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Having shown much kindness and attention to the persons whom Croesus had sent to Delphi for the purpoaa of consulting the oracle, that monarch invited him to Sardis, and gave him permission to carry from the royal treasury as much gold as he could bear off with him at one visit. Herodotus (6, 125) gives an account of the mode in which he availed himself of the royal offer, filling with gold his arms, the folds of his habit, his large shoes worn expressly for the occasion, and having not only his hair powdered with golddust, but his mouth full of it. To these Croesus even added other valuable presents; and to this source Herodotus traces the wealth of the family. We must not, however, regard this Alcmaeon as the founder of the line. (Compare Alcmaeon II.)—IV. The last of the perpetual archons at Athens, was succeeded by Charops, the son of AEschylus, as decennial archon. Boeckh (Explic. ad Pund., Pyth., 7, p. 301) makes him not to have belonged to the family of the Alcmaeonidae proper, but to have been reckoned among the Alcmeonidae merely because his mother belonged to that house. —V. A natural philosopher. (Vid. Supplement.) AlcMAEoNiDAE, a noble family of Athens, descended from Alcmaeon. (Vid. Alcmaeon II.) When driven from Athens by the tyranny of the Pisistratidae, they first endeavoured to return by force of arms; but having met with a serious check at Lipsydrion, in the Paeonian borough of Attica, they turned their atten...tion to a surer and more pacific mode of operation. The temple at Delphi having been burned, and having remained in ruins for some considerable time, the Alcmaeonidae, after their defeat, engaged with the Amphictyonic council to rebuild the structure for the sum of 300 talents. They finished the work, however, in a much more splendid manner than the terms of their contract required, and attained, in consequence, to great popularity. By dint of the favour with which they were now regarded, as well as by means of a large sum of money, they prevailed upon the Pythoness, whenever application of a public or private nature was made from Lacedæmon to the at Delphi, to conclude the answer of the oracle, whatever it might be, with an admonition to the Lacedæmonians to give liberty to Athens. This artifice had the desired effect; and, though Sparta was in friendly relations with the Pisistratidae, it was determined to invade Attica, which was accordingly done, and the result was, that the Spartans expelled Hippias, and restored the Alcmaeonidae (B.C. 510). The restored family found themselves in an isolated position, between the nobles, who appeared to have been opposed to them, and the F. party, which had been hitherto attached to the isistratidae. Clisthenes, now the head of the Alcmaeonidae, joined the latter party, and gave a new constitution to Athens. He abolished the four ancient tribes, and made a fresh geographical division of Attica into ten new tribes, each of which bore a name derived from some Attic hero. The ten tribes were subdivided into districts of various extent called demes or boroughs, each containing a town or village as its chief place. The constitution of Clisthenes had the effect of transforming the commonalty into a new body. The whole frame of the state was recognized to correspond with the new division of the country. To Clisthenes, also, is ascribed the formal institution of the ostracism. Alcy AN. Vid. Supplement. AlcMENA, was daughter of Electryon, king of Mycente, and Anaxo, whom Plutarch calls Lysidice, and Diodorus Siculus Eurymede. She was engaged in marriage to her cousin Amphitryon, son of Alcaus, when an unexpected event caused the nuptials to be deferred. Electryon had undertaken an expedition against the Teleboans, or subjects of Taphius, in order to avenge the death of his sons, whom the sons of Taphius had slain in a combat. Returning victorious,

