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that wonderful subterraneous canal, or emissario, as the Italians call it, which is to be seen at this very day, in remarkable preservation, below the town of Castel Gandolfo. This channel is said to be carried through the rock for the space of a mile and a half, and the water which it discharges unites with the Tiber about five miles below Rome. (Cuc., de Div., 1,44.—Liv., 5, 15–Val. Mar., 1, 6.-Plut., Wit. Camill.) Near this opening are to be seen considerable ruins and various foundations of buildings, supposed by some to have belonged to the palace of Domitian, to which Martial and Statius frequently allude. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 40.) — III. A river of Albania, falling into the Caspian, to the north of the mouth of the Cyrus,
or Kur. It is supposed by some to be the same with the Samure. Mannert, however, is in favour of the Bilbana.
Albici, a people of Gaul, of warlike character, occupying the mountains above Massilia, or Marseilles. Strabo places them to the north of the Salyes, and there Ptolemy also makes them to have resided, on the southeast side of the Druentia, or Durance. This latter writer is blamed, without any reason, by those who suppose that he here means the Helvii, and, consequently, places them too far to the east. Strabo calls the Albici, 'A20teic and "A26íoukot, Ptolemy'Ežíkokot, and Pliny Alebeci. Their capital, according to Pliny, was named Alebece, now Riez. (Caes., Bell. Cir., 1, 57 and 34.—Strabo, 203.—Plin., 3, 4.—Compare Mannert, vol. 2, p. 105.) Albig AUNUM. Vid. Albium Ingaunum. Albinov KNUs, I. Celsus, a young Roman, and acquaintance of Horace. He formed one of the retinue of Tiberius Claudius Nero, when the latter was marching to Armenia, under the orders of Augustus, in order to replace Tigranes on the throne. Horace alludes to him in Epist. 1, 3, 15, and addresses to him Epist. 1,8. He appears to have been of a literary turn, but addicted to habits of plagiarism.—II. Pedo, a Roman poet, the friend of Ovid, who has inscribed to him one of the Epistles from Pontus (10th of 4th book). He distinguished himself in heroic versification, but only a few fragments of his labours in this department of poetry have reached our times. In epigram also he would appear to have done something. (Martial, 5, 5.) As an elegiac poet, he composed, according to Joseph Scaliger and many others, the three following pieces which have descended to us: 1. “Consolatio ad Liviam Augustam de morte Drusi.” (Fabric., Bibl. Lat., 1, 12, § 11, 8, p. 376, seqq.) 2. “De Obitu Maecenatis.” (Fabric., l.c., 1, 12, § 11, 7, p. 376. — Burmann, Anthol. Lat., 2, ep. 119. — Lion, Macematiana, Götting., 1824, c. 1.) 3. “De Maecenate moribundo.” (Burmann, l.c., 2, ep. 120.) Of these elegies, the first has been ascribed by many to Ovid, even on MS. authority, and printed in the works of that poet. (Compare Fabric., l.c.—Passerat. in Praefat... vol. 4, p. 220, ed. Burm. — Amar, ad Ov. Carm., ed. Lemaire, vol. 1, p. 399, seqq., and on the opposite side, Jos. Scaliger, and Burmann, vol. 1, p. 796.) The grounds on which the claim of Pedo rests are not by any means satisfactory: the piece in question, however, would seem to have been the production of the Augustan age. Still weaker are the arguments which seek to establish the claim of Pedo to the other two elegies, which, according to Wernsdorff (Poet. Lat. Min., vol. 3, p. 112, seqq.), are unworthy of him, and must be regarded as the productions of some late scholastic poet.—III. P. Tullius. (Vid. Supplement.) ALBINtEMELIUM. Wid. Albium Intemelium. Albinus, I. Decimus Claudius, a Roman general, born at Adrumetum in Africa, and surnamed Albinus
the preceptor of Galen. troduction to the Dialogues of Plato, which Fabricius has inserted in the second volume of his Bibliotheca
together with some Tales after the manner of those denominated Milesian. An invincible attachment to arms, however, caused him to embrace, at an early period, the military profession, in which he soon attained distinction. In the year 175 of the present era, and the 15th of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, he prevented the army, which he commanded in Bithynia, from joining the rebel Avidius Cassius. For this, according to some, he was rewarded with the consulship ; though his name does not appear at this epoch in the Fasti Consulares. Governor of Gaul under Commodus, he defeated the Frisii, and afterward had intrusted to him the command of Britain. The death of Commodus brought forward Severus, Julian, and Pescennius Niger, as candidates for the vacant throne. The first of these competitors made overtures to Albinus, and of. sered him the title of Caesar, which the latter accepted, and declared for his cause. But Severus had only contributed to the elevation of Albinus in order to diminish the number of his own opponents. When he had conquered his other rivals, he resolved to rid himself of Albinus by the aid of