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gagement with the Caledonians under their most able leader Galgacus. The latter made a noble stand, but was at last obliged to yield to Roman valour and discipline; and, having taken hostages, Agricola gradually withdrew his forces into the Roman limits. In the mean time, Domitian had succeeded to the empire, to whose mean and jealous nature the brilliant character and successes of Agricola gave secret uneasiness. Artfully spreading a rumour ă. he intended to make the latter governor of Syria, he recalled him, received him coldly, and allowed him to descend into private life. The jealousy of the tyrant still pursued him; and as, after he had been induced to resign his pretension to the proconsulship of Asia or Africa, he was soon seized with an illness of which he died, Domitian, possibly without reason, has been suspected of a recourse to poison. Agricola died A.D. 93, in his fifty-fourth year, leaving a widow, and one daughter, the wife of Tacitus. It is this historian who has so admirably written his life, and preserved his high character for the respect of posterity. (Tac.., Vit. Agric.)

AgrigENTUM, a celebrated city of Sicily, about three miles from the southern coast, in what is now called the valley of Mazara. The Greek form of the name was Acragas ("Akpayaç), derived from that of a small stream in the neighbourhood. The primitive name was Camicus, or, to speak more correctly, this was the appellation of an old city of the Sicani, situate on the summit of a mountain, which afterward was regarded merely as the citadel of Agrigentum. The founding of Camicus is ascribed to Daedalus, who is said to have built it, after his flight from Crete, for the Sicanian prince, Cocalus. In the first year of the 56th Olympiad, 556 B.C., a colony was sent from Gela to this quarter, which founded Agrigentum, on a neighbour

ing height, to the southeast. Its situation was, indeed, culiarly strong and imposing, standing as it did on a

e and precipitous rock, 1100 feet above the level of the sea. a commercial nature, being near to the sea, which af.

forded the means of an easy intercourse with the ports of Africa and the south of Europe. The adjacent coun

try, moreover, was very fertile. From the combined operation of all these causes, Agrigentum soon became a wealthy and powerful city, and was considered inferior to Syracuse alone. According to Diodorus Siculus (13, 81, seqq.), it drew on itself the enmity of the Carthaginians (406 B.C.), by refusing to embrace their alliance, or even to remain neutral. It was accordingly besieged by their generals Hannibal and Hamilcar. The former, with many of his troops, died of apestilential disorder, derived from the putrid effluvia of the tombs, which were opened and destroyed for the sake of the stone. But, from want of timely assistance and scarcity of provisions, the Agrigentines were obliged to abandon their city, and fly for protection to Gela, whence they were transferred to the city of the Leontimes, which was allotted to them by the republic of Syracuse. The conqueror Hamilcar despoiled Agrigentum of all its riches, valuable pictures, and statues. Among the trophies sent to Carthage was the celebrated bull of Phalaris, which, two hundred and sixty years afterward, on the destruction of Carthage, was restored to the Agrigentines by Scipio. At a subsequent period, when a general peace had taken place, Ol. 96, 1 (Diod. Sic., 14, 78), we find the Agrigentines returning to their native city; though, from a passage in Diodorus (13, 113), it would seem that the place had not been entirely destroyed by the foe, and that many of its previous inhabitants might have come back at an earlier date. (Ol. 93, 4.) Agrigentum soon recovered its importance, but the tyranny of Phintias having induced the inhabitants to call in the aid of Carthage, the city once more fell under that power. Not long after, it revolted to Pyrrhus (Diod. Sic., 22, exc., 14), *ut, on his departure from the island, was compelled to