he was met by Amphitryon, and was killed by an accidental blow. This deed, though involuntary, lost Amphitryon the kingdom, which he would otherwise have enjoyed in right of his wife. Sthenelus, the brother of Alcmena, availing himself of the public odium against Amphitryon, drove him from Argolis, and seized upon the vacant throne, the possession of which devolved, at his death, upon his son Eurystheus. Amphitryon fled to Thebes, where he was purified by Creon; but when he expected that Alcmena, who had accompanied him hither, would have given him her hand, she declined, on the ground that she was not satisfied with the punishment inflicted by her father on the Teleboans, and intended to give her hand to him who should make war upon them. Amphitryon, in consequence of this, made an alliance with Creon and other neighbouring princes, and ravaged the isles of the Teleboans. While Amphitryon was absent on this expedition, Jupiter, who had become enamoured of Alcmena, assumed the form of Amphitryon, related to her all the events of the war, his success over the foe, and finally persuaded her to a union. Amphitryon, on his return, was surprised at the indifference with which he was regarded by Alcmena; but, on coming to an explanation with her, and consulting Tiresias, the famous diviner of Thebes, he discovered that it was no less a personage than Jove himself who had assumed his form. Alcmena brought forth twins, Her. cules the son of Jupiter, and Iphicles the progeny of her mortal lord. According to the ancient poets, Juno retarded the birth of Hercules until the mother of Eurystheus was delivered of a son, unto whom, by reason of a rash oath of Jupiter's, Hercules was made subject. It seems that the day on which Alcmena was to be delivered in Thebes, Jove, in exultation, announced to the gods that a man of his race was that day to see the light, who would rule over all his neighbours. Juno, pretending incredulity, exacted from him an oath that what he had said should be accomplished. Jupiter, unsuspicious of guile, gave it, and Juno hastened down to Argos, where the wife of Sthenelus, the son of Perseus, was seven months gone of a son. The goddess brought on a premature labour, and Eurystheus came to light that day, while she checked the parturition of Alcmena, and kept back Lucina. (Vid. Galanthis.) The oath of Jove was not to be recalled, and his son was fated to serve Eurystheus. (Hom., Il., 19, 101, seqq. Orid, Met., 9, 285, seqq.— Anton. Lib., c. 29. — Keightley's Mythology, p. 310, scqq.). According to Pherecydes (ap. Anton. Lib., c. 33), when Alcmena, who long survived her son, died, and the Heraclidae were about to bury her at Thebes, Jove directed Mercury to steal her away, and convey her to the islands of the blessed, where she should espouse Rhadamanthus. Mercury obeyed, and placed a stone instead of her in the coffin. When the Herac. lidae went to carry her forth to be buried, they were surprised at the weight, and, on opening the coffin, found the stone, which they took out, and set it up in the grove where her Heroim stood at Thebes : 60ttép Čarov to #pdov to Tijo 'A2xujung £v 0700tc. Alcon, I. a statuary, who made an iron statue of Hercules, kept at Thebes. Pliny assigns the reason for the choice of this metal, when he says, “Laborum dei patientia inductus” (35, 14). – II. A surgeon under Claudius. (Vid. Supplement.) – III. A son of Erechtheus, king of Athens, and father of Phalerus. Alcy'NE, or Halcyone, I. daughter of AEolus, married Ceyx, who was drowned as he was going to consult the oracle. The gods apprized Alcyone in a dream of her husband's fate; and when she found, on the morrow, his body washed on the seashoro, she threw herself into the sea. To reward their mutual affection, the gods metamorphosed them into halcyons, and, according to the poets, decreed that the sea should remain calm while these birds built their ncsts upon it. The halcyon was, on this account, though a querulous, lamenting bird, regarded by the ancients as a symbol of tranquillity; and, from living principally on the water, was consecrated to Thetis. According to Pliny (10, 47), the halcyons only showed themselves at the setting of the Pleiades and towards the winter-solstice, and even then they were but rarely seen. They made their nests, according to the same writer, during the seven days immediately preceding the winter-solstice, and laid their eggs during the seven days that follow. These fourteen days are the “dies halcyonii,” or “halcyon-days,” of antiquity. He describes their nests as resembling, while they float upon the waters, a kind of ball, a little lengthened out at the top, with a very narrow opening, and the whole not unlike a large sponge. A great deal of this is pure fable. The only bird in modern times at all resembling either of the two kinds of halcyons described by Aristotle (8, 3), is the Alcedo Ispida, or what the French call martin-pêcheur. All that is said, too, about the nest floating on the water, and the days of calm, is untrue. What the ancients took for a nest of a bird, is in reality a zoophyte, of the class named halcyonium by Linnaeus, and of the particular species called géodie by Lamarck. The martin-pêcheur makes its nest in holes along the shore, or, rather, it deposites its eggs in such holes as it finds there. Moreover, it lays its eggs in the spring, and has no connexion whatever with calm weather. (G. Curier, ad Plin., l. c.)—II. A daughter of Atlas, and one of the Pleiades. (Vid. Pleiades. – Apollod., 3, 10.)—III. An appellation given to Cleopatra, daughter of Idas and Marpessa. The mother had been carried off, in her ounger days, by Apollo, but had been rescued by her i. Idas, and from the plaintive cries which she uttered while being abducted, resembling the lament of the halcyon, the appellation Alcyone was given as a kind of surname to her daughter Cleopatra. (Hom., Il., 9, 553, seqq.) Alcyonia, PALUs, a pool in Argolis, not far from the Lernean marsh. Nero attempted to measure it by means of a plummet several stadia in length, but could discover no bottom. (Pausan., 2, 37.) Alcyonium MARE, a name given to an arm of the Sinus Corinthiacus, or Gulf of Lepanto, which stretched between the western coast of Boeotia, the northern coast of Megaris, and the northwestern extremity of Corinthia, as far as the promontory of Olmiae. (Strab., 336.) ALDUABIs. Wid. Dubis. ALEA, a town of Arcadia, near the eastern confines, and to the northeast of Orchomenus. It had three famous temples, that of the Ephesian Diana, of Minerva Alea, and of Bacchus. The feast of Bacchus, called Skiria, was celebrated here every third year, at which time, according to Pausanias, the women were scourged, in obedience to a command of the oracle at Delphi. (Pausan., 8, 23.) Alepion and DERCYNus, sons of Neptune. (Wid. Albion I.) ALEcto, one of the Furies. The name is derived from d, priv., and Żmyo, “to cease,” from her never ceasing to pursue the wicked. (Vid. Eumenides.) ALEctor. Vid. Supplement. Alectryon, a youth whom Mars, during his meeting with Venus, stationed at the door to watch against the approach of the sun. He fell asleep, and Apollo came and discovered the guilty pair. Mars was so incensed that he changed Alectryon into a cock, who, still mindful of his neglect, announces, say the ancient writers, at early dawn, the approach of the sun. (Lucian, Somn, seu. Gall., 3.)