assassins. The latter, however, suspected his odious projects, and his suspicions were confirmed by the arrest and confession of Severus's emissaries. Albinus immediately took up arms to dispute the imperial power with his enemy. He gained several successes in Gaul, but was at last defeated in a decisive battle in the same country, near Lugdunum (Lyons), A.D. 198. Finding himself on the point of falling into the hands of the soe, he put an end to his own existence. His head was brought to Severus, who ordered it to be cast into the Rhone. The details of this last-mentioned conflict are variously given. The armies are said to have consisted each of 150,000 men; and the victory is reported to have been for a long time doubtful; at last the left wing of Albinus was totally defeated and his camp pillaged; while his right wing, on the other hand, proved so decidedly superior to the foe, that Severus, according to Herodian (3, 7, 7), was compelled to fly, after having thrown aside the badges of his rank. Spartianus (c. 11) adds, that Severus was wounded, and that his army, believing him to have been slain, were on the point of proclaiming a new emperor. Dio Cassius (75,21) states, that he had his horse killed under him, and that, having thrown himself, sword in hand, into the midst of his flying soldiers, he succeeded in bringing them back to the fight and gaining the day. Some writers"inform us that Albinus was slain by his own troops; others relate that he was dragged, mortally wounded, into the presence of Severus, who beheld him expire. The account of his death, which we have given above, is from Dio Cassius, and seems entitled to the most credit. According to Capitolinus (c. 10, seqq.), Albinus was severe, gloomy, and unsocial, intemperate in wine, and remarkable for his voracious gluttony. This account, however, must be received with caution. If we form an idea of Albinus from his life and actions, we must pronounce him a brave warrior, a talented man, but deficient in stratagem and address. (Biographie Universelle, vol. 1, p. 431, seqq. — Compare Crevier. Hist, des Emp, Rom, vol. 5, p. 153, seqq.)—II. A Platonic philosopher, who resided at Smyrna, in the reign of Antoninus Pius, and was - He is the author of an In
Gracca. It is also given in Etwal's edition of three of the dialogues of Plato, Oron., 1771, 8vo.—III. The name of Albinus was common to a great number of individuals belonging to the Gens Posthumia, for an account of whom, rid. Supplement. Albion, I. a giant, the son of Neptune, who, togeth
from the extreme whiteness of his skin when brought er with his brother Bergion, endeavoured to prevent
into the world. He made at first some progress in lit- | Hercules from passing the Rhone.
When the weapto Jove for aid, and that deity destroyed the two brothers by a shower of stones. The battle-ground was called, from the appearance which it presented, the Campus Lapideus, or “Stony plain” (Mela, 2,5), and lay between Massilia and the Rhone. Apollodorus (2, 5, 10) calls the brothers Alebion and Dercynus ('Azebíov Te Kal Aépkvvoc), and lays the scene in Liguria (Atyūn). This, however, as Vossius (ad Mel, l. c.) remarks, should not have misled Salmasius (Saumaise,) since Liguria and the Ligures once extended even to the Rhone. (Compare Heyne, ad Apollod., l. c.) To Albion is ascribed by some, if indeed so ridiculous an etymology be worth mentioning, one of the names of Britain.—II. The earlier name of the island of Great Britain, called by the Romans Britannia Major, from which they distinguished Britannia Minor, the modern French province of Bretagne. Agathemerus (11, 4), speaking of the British islands, uses the names Hibernia and Albion for the two largest; Ptolemy (2, 3) calls Albion a British island; and Pliny (4, 16) says, that the island of Britain was formerly called Albion, the name of Britain being common to all the islands around it. (“Britannia insula....... Albion ipsi nomen fuit, cum Britannica vocarenter omnes.") The etymology of the name is uncertain. Some writers derive it from the Greek d296v (the neuter of £296c), “white,” in reference to the chalky cliffs on the coasts; others have recourse to the Hebrew alben, “white;” and others again to the Phoenician alp or alpin, “high,” and “high mountain;" from the height of the coast. Sprengel thinks it of Gallic origin, the same with Albin, the name of the Scotch highlands. It appears to him the plural of Alp or Ailp, which signifies “Rocky Mountains,” and to have been given to the island, because the shore, which looks towards France, appears like a long row of rocks. The term evidently comes from the same source with the word Alpes, and conveys the associate ideas of a high and chalky, or whitish, coast. (Vid. Alpes, and compare Adelung, Muthradates, vol. 2, p. 42, seqq.) The ancient British poets call Britain Inis Wen, “the white island.” (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 2, p. 32, seqq.) Albis, a river of Germany, now the Elbe. It is called Albios by Dio Cassius (55, 1). This was the easternmost stream in Germany with which the Romans became acquainted in the course of their expeditions; and they knew it, moreover, only in the northern part of its course. Tacitus learned that the Hermunduri dwelt near its sources. (Germ., 41.) Ptolemy also was acquainted with the quarter where it rose, on the east side of his Sudetes, near the confines of the modern Moravia. The only Roman who passed this stream with an army was L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, A.U.C. 744; and though he made no farther progress, the passage of the Albis was deemed worthy of a triumph. (Plin., 4, 14.