To this advantage the city added others of


return to its former masters. On the commencement of the Punic wars, Agrigentum was one of the most important strongholds which the Carthaginians possessed in the island. It suffered severely during these conflicts, being alternately in the hands of either party (Diod. Soc., 23, 7–Polyb., 1, 17, seqq.—Diod. Suc., 23, 9. —Id., 23, 14), but it eventually fell under the Roman power, and, notwithstanding its losses, continued for a long period a flourishing place, though it is supposed to have been confined, after it came permanently under the Romans, to the limits of the ancient Camicus, with which the modern Gurgenti nearly corresponds. Diodorus states the population, in its best days, to have been not less than 120,000 persons. (Mannert, 9, pt. 2, p. 353, seqq.—Hoare's Classical Tour, vol. 2, p. 90, seqq.) Agrionia, annual festivals in honour of Bacchus, generally celebrated in the night. They were instituted, as some suppose, because the god was attended with wild beasts. The appellation, however, should rather be viewed as referring back to an early period, when human sacrifices were offered to Bacchus. Hence the terms 'slumatic and 'Aypusovoc applied to this deity. (Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. 3, p. 334.) Plutarch even speaks of a human sacrifice to this god as late as the days of Themistocles (Wit., 13), when three Persian prisoners were offered up by him to Bacchus, at the instigation of the diviner Eurantides. The same writer elsewhere (Wit. Ant., 24) uses both 'slumaTmc and 'Ayptovioc, in speaking of Bacchus; where Reiske, without any necessity, proposes 'Ayptolog (from 622 vul) as an emendation.—In celebrating this festival, the Grecian women, being assembled, sought eagerly for Bacchus, who, they pretended, had fled from them ; but, finding their labour ineffectual, they said that he had retired to the Muses and concealed himself among them. The ceremony being thus ended, they regaled themselves with an entertainment. (Plut., Sympos., 8, 1.) Has this a figurative reference to the suspension of human sacrifices, and the consequent introduction of a milder form of worship ! Castellanus, however (Syntagm. de Festis Graecor., s. v. Agrionia), makes the festival in question to have been a general symbol of the progress of civilization and refinement. (Compare Rolle, Recherches sur le Culte de Bacchus, vol. 3, p. 251.) | Agrippa ('Aypirmaç), I. a skeptical philosopher, only known to have lived later than AEmesidemus, the contemporary of Cicero, from whom he is said to have been the fifth in descent. He is quoted by Diogenes Laertius, who probably wrote about the time of M. Antoninus. The “five grounds of doubt” (ol Tévre toà| Trot), which are given by Sextus Empiricus as a summary of the later skepticism, are ascribed by Diogenes Laertius (9,88) to Agrippa. | 1. The first of these argues from the uncertainty of the rules of common life, and of the opinions of philosophers. 2. The second from the “rejectio ad infinitum :” all proof requires some farther proof, and so on to infinity. 3. All things are changed as their rela: |tions become changed, or as we look upon them in different points of view. 4. The truth asserted is merely an hypothesis; or, 5. Involves a vicious circle. (Seatus Empiricus, Pyrrhon. Hypot., 1, 15.) With reference to these révre Tpóstol, it need only be remarked, that the first and third are a short summary of the ten original grounds of doubt which were the basis of the earlier skepticism. The three additional ones show a progress in the skeptical system, and a transition from the common objections derived from the fallibility of sense and opinion, to more abstract and metaphysical grounds of doubt. They seem to mark a new attempt to systematize the skeptical philosophy, and adapt it to the spirit of a later age. (Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophie, 12, 4.)—II. M. Asinius, consul A.D 25, died A.D. 26, was descended from a family more illustrious than ancient, and did not disgrace it by his mode of life. (Tac., Ann., 4, 34, 61.)—III. Agrippa Castor, about A.D. 135, praised as an historian by Eusebius, and for his learning by St. Jerome (de Viris Ilsustr., c. 21), lived in the reign of Hadrian. He wrote against the twenty-four books ofthe Alexandrean Gnostic, Basilides, on the Gospel. Quotations are made from his work by Eusebius. (Hist. Eccles., 4, 7.— See Gallandi's Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. 1, p. 330.)— IV. Fonteius, one of the accusers of Libo, A.D. 16, is again mentioned in A.D. 19, as offering his daughter for a vestal virgin. (Tac., Ann., 2, 30, 86.)— W. Probably the son of the preceding, commanded the province of Asia with proconsular power, A.D. 69, and was recalled from thence by Vespasian, and placed over Moesia in A.D. 70. He was shortly afterward killed in battle by the Sarmatians. (Tac.. Hist., 3, 46.-Joseph., B. Jud., 7, 4, § 3.)—VI. Herödes I. ('Hpong 'Aypiritag), called by Josephus (Ant. Jud., 17, 2, § 2) “Agrippa the Great,” was the son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great. Shortly before the death of his grandfather he came to Rome, where he was educated with the future emperor Claudius, and Drusus, the son of Tiberius. He squandered his property in giving sumptuous entertainments to gratify his princely friends, and in bestowing largesses on the freedmen of the emperor, and became so deeply involved in debt that he was compelled to fly from Rome, and betook himself to a fortress at Malatha in Idumaea. Through the mediation of his wife Cypros, with his sister Herodias, the wife of Herodes Antipas, he was allowed to take up his abode at Tiberias, and received the rank of aedile in that city, with a small yearly income. But, having quarrelled with his brother-in-law, he fled to Flaccus, the proconsul of Syria. Soon afterward he was convicted, through the information of his brother Aristobulus, of having received a bribe from the Damascenes, who wished to purchase his influence with the proconsul, and was again compelled to fly. He was arrested, as he was about to sail for Italy, for a sum of money which he owed to the treasury of Caesar, but made his escape, and reached Alexandrea, where his wife succeeded in obtaining a supply of money from Alexander the Alabarch. He then set sail, and landed at Puteoli. He was favourably received by Tiberius, who intrusted him with the education of his grandson, Tiberius. He also formed an intimacy with Caius Caligula. Having one day incautiously expressed a wish that the latter might soon succeed to the throne, his words were reported by his freedman Eutychus to Tiberius, who forthwith threw him into prison. Caligula, on his accession (A.D. 37), set him at liberty, and ve him the tetrarchies of Lysanias (Abilene) and É.i. (Batanaea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis). He also presented him with a golden chain of equal weight with the iron one which he had worn in prison. In the following year Agrippa took possession of his kingdom, and, after the banishment of Herodes Antipas, the tetrarchy of the latter was added to his dominions. On the death of Caligula, Agrippa, who was at the time in Rome, materially assisted Claudius in gaining possession of the empire. As a reward for his services, Judaea and Samaria were annexed to his dominions, which were now even more extensive than those of Herod the Great. He was also invested with the consular dignity, and a league was publicly made with him by Claudius in the forum. At his request, the kingdom of Chalcis was given to his brother Herodes (A.D. 41). He then went to Jerusalem, where he offered sacrifices, and suspended in the treasury of the temple the golden chain which Caligula had given him. His government was mild and gentle, and he was exceedingly popular among the Jews. In the city of Berytus he built a theatre and amphitheatre, baths and porticoes. The suspicions of Claudius pre