ALEctus, a military prefect and usurper in Britain, |

who slew Carausius, but was in turn slain by Asclepiodotus, a general under Constantius Chlorus. He died A.D. 296. (Eumen. paneg. Const. Caes. Crevier, Hist, des Emp. Rom., 6, p. 202, seqq.)

ALEius CAMPUs ("A? stov meðsov), a tract in Cilicia Campestris, to the east of the river Sarus, between Adana and the sea. The poets fabled that Bellerophon wandered and perished here, after having been thrown from the horse Pegasus. The name comes from dAttopat, “to wander.” (Homer, Il., 6, 201. — Dionys. Perieg., 872–Orld, Ibis, 259.) ALEMANNI, or Al AMANNI, a name assumed by a confederacy of German tribes situate between the Neckar and the Upper Rhine, who united to resist thc encroachments of Roman power. According to Mannert (Geogr., vol. 3, p. 235, seqq.), the shattered remains of the army of Ariovistus retired, after the defeat and death of their leader, to the mountainous country of the Upper Rhine. (Compare, however, Pfister, Gesch. der Teutschen, vol. 1, p. 179, seqq., where a different account is given of the origin of the Alemanni.) Their descendants in after days, in order to oppose a barrier to the continued advance of the Roman arms, united in a common league with the German tribes who had originally settled on the left bank of the Rhine, but had been driven across by their more powerful opponents. The members of this union styled themselves Alemanni or all-men, i. e., men of all tribes, to denote at once their various lineage and their common bravery. They first appeared in a hostile attitude on the banks of the Mayn, but were defeated by Caracalla, who was hence honoured with the surname of Alemanicus. In the succeeding reigns, we find them at one time ravaging the Roman territories, at another, defeated and driven back to their native forests. At last, after their overthrow by Clovis, king of the Salian Franks, they ceased to exist as one nation, and were dispersed over Gaul, Switzerland, and Northern Italy. ALERIA, a city of Corsica, on the eastern coast. It was founded by the Phocaeans, under the name of Alalia ('Azazia), and about twenty years after its first settlement, was much enlarged by the addition of those of the inhabitants of Phocaea, who fled from the sway of Cyrus. (Vid. Phocaea.) Its rapid advance in maritime power, subsequent to this increase of numbers, excited the jealousy of the Etrurians and Carthaginians. A naval contest ensued, in which the people of Alalia, though victorious, suffered so severely, as to be convinced .#. impossibility of long withstanding the united strength of their foes. They migrated, therefore, once more, and settled on the southwestern coast of Italy (Herod., 1, 165), where they founded the city of Hyela, or Velia. A portion of them, however, went to the Phocaean colony of Massilia. (Seneca, de Consol., ad Help. marr., 8.) The history of Alalia, after this event, remains for a long period enveloped in obscurity. The Carthaginians, probably, took possession of the place. In the ...] Punic war, it fell, together with the whole island, under the Roman sway; at least Zonaras (8, 11) speaks of a place called Valeria as the most important city in the island, and as having been taken by Lucius Scipio. Alalia remained in obscurity under its new masters also, until Sylla sent thither a Roman colony, as Marius had done a short time previous to the same island, founding in it the colony of Mariana. From this period Alalia was known under the name of Aleria, and the earlier appellation fell into disuse. When, and under what circumstances, this city was finally destroyed, is not ascertained. Its ruins are to be found a short distance below the (Mannert, 9, pt. 2, p.