—Well. Pat., 2, 106–Tacit., Ann., 1, 59.—Id. ib., 13, sub fin.—Flav. Wop. Prob., 13.) Albium, I. Ingaunum, a city of Liguria, on the coast, some distance to the southwest of Genua. It was the capital of the Ingauni, and answers to the modern Albenga. (Strab., 202. — Plin., 3, 5.)—II. Intemelium, a city of Liguria, on the coast, to the southwest of the preceding. It was the capital of the Intemelii, and corresponds to the modern Vintimiglia. (Strabo, 202.—Plin., 3, 5.) From Tacitus (Hist., 2, 13), we learn that it was a municipium. Albijla, the more ancient name of the Tiber. Mannert considers Albula the Latin, and Tiberis the Etrurian, name for the stream: which last became in the course of time the prevailing one. (Wid. Tiberis.Geogr., vol. 9, p. 607.) Albülze Aquae, a name given to some cold mephitic springs, about sixteen miles from Rome, which issued from a small but deep lake, and flowed into the neighbouring river Anio. They were highly esteemed by
erary pursuits, and wrote a Treatise on Agriculture, lons of the latter failed him in this conflict, he prayed
used both for drinking and bathing. (Vitruv., 8, 3– Plin., 31, 11.) Albuni:A, the largest of the springs or fountains which formed the Albulae Aquae. It proceeded, like the rest, from a small but deep lake, and flowed with them into the Anio. In the immediate vicinity of the fountain was a thick grove, in which were a temple and oracle of Faunus. (Virg., AEn., 7, 82, seqq.Heyne, ad Virg., l c.) Both the grove and fountain were sacred to the nymph or sibyl Albunea, who was worshipped at Tibur, and whose temple still remains on the summit of the cliff, and overhanging the cascade. “This beautiful temple,” observes a recent traveller, “which stands on the very spot where the eye of taste would have placed it, and on which it evor reposes with delight, is one of the most attractive scatures of the scene, and perhaps gives to Tivoli its greatest charm.” (Rome in the Nineteenth Century, vol. 2, p. 398, Am. ed.) Varro, as cited by Lactantius (de Falsa Rel., 1, 6), gives a list of the ancient sibyls, and among them enumerates the one at Tibur, surnamed Albunea, as the tenth and last. Suidas also says, Aekárm ñ Tubovpria, Övöuatu 'A26ovvaia. (Compare Hor., Od., 1, 7, 12, and Mitscherlich and Fea, ad loc.—Consult also Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 2, p.975, and vol. 4, p. 27.) Albur Nus, a ridge of mountains in Lucania, near the junction of the Silarus and Tanager, and between the latter river and the Calor. It is now called Monte di Postiglione, and sometimes Alburno. Near a part of the ridge, and on the shores of the Sinus Paestanus, was a harbour of the same name (Alburnus Portus), where the Silarus emptied into the sea. (Virg., Georg., 3, 146.-Cramer's Anc. Italy, vol. 2, p. 376.) Albus, I. Portus, a harbour on the coast of Syria, supposed by Gail to be the harbour of Laodicea to which Appian alludes (kal &c Tô tréâayor oxovaa puov. Bell. Cip., 4, 60), and placed by him to the west of the promontory of Ziaret. (Gail, ad Anon. Stadiasm. Maris Mag. — Geogr. Gr. Min., vol. 2, p. 538.)—II. Vicus (# Aevko Köum), a harbour in Arabia, from which Gallus set out on his expedition into the interior. (Strab. 781.) It is supposed by Mannert to be the same with the modern harbour of Iambo. (Geogr., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 50. — Compare Peripl. Mar. Erythr., p. 11–Geogr. Gr. Min., ed. Hudson, vol. 1.) Albutius, I, a wealthy Roman, remarkable for hi. severity towards his slaves. According to an ancien scholiast, he even punished them sometimes before they had committed any offence, “lest,” said he, “I should have no time to punish them when they do of fend.” (Horat., Serm., 2, 2,67—Schol. ad Horat., l. c.) Porphyrion (ad Hor., l.c.) styles him, “et aparus, et elegans conviviorum apparator.” The epithet ararus, however, must evidently be thrown out, as contradicting what follows:–II. T., a Roman of the Epicurean school. He was educated at Athens, and rendered himself ridiculous, on his return home, by his excessive attachment to the manners and language of Greece. About A.U.C. 648, he was sent as praetor to Sardinia. For some unimportant services rendered here, he believed himself entitled to a triumph. The senate, however, rejected his application, and he was accused, on his return, by the augur Mucius Scaevola, of extortion in his government. Being condemned, he went into exile at Athens, where he consoled himself, amid his disgrace, by philosophical investigations, and by composing satires in the style of Lucilius. (Cic., Brut., 35. —Id, de Fin., 1, 3–Id., Orat., 44.