid. De la Borde (Essai sur la Musique, vol. 3, p. 133) places him in the latter half of the fourth century after Christ. Of all the ancient writers on music that have come down to us, he is the only one through whom we are made acquainted with the notes employed by the Greeks; so that, without him, our . e of the ancient music would be greatly circumscribed. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 8, p. 270.)—III. A native of Antioch, an architect and engineer, who lived in the reign of Julian the apostate, to whom he dedicated a geographical description of the ancient world. This production is considered by some to be the same with the short abridgment, first published by Godefroy (Gothofredus), in §. and Latin, at Geneva, 1628, in 4to. There is, however, no good reason whatever to suppose this work to have been written by Alypius. The Greek text published by Godefroy appears rather to have been forged after the

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