mouth of the river Tarignano. 516, seqq.) Ales, a small river of Ionia in Asia Minor, which emp'tics into the AEgcan near Coloshcn. (I ausan., 8, 28.) ALEs A, ALAEs A, or HALEs A, a very ancient city of Sicily, built by Archonides, B.C. 403. It stood near the modern city of Caronia, on the river Alaesus, or Fiume di Caronia. The inhabitants were exempted by the Romans from taxes. (Diod. Sic., 14, 16.)

Alesia or AlexIA, a famous and strongly fortified city of the Mandubii, in Gallia Celtica. It was so ancient a city, that Diodorus Siculus (4, 19) ascribes the building of it to Hercules. (Compare the learned and ingenious remarks of Ritter, in his Vorhalle, p. 378, on the subject of the Celtic Hercules.) It was situate on a high hill, supposed to be Mount Aurois, near the sources of the Sequana or Seine, and washed on two sides by the small rivers Lutosa and Ozera, now Lose and Ozerain. Alesia was taken and destroyed by Caesar after a famous siege, but was rebuilt, and became a place of considerable consequence under the Roman emperors. It was laid in ruins in the 9th century by the Normans. At the foot of Mount Auxois is a village called Alise (Depart. Côte d'Or), with several hundred inhabitants. (Flor., 3, 10.—Caes., B. G., 7, 69.) ALEsium, a mountain in the vicinity of Mantinea, on which was a grove dedicated to Ceres; also the temple of the equestrian Neptune, an edifice of great antiquity, which had been originally built, according to tradition, by Agamedes and Trophonius, but was af. terward enclosed within a new structure by order of Hadrian. The mountain was said to have taken its name from the wanderings of Rhea (ro bpoc to 'A27atov, dud Tov dom', (or paat, kažouplewov Tiju ‘Péaç. —Pausan., 8, 10). ALETEs ('Azorno), a son of Hippotes, and descendant of Hercules in the fifth degree. He is said to have taken possession of Corinth, and to have expelled the Sisyphidae thirty years after the first invasion of the Peloponnesus by the Heraclidae. His family, sometimes called the Aletidae, maintained themselves at Corinth down to the time of Bacchis. (Paus., 2, 4, 3; 5, 18, 2-Strab., 8, p. 389.—Callim., Frag., 103. —Pind, Olym. 13, 17.) Welleius Paterculus (1,3) calls him a descendant of Hercules in the sixth degree. He received an oracle promising him the sovereignty of Athens, if during the war which was then going on its kings should remain uninjured. This oracle became known at Athens, and Codrus sacrificed himself for his country. (Vid. Codrus.—Conon. Narrat. 26.) Other persons of this name are mentioned in Apollod., 3, 10, 6; Hygin., Fab., 122; and Virgil, AEm., 1, 121; 9,462. Aleu Anae. Vid. Supplement. Aleuas. Wid. Supplement. Alex AMENus, I. a native of Teos. (Vid. Supplement.)—II. A general of the AEtolians, who, with a body of his countrymen, slew Nabis, tyrant of Sparta. He had been sent at the head of a band of auxiliaries, by the AEtolians, ostensibly to aid Nabis, but in reality to get possession of Lacedæmon. The inhabitants, however, rallied after the fall of the tyrant, defeated the AEtolians, who were scattered throughout the city and plundering it, and slew Alexamenus. (Liv., 35, 34, seqq.) Alex ANDER, a name of very common occurrence, as designating not only kings, but private individuals. We will classify the monarchs by countries, and then come to private or less conspicuous personages.