—Id., in Pis., 38. — Id., Brut., 2, 6.-Id., Tusc. Quaest., 5, 37.)—III. C. Silus, a rhetorician in the age of Augustus. He was a native of Novaria in Cisalpine Gaul, where he exercised for a time the functions of aedile. Being grossly insulted, however, by some individuals against whom he was pronouncing a bunal, he left his native city and came to Rome, where he soon attained to distinction as a pleader. A singular adventure induced him to leave the bar. Intending, on one occasion, merely to employ a rhetorical figure, he said to the opposite party, who was accused o, towards his parents, “Swear by the ashes of thy father and mother” (and thou shalt gain thy cause.) The defendant immediately accepted the condition, and, though Albutius protested that he merely employed a figure of rhetoric, the judges admitted the oath, and the defendant was acquitted. In his old age Albutius returned to Novaria, where he assembled his fellow-citizens, and represented to them that his age and the maladies under which he was labouring rendered life insupportable. When he had finished his harangue he retired to his dwelling, and starved himself—IV. (Vid. Supplement.) Alc.eus, I. a celebrated poet of Mytilene, in Lesbos, and the contemporary cf Sappho, Pittacus, and Stesichorus. (Clinton's Fast. Hell., vol. 1, p. 5, 2d ed.) He was famed as well for his resistance to tyranny and his unsettled life, as for his lyric productions. Having aided Pittacus to deliver his country from the tyrants which oppressed it, he quarrelled with this friend, when the people of Mytilene had placed uncontrolled power in the hands of the latter, and some injurious verses, which he composed against Pittacus, caused himself and his adherents to be driven into exile. An endeavour to return by force of arms proved unsuccessful, and Alcaeus fell into the power of his former friend, who, forgetting all that had passed, generously granted him both life and freedom. In his odes Alcasus treated of various topics. At one time he inweighed against tyrants; at another he deplored the misfortunes which had attended him, and the pains of exile : while, on other occasions, he celebrated the raises of Bacchus and the goddess of love. He wrote in the AEolic dialect. Dionysius of Halicarnassus speaks in high commendation of the lofty character of his compositions, the conciseness of his style, and the clearness of his images. His productions, indeed, breathed the same spirit with his life. A strong, manly enthusiasm for freedom and justice pervaded even those in which he sang the pleasures of love and wine. But the sublimity of his nature shone brightest when he praised valour, chastised tyrants, described the blessings of liberty, and the misery and hardships of exile. His lyric muse was versed in all the forms and subjects of poetry, and antiquity attributes to him hymns, odes, and songs. A few fragments only are left of all of them, and a distant echo of his poetry reaches us in some of the odes of Horace. Alcaeus was the inventor of the metre that bears his name, one of the most beautiful and melodious of all the lyric measures. Horace has employed it in many of his odes. As regards the personal character of the poet, it may be remarked, that the charge of cowardice which some have endeavoured to fasten upon him, for his misfortune in having lost his shield during a conflict between the Mytileneans and Athenians for the possession of Sigaeum, would seem to be anything but just. Equally unjust is the same charge, as brought against Horace for his conduct at Philippi. (Consult the work of Van Ommeren, Horaz als Mensch und Burger von Rom., &c., Aus dem Holland., von L. Walch.)—The fragments that remain to us of the poetry of Alcaeus, are to be found in the collections of H. Stephens and Fulvius Ursinus. Jani, one of the editors of Horace, published, from 1780 to 1782, three Prolusiones, containing those fragments of Alcaeus which the Latin poet had imitated. In 1812, Stange united these opuscula in a volume which appeared at Halle, under the title of “Alcai poeta lyrici fragmenta.” The most complete and accurate collection, however, is that by Matthiae, Lips., 1827. A collection was also o by Blomfield in the Museum Criticum, 100