vented him from finishing the impregnable fortifications with which he had begun to surround Jerusalem. His friendship was courted by many of the neighbouring kings and rulers. It was probably to increase his popularity with the Jews that he caused the apostle James, the brother of John, to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast into prison (A.D. 44.—Acts, 12). It was not, however, merely by such acts that he strove to win their favour, as we see from the way in which, at the risk of his own life, or, at least, of his liberty, he interceded with Caligula on behalf of the Jews, when that emperor was attempting to set up his statue in the Temple at Jerusalem. The manner of his death, which took place at Caesarea in the same year, as he was exhibiting games in honour of the emperor, is related in Acts, 12, and is confirmed in all essential points by Josephus, who repeats Agrippa's words, in which he acknowledged the justice of the punishment thus inflicted on him. After lingering five days, he expired, in the fifty-fourth year of his age. By his wife Cypros he had a son named Agrippa, and three daughters, Berenice, who first married her uncle Herodes, king of Chalcis, afterward lived with her brother Agrippa, and subsequently married Polamo, king of Cilicia; she is alluded to by Juvenal (Sat., 6, 156); Mariamne and Drusilla, who married Felix, the procurator of Judaea. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 17, 1, § 2; 18, 5–8; 19, 4–8.-Bell. Jud., 1, 28, § 1 ; 2, 9, 11.-Dion Cass., 60, 8–Euseb., Hist. Eccles., 2, 10.)—VII. Herodes II., the son of Agrippa I., was educated at the court of the Emperor Claudius, and at the time of his father's death was only seventeen years old. Claudius, therefore, kept him at Rome, and sent Cuspius Fadus as procurator of the kingdom, which thus again became a Roman province. On the death of Herodes, king of Chalcis (A.D. 48), his little prin. cipality, with the right of superintending the Temple and appointing the high-priest, was given to Agrippa, who four years afterward received in its stead the tetrarchies formerly held by Philip and Lysanias, with the title of king. In A.D. 55, Nero added the cities of Tiberias and Taricheae in Galilee, and Julias, with fourteen villages near it, in Perala. Agrippa expended large sums in beautifying Jerusalem and other cities, especially Berytus. His partiality for the latter rendered him unpopular among his own subjects, and the capricious manner in which he appointed and deposed the high-priests, with some other acts which were distasteful, made him an object of dislike to the Jews. Before the outbreak of the war with the Romans, Agrippa attempted in vain to dissuade the people from rebelling. When the war was begun he sided with the Romans, and was wounded at the siege of Gamala. After the capture of Jerusalem, he went with his sister Berenice to Rome, where he was invested with the dignity of praetor. He died in the seventieth year of his age, in the third year of the reign of Trajan. He was the last prince of the house of the Herods. It was before this Agrippa that the apostle Paul made his defence (A.D. 60.—Acts, 25, 26). He lived on terms of intimacy with the historian Josephus, who has preserved two of the letters he received from him. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 17, 5, § 4; 19, 9, § 2; 20, 1, § 3, 5 ; ) 2, 7: § 1, 8; 3.4 and 11, 9, § 4.—Bell. Jud., 2, 11, § 6, 12; $ 1, 16, 17: § 1, 4, 1 ; } 3–Vit., s. 54.—Phot., Cod., 33’)—VIII. Menenius. (Wid. Memenius.)—IX. Posthumus, a posthumous son of M. Vipsanius Agrippa, by Julia, the daughter of Augustus, was born in B.C. 12. He was adopted by Augustus, together with Tiberius, in A.D. 4, and he assumed the toga virilis in the following year, A.D. 5. (Suet., Octap., 64, 65–Diom Cass., liv. 29, 55, 22.) Notwithstanding his adoption, he was afterward banished by Augustus to the island of Planasia, on the coast of Corsica: a disgrace which he incurred on account of his savage and intractable character, but he was not guilty