1. Kings of Macedonia.

Alex ANDER I., son of Amyntas, and tenth king of Macedon. He ascended the throne 497 B.C., and reigned 43 years. It was he who, while still a youth, slew, in company with a party of his young friends, habited in female attire, the Persian ambassadors at his father's court, having been provoked to the act by their immodest behaviour towards the females present at a banquet. With this prince the glory of Macedon may be said to have commenced. He enlarged his territories, partly by conquest, and partly by the gift which Xerxes bestowed upon him, of all the country from Mount Olympus to the range of Haemus...(Herod, 5, 18, seqq.—Justin, 7, 3.)

Alexander II., son of Amyntas II. He was treach

erously slain by Ptolemy Alorites, after having reigned from B.C. 369 to B.C. 367, and not, according to the common account, for one year merely. Ptolemy Alorites, however, who slew him, was neither king nor the son of Amyntas, although called so by Diodorus (15, 71). It seems probable, from a comparison of AEschines (de Fals. Leg., p. 32) with a fragment in Syncellus (Derippus ap. Syncell., p. 263, B.). that Ptolemy was appointed regent in a regular way, during the minority of Perdiccas; that he afterward abused his trust, and was, in consequence, cut off by Perdiccas. The duration of his administration, three years, is mentioned by Diodorus (15, 77). Alex ANDER III., surnamed the Great, son of Philip of Macedon, was born in the city of Pella, B.C. 356. His mother was Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus, king of Epirus. Leonnatus, a relation of his mother's, an austere man, and of great severity of manners, was his early governor, and at the age of eight years, Lysimachus, an Acarnanian, became his instructer. Plutarch gives this individual an unsavourable character, and insinuates that he was more desirous of ingratiating himself with the royal family than of effectually discharging the duties of his office. It was his delight to call Philip, Peleus; Alexander, Achilles; and to claim for himself the honorary name of Phoenix. Early impressions are the strongest, and even the pedantic allusions of the Acarnanian might render the young prince more eager in after life to imitate the Homeric model. In his fifteenth year, Alexander was placed under the immediate tuition of the celebrated Aristotle. The philosopher joined his royal pupil B.C. 342, and did not finally quit him until he came to the throne. The master was worthy of the scholar, and the scholar of his master. The mental stores of Aristotle were vast, and all arranged with admirable accuracy and judgment; while, on the other hand, Alexander was gifted with great quickness of apprehension, an insatiable desire of knowledge, and an ambition not to be satisfied with the second place in any pursuit. At a distance from the court, this great philosopher instructed him in all the branches of human knowledge, especially those necessary for a ruler, and wrote, for his benefit, a work on the art of overnment, which is unfortunately lost. As Macei. was surrounded by dangerous neighbours, Aristotle sought to cultivate in his pupil the talents and virtues of a military commander. With this view he recommended to him the reading of the Iliad, and revised this poem himself. The poet, as Aristotle emphatically names Homer, was the philosopher's inseparable companion: from him he drew his precepts and maxims; from him he borrowed his models. The preceptor imparted his enthusiasm to his pupil, and the most accurate copy of the great poem was prepared by Aristotle, and placed by Alexander in a precious casket which he found among the spoils of Darius. The frame of the young prince was, at the same time, formed by gymnastic exercises. He gave several proofs of manly skill and courage while very young; one of which, the breaking in of his fiery courser Bucephalus, which had mastered every other rider, is mentioned by all his historians as an incident that convinced his father Philip of his future unconquerable spirit. When he was sixteen years old, Philip, setting out on an expedition against Byzantium, delegated the government to him during his absence. Two years later (B.C. 338), he performed prodigies of valour in the battle at Chaeronea, where he obtained great reputation by conquering the sacred band of the Thebans. “My son,” said Philip, after the battle, embracing him, “seek another empire, for that which I shall leave you is not worthy of you.” The father and son, however, quarrelled when Philip repudiated Olympias. Alexander, who took the part of his mother, was obliged to flee to Epirus to escape the ven