1, p. 421, &c., Camb., 1826, reprinted in Gaisfords Poeta Graeci Minores. Additional fragments have been printed in the Rhenish Museum for 1829, 1833, and 1835; in Jahn's Jahrbuch. fur Philolog. for 1830; and in Cramer's Anecdota Graeca, Oxon., 1835. (Schöll, Hist. Latt. Gr., vol. 1, p. 204.—Bode, Gesch. der Lyrischen Dichtkunst der Hellenen, 2, p. 378, seqq., —II. An epigrammatic poet. (Vad. Supplement.)— III. A comic poet of Athens, contemporary with Aristophanes. Some of his contemporaries are cited by Athenaeus (3, p. 107–vol. 1, p. 418, ed. Schweigh.), and others. (Compare Casaubon, ad Athen., l.c.— Clinton's Fasti Hellenic, vol. 1, p. 101) — IV. An Athenian tragic poet, whom some, according to Suidas, made to have been the first writer in tragedy (Compare Casaubon, ad Athen., 3, p. 107, and the 1, marks of Schweighauser, vol. 9, p. 14.)—W. A son on Perseus, and father of Amphitryon, from whom Her. cules has been called Alcides. (Apollod., 2, 4, 12Compare Heyne, ad loc.) AlcAMENEs, l. ninth king of Sparta, and one of the Agidae (rid. Agidae), succeeded his father A.M. 3235, B.C. 769, and reigned thirty-seven years, in which time there was a rebellion of the Helots. Plutarch cites some of his apophthegms. (Plut., Apoph. Lacom., 32.-Pausan., 3, 2.—Meursius, de Reg. Lacon., 9.)—II. A statuary and sculptor of Athens, who flourished about 448 B.C. He was the pupil of Phidias, and adorned his country with numerous specimens of his superior skill, a skill which almost equalled that of his master. (Quintul., 12, 10. — Dionys. Hal., de Demosth. Acum., pt. 6, p. 1108, ed. Reiske.) The most celebrated of his productions was his statue of Venus commonly styled # 'Aopoćirm iv toic km. Touc, and sometimes simply ki/Tot. It is said to have received its last polish from the hand of Phidias himself, and is spoken of in high terms by Lucian and others. (Luc, Imag., 4 et 6.) Whether this was the statue of Venus, by which Alcamenes obtained his victory over Agoracritus (rid. Agoracritus), cannot be determined with certainty from the words of Pliny. If we suppose it to have been the same, we have this difficulty, that all ancient writers pronounce the Venus év km. Toto of Alcamenes, one of the highest productions of the art, while Pliny asserts, that the artist was indebted for his success, in the contest just mentioned, not to the superiority of his performance, but to the spirit of party which influenced the umpires. Another highly celebrated work of his was the rear pediment of the temple of Jupiter at Olympia, of which Pausanias has left us a description (5,10). On it was represented the conflict between the Centaurs and Lapithae. Cicero (N. D., 1. 30) speaks of a statue of Vulcan by this artist, and Valerius Maximus (8, 11, 3) informs us, that although the god was exhibited as lame, yet the lameness was in a great measure concealed by the drapery and position. The distinguished merit of Alcamenes obtained for him the honour of being placed in a bas-relief on the temple at Eleusis. (Plin., 34, 8–1d. bid., 36, 5.—Pausan., 1, 19.)—III. An artist whose name occurs on some Roman embossed work, described by Zoega. (Bass. Ant., &c., tav. 23.—Consult Sullig, Duct. Art... s. v.) He is called a duumvir, and it has been conjectured that, besides being raised to civil honours in the municipal state to which he belonged, he also obtained his livelihood by exercising the art of modelling. (Sullig, ubi supra.) Alcander, a Lacedaemonian youth, of hasty temper, but not otherwise ill-disposed, who, during a popular tumult, struck out one of the eyes of Lycurgus. The people were so moved with shame and sorrow at the outrage, that they surrendered Alcander into his hands, to do with him as he pleased. Lycurgus took him to his own home, and so won upon him by mild treatment, that Alcander became one of his warmest friends and an excellent citizen. (Plut., Wit. Lyc., 11.) AlcATHöus, I. a son of Pelops, who, being suspected of murdering his brother Chrysippus, came to Megara, where he killed a lion, which had destroyed the king's son. The monarch had promised the hand of his daughter, and the succession to the throne, unto him who should succeed in destroying the wild beast. Alcathous, therefore, gained both of these prizes, and succeeded in the course of time to the kingdom of Megara. In commemoration of him, festivals, called Alcathoia, were instituted at Megara. (Pausan., 1, 41, &c.)—II One of the two citadels of Megara, so called from its founder Alcathous. (Pausan. 1, 40 and 42.) Alce, a town of the Celtiberi, in Hispania Tarraconensis, called also Alcaratium. It answers to the modern Alcaraz, in New Castile, on the river Guardamena. (Lit., 40, 47, seqq.) AlcéNor, an Argive, who, along with Chronius, survived on his side, the battle between 300 of his countrymen and 300 Lacedæmonians. (Vid. Othryades.