of any crime. There he was under the surveillance of soldiers, and Augustus obtained a senatus consultum, by which the banishment was legally confirmed for the time of his life. The property of Agrippa was assigned by Augustus to the treasury of the army. It is said that during his captivity he received the visit of Auustus, who secretly went to Planasia, accompanied by abius Maximus. Augustus and Agrippa, both deeply affected, shed tears when they met, and it was believed that Agrippa would be restored to liberty But the news of this visit reached Livia, the mother of Tiberius, and Agrippa remained a captive. After the acression of Tiberius, in A.D. 14, Agrippa was murdered by a centurion, who entered his prison and killed him, after a long struggle, for Agrippa was a man of great bodily strength. When the centurion afterward went to Tiberius to give him an account of the execution, the emperor denied having given any order for it, and it is very probable that Livia was the secret author of the crime. There was a rumour that Augustus had left an order for the execution of Agrippa, but this is positively contradicted by Tacitus. (Tac., Ann. 1, 3–6. Dion Cass., 55, 32; 57, 3. — Suet., l. c., Tib., 22.-Vellei., 2, 104, 112.) After the death of Agrippa, a slave of the name of Clemens, who was not informed of the murder, landed on Planasia with the intention of restoring Agrippa to liberty and carrying him off to the army in Germany. When he heard .#. had taken place, he tried to profit by his great resemblance to the murdered captive, and he gave himself out as Agrippa. He landed at Ostia, and found many who believed him, or affected to believe him, but he was seized and put to death by order of Tiberius. (Tac., Ann., 2, 39, 40.) The name of Agrippa Caesar is found on a medal of Corinth. —IX. M. Vipsanius, was born in B.C. 63. He was the son of Lucius, and was descended from a very obscure family. At the age of twenty he studied at Apollonia in Illyria, together with young Octavius, afterward Octavianus and Augustus. After the murder of J. Caesar in B.C. 44, Agrippa was one of those intimate friends of Octavius who advised him to proceed immediately to Rome. Octavius took Agrippa with him, and charged him to receive the oath of fidelity from several legions which had declared in his favour. Having been chosen consul in B.C. 43, Octavius gave to his friend Agrippa the delicate commission of prosecuting C. Cassius, one of the murderers of J. Caesar. At the outbreak of the Perusinian war between Octavius, now Octavianus, and L. Antonius, in B.C. 41, Agrippa, who was then praetor, commanded part of the forces of Octavianus, and, after distinguishing himself by skilful manoeuvres, besieged L. Antonius in Perusia. He took the town in B.C. 40, and towards the end of the same year retook Sipontum, which had fallen into the hands of M. Antonius. In B.C. 38, Agrippa obtained fresh success in Gaul, where he quelled a revolt of the native chiefs; he also penetrated into Germany as far as the country of the Catti, and transplanted the Ubii to the left bank of the Rhine; whereupon he turned his arms against the revolted Aquitani, whom he soon brought to obedience. His victories, especially those in Aquitania, contributed much to securing the power of Octavianus, and he was recalled by him to undertake the command of the war against Sextus Pompeius, which was on the point of breaking out, B.C. 37. Octavianus offered him a triumph, which Agrippa declined, but accepted the consulship, to which he was promoted by Octavianus in B.C. 37. Dion Cassius (48, 49) seems to say that he was consul when he went to Gaul, but the words issisteve 68 uttà Aovktov Tú??ov seem to be suspicious, unless they are to be inserted a little higher, after the passage to 6''Aypirita Tiju roi wavrukoi trapadkeviv ćyxeiptaac, which refer to an event that took place during the consulship of Agrippa. For, imme