geance of his father, but he soon obtained pardon and returned. He afterward accompanied Philip on an expedition against the Triballi, and saved his life in a battle. Philip, having been elected chief commander of the Greeks, was preparing for a war against Persia, when he was assassinated, B.C. 336. This occurrence, at an eventful crisis, excited some suspicion against Alexander and Olympias; but as it was one of his first acts to execute justice on those of his father's assassins who fell into his hands, several of the nobility being implicated in the plot, this imputation rests on little beyond surmise. It is more than probable that the conspirators were in correspondence with the Persian court, and that ample promises of protection and support were given to men undertaking to deliver the empire from the impending invasion of the captain-general of Greece. Alexander, who succeeded without opposition, was at this time in his twentieth year; and his youth, in the first instance, excited several of the states of Greece to endeavour to set aside the Macedonian ascendency. By a sudden march into Thessaly he, however, soon overawed the most active; and when, on a report of his death, chiefly at the instigation of Demosthenes and his party, the various states were excited to great commotion, he punished the open revolt of Thebes with a severity which effectually prevented any imitation of its example. Induced to stand a siege, that unhappy city, after being mastered with dreadful slaughter, was razed to the ground, with the ostentatious exception of the house of the poet Pindar alone; while the unfortunate surviving inhabitants were stripped of all their possessions and sold indiscriminately into slavery. Intimidating by this cruel policy, the Macedonian party gained the ascendency in every state throughout Greece, and Athens particularly disgraced itself by the meanness of its submission. Alexander then proceeded to Corinth, where, in a general assembly of the states, his office of superior commander was recognised and defined; and in the twenty-second year of his age, leaving Antipater, his viceroy, in Macedon, he passed the Hellespont, to overturn the Persian em

ire, with an army not exceeding four thousand five

undred horse and thirty thousand foot. To secure the protection of Minerva, he sacrificed to her on the plain of Ilium, crowned the tomb of Achilles, and congratulated this hero, from whom he was descended through his mother, on his good fortune in having had

such a friend as Patroclus, and such a poet as Homer

to celebrate his fame. The rapid movements of Alexander had evidently taken the Persian satraps by surprise. They had, without making a single attempt to molest his passage, allowed him, with a far inferior fleet, to convey his troops into Asia. They now resolved to advance and contest the passage of the river Granicus. A force of twenty thousand cavalry was drawn up on the right bank of the stream, while an equal number of Greek mercenaries crowned the hills in the rear. Unintimidated, however, by this array, Alexander led his army across, and, after a severe conflict, gained a decisive victory. The loss on the Persian side was heavy, on that of their conquerors so extremely slight (only eighty-five horsemen and thirty foot soldiers) as to lead at once to the belief, that the general, who wrote the account of Alexander's camF. mentioned the loss of only the native-born

acedonians. Splendid funeral obsequies were performed in honour of those of his army who had fallen; various privileges were granted to their fathers and children; and as twenty-five of the cavalry that had been slain on the Macedonian side belonged to the royal troop of the “Companions,” these were honoured with monumental statues of bronze, the workmanship of the celebrated Lysippus. The immediate consequence of this victory was the freedom and restoration of all the Greek cities in Asia Minor, and its sub

sequent results were shown in the reduction of almost the whole of that country. A dangerous sickness, however, brought on by bathing in the Cydnus, checked for a time his career. He received a letter from Parmenio, saying that Philip, his physician, had been bribed by Darius to poison him. Alexander gave the letter to the physician, and at the same time drank the potion which the latter had prepared for him. Scarcely was he restored to health when he advanced towards the defiles of Cilicia, whither Darius had imprudently betaken himself with an immense army, instead of awaiting his adversary on the plains of Assyria. The second battle took place near Issus, between the sea and the mountains, and victory again declared for the Macedonian monarch. The Macedonians conquered on this day, not the Persians alone, but the united efforts of Southern Greece and Persia; for the army of Darius, besides its eastern troops, contained thirty thousand Greek mercenaries, the largest Greek force of that denomination mentioned in history. It was this galling truth that, among other causes, rendered the republican Greeks so hostile to Alexander. All the active partisans of that faction were at Issus, nor were the survivors dispirited by their defeat. Agis, king of Sparta, gathered eight thousand who had returned to Greece by various ways, and fought with them a bloody battle against Antipater, who with difficulty defeated the Spartans and their allies. Without taking these facts into consideration, it is impossible duly to estimate the difficulties surmounted by Alexander. After the defeat at Issus, the treasures and family of Darius fell into the hands of the conqueror. The latter were treated most magnanimously. Alexander did not pursue the Persian monarch, who fled towards the Euphrates, but, in order to cut him off from the sea, turned towards Cocle-Syria and Phoenicia. Here he received a letter from Darius, proposing peace. Alexander answered, that if he would come to him he would restore, not only his mother, wife, and children, without ransom, but also his empire. This reply produced no effect. The victory at Issus had ...! the whole country to the Macedonians. Alexander took possession of Damascus, which contained a large portion of the royal treasures, and secured all the towns along the Mediterranean Sea. Tyre, imboldened by the strength of its insular situation, resisted, but was taken, after seven months of incredible exertion, and destroyed. The capture of Tyre was perhaps the greatest military achievement of the Macedonian monarch; but it was tarnished by his cruel severity towards the conquered, thirty thousand of the inhabitants having been sold by him as slaves. Some excuse, however, may be found in the excited seelings of the Macedonian army, occasioned by numerous insults on the part of the Tyri