—Herodot., 1, 82.) Alcestis, daughter of Pelias and wife of Admetus. Her father had offered to give her in marriage to this prince, on condition of his previously yoking lions and boars to a chariot, and Admetus successfully accomplished this through the aid of Apollo. This same deity, who was then serving with Admetus, in accordance with the sentence that had been passed against him (rid. AEsculapius, Amphrysus, and Cyclopes), obtained from the fates, that when Admetus should be about to end his existence, his life would be spared and prolonged, provided another willingly died in his stead. When the day came, Alcestis heroically devoted herself for her husband, but was rescued from the lower world and restored to the regions of day by Hercules. According to another version of the legend, she was sent back again to life by Proserpina. Euripides has founded upon this story of Alcestis one of his most beautiful tragedies. (Apollod., 1, 9, 14.) This same legend is also given in a different and more historical form, as follows: when Medea had prevailed upon the daughters of Pelias to cut their father in pieces, in expectation of seeing him restored to youth, and they were pursued by their brother Acastus, Alcestis fled for protection to her cousin Admetus. This prince refusing to deliver her up, Acastus marched against him, took him prisoner, and threatened to put him to death, when Alcestis heroically surrendered herself into her brother's hands, and saved the life of Admetus. It happened, however, that, just at this time, Hercules came that way with the horses of Diomede, and was hospitably entertained by Admetus. On learning from him what had taken place, the hero was fired with indignation, attacked Acastus, destroyed his army, and rescued Alcestis, whom he restored in safety to his royal host. (Eudocia, Ion, ap. Willoison., Anecd. Graec., vol. 1, 21, scqq.) Alcetas, I. a king of Epirus, descended from Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, and an ancestor of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. He was driven by his subjects from the throne, but regained his power by the aid of Dionysius the elder, of Syracuse.—II. King of Epirus, son of Arymbas, and grandson of the preceding. His subjects strangled him, together with his two sons, B.C. 312–III. The eighth king of Macedonia, son of Æropus, and father of Amyntas I. He reigned 29 years, from 576 to 547 B.C.—IV. A general of Alexander the Great, and brother of Perdiccas. He slew himself after a defeat by Antigonus, during the contests that ensued after Alexander's decease.—W. An historian who wrote an account of the offerings at Delphi, trepi rāv čv AeAgoic dvathuárov. (Athenaeus, 13, p. 591, c.) AlcibiKDEs, a celebrated Athenian commander, son of Clinias, nephew to Pericles, and lineally descended, as was said, from the Telamonian Ajax. He was born B.C. 450. Conspicuous for beauty, and for an
insinuating and graceful demeanour, he made himself still more conspicuous for his extravagant expenditures, his contempt of order, and his dissolute mode of life. The lessons and the example of Socrates, who numbered him for some time among his disciples, operated but feebly in checking the vicious propensities of the young Athenian, or in restraining his bold and ambitious designs. He took Pericles as his model in public life, and resolved to tread in the footsteps of that illustrious statesman, and succeed, if possible, to the authority which he had enjoyed. The Athenians, in the time of Pericles, had entertained a strong desire of becoming masters of Sicily, and Alcibiades, after the death of his uncle, succeeded in prevailing upon them to send an armament for that purpose. This was during the Peloponnesian war. The expedition was directed against Syracuse, and Alcibiades, with Nicias and Lamachus, received the command. A short time, however, before the departure of the fleet, the Hermae or images of Mercury, placed throughout Athens, were all mutilated in the course of one night, and suspicion fell upon Alcibiades, who was supposed to have been guilty of this act of profanation during a drunken ca. rousal with some of his young friends. After having been allowed to sail with the expedition, he was soon sent for, and summoned to stand trial for this and other alleged acts of impiety. Avoiding, however, a return to Athens, he took refuge, first in Argos, and afterward at Sparta, at which latter place he excited very friendly feelings towards himself by the important advice he gave respecting the future movements of the war, and became an object of wonder by the ease with which he adopted the plain and austere manners of the Spartans, so directly at variance with his previous
mode of life. Distrusting, however, at last, the sin
cerity of the Lacedæmonians, he betook himself to Tissaphernes, satrap of the King of Persia, and soon attained to great favour. Not long after this, he was restored, by a strange turn of fortune, to the good-will of his countrymen ; the sentence of banishment that had been passed against him was revoked, he was appointed to a command, and, after a career of brilliant success, returned in triumph to Athens. His popularity, however, was of short continuance. Lysander, the Spartan admiral, defeated the Athenian fleet, and slew Antiochus, to whom Alcibiades had left it in charge, when departing for Cairo, in order to raise money for the war; and Alcibiades soon found himself compelled to solicit once more the protection of the Persians. Pharnabazus, the satrap, allowed him for a while a safe residence in Phrygia, but finally, through the solicitations