diately after his promotion to this dignity, he was char. ged by Octavianus with the construction of a fleet, which was the more necessary, as Sextus Pompey was master of the sea. Agrippa, in whom thoughts and deeds were never separated (Wellei., 2, 79), executed this order with prompt energy. The Lucrine Lake, near Baiae, was transformed by him into a safe harbour, which he call. ed the Julian port in honour of Octavianus, and where he exercised his sailors and mariners till they were able to encounter the experienced sailors of Pompey. In B.C. 36, Agrippa defeated Sextus Pompey first at Mylae, and afterward at Naulochus on the coast of Sicily, and the latter of these victories broke the naval supremacy of Pompey. He received, in consequence, the honour of a naval crown, which was first conferred upon him; though, according to other authorities, M. Varro was the first who obtained it from Pompey the Great. (Wellei., 2, 81. – Liv., Epit., 129. —Dion Cass., 49, 14.—Plin., H. N., 16, 13, s. 4.—Virg., AEm., 8, 684.) In B.C. 35, Agrippa had the command of the war in Illyria, and afterward served under Octavianus, when the latter had proceeded to that country. On his return, he voluntarily accepted the aedileship in B.C. 33, although he had been consul, and expended immense sums of money upon great public works. He restored the Appian, Marcian, and Anienian aqueducts, constructed a new one, fifteen miles in length, from the Tepula to Rome, to which he gave the name of the Julian, in honour of Octavianus, and had an immense number of smaller water-works made, to distribute the water within the town. He also had the large cloaca of Tarquinius Priscus entirely cleansed. His various works were adorned with statues by the first artists of Rome. These splendid buildings he augmented in B.C. 27, during his third consulship, by several others; and among these was the Pantheon, on which we still read the inscription, “M. Agrippa L. F. Cos. Tertium fecit.” (Dion Cass., 49,43; 53, 27.-Plin., H. N., 36, 15, s. 24, § 3–Strab., 5, p. 235.-Frontin., De Aquad., 9.) When the war broke out between Octavianus and M. Antonius, Agrippa was appointed commander-inchief of the fleet, B.C. 32. He took Methone in the Peloponnesus, Leucas, Patrae, and Corinth ; and in the battle of Actium (B.C. 31), where he commanded, the victory was mainly owing to his skill. On his return to Rome in B.C. 30, Octavianus, now Augustus, rewarded him with a “vexillum caeruleum,” or sea-green flag. In B.C. 28, Agrippa became consul for the second time with Augustus, and about this time married Mar. cella, the niece of Augustus, and the daughter of his sister Octavia. His former wife, Pomponia, the daughter of T. Pomponius Atticus, was either dead or divorced. In the following year, B.C. 27, he was again consul the third time with Augustus. In B.C. 25, Agrippa accompanied Augustus to the war against the Cantabrians. About this time jealousy arose between him and his brother-in-law, Marcellus, the nephew of Augustus, and who seemed to be destined as his successor. Augustus, anxious to prevent differences that might have had serious consequences for him, sent Agrippa as proconsul to Syria. Agrippa, of course, left Rome, but he stopped at Mytilene in the island of Lesbos, leaving the government of Syria to his legate. The apprehensions of Au tus were removed by the death of Marcellus in B.C. 23, and Agrippa immediately returned to Rome, where he was the more anxiously expected, as troubles had broken out during the election of the consuls in B.C. 21. Augustus resolved to receive his faithful friend into his own family, and, accordingly, induced him to divorce his wife Marcella, and marry Julia, the widow of Marcellus and the daughter of Augustus by his third wife, Scribonia (B.C. 21).