ns; by acts of cruelty towards some of their Macedonian captives; and also by the length and obstinacy of the siege ; for more men were slain in winning Tyre, than in achieving the three great victories over Darius. Alexander continued his victorious march through Palestine, where all the towns surrendered cxcept Gaza, which shared the fate of Tyre. Egypt, wearied of the Persian yoke, received him as a deliverer. In order to confirm his power, he restored the former customs and religious rites, and sounded Alexandrea, which became one of the first cities of ancient times. Hence he went through the desert of Libya, to consult the oracle of Jupiter Ammon, an adventure resembling more the wildness of romance than the soberness of history, and which has on this very account been regarded by some with an eye of incredulity It rests, however, on too firm a basis to be invalidated. After having been acknowledged, say the ancient writers, as the son of the god (rid. Ammon), Alexander, at the return of spring, marched against Darius, who in the mean time had collected an army in Assyria, and rejected the proposals of Alexander for peace. A battle was fought at Gaugamela, not far from Arbela, B.C. 331. Arrian estimates the army of Darius at 1,000,000 of infantry and 40,000 cavalry; while that of Alexander consisted of only 40,000 infantry and 7000 horse. On the Persian side, moreover, were some of the bravest and hardiest tribes of upper Asia. Notwithstanding the immense numerical superiority of his enemy, Alexander was not a moment doubtful of victory. At the head of his cavalry he attacked the Persians, and routed them after a short conflict. One

great object of his ambition was to capture the Per

sian monarch on the field of battle; and that object was at one time apparently within his grasp, when he received, at the instant, a message from Parmenio that the left wing, which that general commanded, was hard pressed by the Sacae, Albanians, and Parthians, and he was compelled, of course, to hasten to its relief. Darius fled from the field of battle, leaving his army, baggage, and immense treasures to the victor. Babylon and Susa, where the riches of the East lay accumulated, opened their gates to Alexander, who directed his march to Persepolis, the capital of Persia. The only passage thither was defended by 40,000 men under Ariobarzanes. Alexander attacked them in the rear, routed them, and entered Persepolis triumphant. From this time the glory of Alexander began to decline. Master of the greatest empire in the world, he became a slave to his own passions; gave himself up to arrogance and dissipation; showed himself ungrateful and cruel, and in the arms of pleasure shed the blood of his bravest generals. Hitherto sober and moderate, this hero, who strove to equal the gods, and called himself a god, sunk to the level of vulgar men. Persepolis, the wonder of the world, he burned in a fit of intoxication. Ashamed of this act, he set out with his cavalry to pursue Darius. Learning that Bessus, sa

trap of Bactriana, kept the king prisoner, he hastened

his march with the hope of saving him. But Bessus, when he saw himself closely pursued, caused Darius to be assassinated (B.C. 330), because he was an impediment to his flight. Alexander beheld on the frontiers of Bactriana a dying man, covered with wounds, lying on a chariot. It was Darius. The Macedonian hero could not restrain his tears. After interring him

with all the honours usual among the Persians, he took

ossession of Hyrcania and Bactriana, and caused #. to be proclaimed King of Asia. He was forming still more gigantic plans, when a conspiracy broke