of Lysander, he caused Alcibiades to be slain, by an armed party, at his place of abode, in a small village. This remarkable man died in his 46th year, B.C.404. If the Athenians had only known how to retain among them an individual of so rare merit both as a civilian and a soldier, they might easily have given the law to all Greece. And yet impartial history, while it awards him the highest praise for his talents as a statesman, and his skill and intrepidity as a commander, cannot but condemn, in the most unequivocal manner, the licentiousness of his private life, the versatility and chameleon-like character of his principles of action, and his traitorous conduct, on more than one occasion, to the best interests of his country. (Plut., Wit. Alcib.-Corn. Nep., Wit. Alcib.) AlcidAMAs, a Greek rhetorician. (Wid. Supplement.) Alcidas, a naval commander of Sparta in the time of the Peloponnesian war, B.C. 428. He, on one occasion, lost, in consequence of his habitual caution, the opportunity of following up a victory gained by him over the Athenians and Corcyreans. Alcipes, I. a name of Hercules, either from his strength, daks, or from his grandfather Alcaeus.-II. A surname of Minerva in Macedonia. (Lit., 42, 51.) For Alcidem in the passage of Livy here quoted, we should no doubt read, according to Turnebus (Advers., 30, 57), Alcidemum, “the people's strength.” Alcis, Achus, a painter. (Wid. Supplement.) AlcimédoN, I. an Arcadian hero. (Wid. Supplement.)—II. An embosser or chaser spoken of by Virgil (Eclog., 3, 37,44), who mentions some goblets of his workmanship. Sillig thinks he was a contemporary of the poet's. AlciyêNes. Wid. Supplement. Alcivius. Wid. Supplement. AlcINöus, I. a son of Nausithous, king of Phaeacia, praised for his love of agriculture. He kindly entertained Ulysses, who had been shipwrecked on his coast. The gardens of Alcinous are beautifully described by Homer, and have afforded, also, a favourite theme for succeeding poets. The island of the Phaeacians is called by Homer Scheria. Its more ancient name was Drepane. After the days of Homer it was called Corcyra. Now Corfu. (Wid. Corcyra.-Homer, Od, 7.—Orph., in Argon.—Virg., G., 2, 87–Stat., 1– Sylp., 3, 81.)— II. A Platonic philosopher. (Wid. Supplement.)—III. A son of Hippothoon, who, in conjunction with his father and eleven brothers, expelled Icarion and Tyndareus from Lacedæmon, but was af. terward killed, with his father and brothers, by Hercules. (Apollod., 3, 10, 5.) Alciphron, the most distinguished of the Greek epistolary writers. Nothing is known of his life, and even his era is uncertain. Some critics place him between Lucian, whom he has imitated, and Aristanetus, to whom he served as a model ; in other words, between the years 170 and 350 of the present era. Others, however, are inclined to transfer him to the fifth century. Neither side have attended to the circumstance of there being among the letters of Aristanetus a kind of correspondence between Lucian and Alciphron. This correspondence, it is true, is fictitious; yet it indicates, at the same time, that Aristaenetus regarded those two writers as contemporaries, and we have no good reason to accuse him of any error in this respect. Though a contemporary, Alciphron might still have imitated Lucian: it is much more probable, however, that the passages which appear to us to be imitations are borrowed by these two writers from some ancient comic poets. The letters of Alciphron are 116 in number, forming three books. They are distinguished for purity, clearness, and simplicity, and are important as giving us a representation of Athenian manners, drawn from dramatic poets whose writings are now lost. The best portion of the work is the 2d book, containing the letters of the hetaprae, or courtesans; and, among these, that of Menander to Glycerion, and that of Glycerion to Menander. The principal editions are, that of Bergler, Lips., 1715, 8vo, with an excellent commentary; that of Wagner, Lips., 1778, 2 vols. 8vo, containing a corrected text, a Latin version, the commentary of Bergler, and the editor's own notes; and that of Boissonade, Paris, 1822, 8vo. Wagner had been furnished by Bast with the readings of two Vienna MSS., but, according to the Critical Epistle of the last-mentioned scholar, did not make all the use of these collated readings which he might have done. Among the papers of Bast, after his decease, were found various readings of the Letters of Alciphron, derived from four Paris MSS., two of the Watican, and one of Heidelberg. Many of these were preferable to the received readings. Along with them were found various unedited fragments, and even enŚre letters, which had never yet been printed. These papers are now in England, and were used by Boissonade in his edition. (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 4, p. 313, seqq. —Wachler, Handbuch der Gesch. der Lit., vol. 1, p. 241.) Alcippe, I. a daughter of the god Mars, by Agraulos.-II. The daughter of CEnomaus.
Alcis, a surname of Minerva. and the name of a deity among the Naharvali. (Vid. Supplement.)
Alcithoe, a Theban female, who, together with her sisters, contemned and ridiculed the orgies of Bacchus, and, while these rites were getting celebrated without, employed themselves at home with the distaff, and beguiled the time by recounting poetic legends. They were changed into bats, and the spindles and yarn, with which they worked, into vines and ivy. (Op., Met., 4, 1, seqq.—Id. ab., 389, seqq) As regards the terms Minyenas and Minycia proles, which Ovid applies to the sisters, consult Gierig, ad loc.
AlcMAEoN, I, a son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle, and a native of Argos. When his father went to the Theban war, where he knew he was to perish, Alcmason was directed by him, when he should hear of his death, to kill Eriphyle who had betrayed him. (Vad. Eriphyle.) The son obeyed the father's injunctions, and was pursued, in consequence, by the furies, the avengers of parricide. According to another account, being chosen chief of the seven Epigoni, he took and destroyed Thebes, and, after this event, put his mother to death, in obedience to an oracle of Apollo (Apollod., 3, 7, 5.) While in the state of phrensy which was sent upon him as a punishment for this deed, he came first to Arcadia, to Oicleus, and, from the residence of this his paternal grandfather, went subsequently to the city of Psophis, to Phegeus, its king. Being purified of the murder by Phegeus, he married Arsinoë, the daughter of the latter, and gave to her, as a bridal present, the fatal collar and robe (Töv re àpuov kal rôv Témzov) which his mother Eriphyle had received to betray his father. The country, however, becoming barren, in consequence of his residing in it (6t' airóv), he was directed by an oracle, as the only means of escaping the vengeance of the furies, to find, and dwell in, a land which was not in existence when he slew his parent. (Pausan., 8, 24.—Compare Heyne, ad Apollod., l.c.) He at last found rest, for a short time, on an island at the mouth of the Achelous, formed by the alluvial deposites of that stream. (Wid. Echinades.) Here he married Callirhoe, the daughter of the rivergod, after repudiating his former wife Arsinoe. But he did not long enjoy repose. At the request of his wife, he attempted to recover from his former fatherin-law the collar and robe which he had presented to his daughter, and, as a pretext for dbtaining them, stated that he had been directed by an oracle, as the only means of freeing himself from the furies, to consecrate the articles in question to Apollo at Delphi. Phegeus gave them up, but the imposition being made known to him by an attendant, he ordered his sons to waylay and destroy Alcmaeon, which was accordingly done. Alcmaeon's death was avenged by the two sons whom he had by Callirhoe. Their mother entreated of Jupiter that they might speedily attain to manhood, and retaliate on their father's murderers. The prayer was heard; they became on a sudden men in the prime of life, and slew not only the two sons of Phegeus, but the monarch himself and his wife. The sons of Alcmason by Callirhoe were Amphoterus and Acarnan, and are said to have settled subsequently in Acarnania, the latter giving name to the country. (Apollod, l. c.) Pausanias calls Arsinoe by the name of Alphesiboea (rid. Alphesiboea), and, in other parts of his nar. rative also, differs from Apollodorus. On these and other variations, consult Heyne, ad Apollod, l. c. — II. The founder of an illustrious family at Athens, called after him Alcmaeonidae. He was the son of Sillus, and great grandson of Nestor; and, being driven from Messenia, with the rest of Nestor's family, by the Heraclidae, settled at Athens. (Pausan., 2, 18.-Compare the note of Clinton, Fast. Hell., vol. 1, p. 299, 2d ed., where he disproves the assertion of Larcher, ad Herod., 6, 125, who makes the Alcmaeonidae to have been descended from Melanthus.)—III. A son of Megacles.