out in his own camp. Philotas, the son of Parmenic,

was implicated. Alexander, not satisfied with the blood of the son, caused the father also to be put to death. This act of injustice excited general displeasure. At the same time, his power in Greece was threatened; and it required all the energy of Antipater to dissolve, by force of arms, the league formed by the Greeks against the Macedonian authority. In the mean time, Alexander marched in the winter through the north of Asia as far as it was then known, checked neither by Mount Caucasus nor the Oxus, and reached the Caspian Sea, hitherto unknown to the Greeks. Insatiable of glory and thirsting for conquest, he spared not even the hordes of the Scythians. Returning to Bactriana, he hoped to gain the affections of the Persians by assuming their dress and manners; but this hope was not realized. The discontent of the army gave occasion to the scene which ended in the death of Clitus. Alexander, whose pride he had offended, killed him with his own hand at a banquet. Clitus had been one of his most faithful friends and brave of. ficers, and Alexander was afterward a prey to the keenest remorse. In the following year he subdued the whole of Sogdiana. Oxyantes, one of the leaders of the enemy, had secured his family in a castle built on a lofty rock. The Macedonians stormed it. Roxana, the daughter of Oxyantes, one of the most beau

tiful virgins of Asia, was among the prisoners. Alexander fell in love with and married her. Upon the news of this, Oxyantes thought it best to submit, and came to Bactria, where Alexander received him with distinction. Here a new conspiracy was discovered. at the head of which was Hermolaus, and among the accomplices Callisthenes. All the conspirators were condemned to death except Callisthenes, who was mutilated and carried about with the army in an iron cage, until he terminated historments by poison. Alexander now formed the idea of conquering India, the name of which was scarcely known. He passed tho Indus, and formed an alliance with Taxilus, the ruler of the region beyond this river, who assisted him with troops and 130 elephants. Conducted by Taxilus, he marched towards the river Hydaspes, the passage of which, Porus, another king, defended at the head of his army. Alexander conquered him in a bloody battle, took him prisoner, but restored him to his kingdom. He then marched victoriously on, established Greek colonies, and built, according to Plutarch, seventy towns, one of which he called Bucephala, after his horse, which had been killed on the Hydaspes. Intoxicated by success, he intended to advance as far as the Ganges, and was preparing to pass the Hyphasis, when the discontent of his army obliged him to terminate his progress and return. Previous to turning back, however, he erected on the banks of the Hyphasis twelve towers, in the shape of altars; monuments of the extent of his career, and testimonials of his gratitude towards the gods. On these gigantic altars he offered sacrifices with all due solemnity, and horse-races and gymnastic contests closed the festivities. When he had reached the Hydaspes, he built a fleet, in which he sent a part of his troops down the river, while the rest of his army proceeded along the banks. On his march he encountered several Indian princes, and, during the siege of a town belonging to the Malli, was severely wounded. Having recovered, he continued his course down the Indus, and thus reached the sea. Having entered the Indian Ocean and performed some rites in honour of Neptune, he left his fleet; and, after ordering Nearchus, as soon as tho season would permit, to sail to the Persian Gulf, and thence up the Tigris, he himself prepared to march to Babylon. He had to wander through immense deserts, in which the greater part of his army, destitute of water and food, perished in the sand. Only the fourth part of the troops with which he had set out returned to Persia. On his route he quelled several mutinies, and placed governors over various provinces. In Susa he married two Persian princesses, and rewarded those of his Macedonians who had married Persian women; because it was his intention to unite the two nations as closely as possible. He distributed rich rewards among his troops. At Opis, on the Tigris, he declared his intention of sending the invalids home with presents. The rest of the army mutinied; but he persisted, and effected his purpose. Soon after, his favourite, Hephæstion, died. His grief was unbounded, and he buried his body with royal splendour. On his return from Ecbatana to Babylon, the magicians are said to have predicted that this city would be fatal to him. The representations of his friends induced him to despise these warnings. He went to Babylon, where many foreign ambassadors waited for him, and was engaged in extensive plans for the future, when he became suddenly sick after a banquet, and died in a few days, B.C. 323. Such was the end of this conqueror, in his 32d year, after a reign of 12 years and 8 months. He left behind him an immense empire, which became the scene of continual wars. He had designated no heir, and being asked by his friends to whom he left the empire, answered, “To the worthi. est.” After many disturbances, the generals acknowledged Aridaeus, a man of a verv weak mind, the son

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