In B.C. 19, Agrippa went into Gaul. He pacified the turbulent natives, and constructed four great public roads and a splendid aqueduct at Nemausus (Nimes). From thence he proceeded to Spain, and subdued the Cantabrians after a short but bloody and obstinate struggle ; but, in accordance with his usual prudence, he neither announced his victories in pompous letters to the senate, nor did he accept a a triumph which Augustus offered him. In B.C. 18, he was invested with the tribunician power for five years together with Augustus; and in the following year (B.C. 17), his two sons, Caius and Lucius, were adopted by Augustus. At the close of the year, he accepted an invitation of Herod the Great, and went to Jerusalem. He founded the military colony of Berytus (Beyrout); thence he proceeded, in B.C. 16, to the Pontus Euxinus, and compelled the Bosporani to accept Polemo for their king, and to restore the Roman eagles which had been taken by Mithradates. On his return he stayed some time in Ionia, where he granted privileges to the Jews, whose cause was pleaded by Herod (Joseph., Antiq. Jud., 16, 2), and then proceeded to Rome, where he arrived in B.C. 13. After his tribunician

wer had been prolonged for five years, he went to

annonia to restore tranquillity to that province. He returned in B.C. 12, after having been successful as usual, and retired to Campania. There he died unexpectedly, in the month of March, B.C. 12, in his 51st ear. His body was carried to Rome, and was buried

in the mausoleum of Augustus, who himself pronounced a funeral oration over it.

Dion Cassius tells us (52, 1, &c.), that in the year B.C. 29 Augustus assembled his friends and counsellors, Agrippa and Maecenas, demanding their opinion as to whether it would be advisable for him to usurp monarchical power, or to restore to the nation its former republican government. This is corroborated by Suetonius (Octav., 28), who says that Augustus twice deliberated upon that subject. The speeches which Agrippa and Maecenas delivered on this occasion are given by Dion Cassius; but the artificial character of them makes them suspicious. However, it does not seem likely, from the general character of Dion Cassius as an historian, that these speeches are invented by him; and it is not improbable, and such a supposition suits entirely the character of Augustus, that those speeches were really pronounced, though preconcerted between Augustus and his counsellors to make the Roman nation believe that the fate of the Republic was still a matter of discussion, and that Augustus would not assume monarchical power till he had been convinced that it was necessary for the welfare of the nation. Besides, Agrippa, who, according to Dion Cassius, advised Augustus to restore the Republic, was a man whose political opinions had evidently a monarchical tendency.

Agrippa was one of the most distinguished and important men of the age of Augustus. He must be considered as a chief support of the rising monarchical constitution, and without Agrippa Augustus could scarcely have succeeded in making himself the absolute master of the Roman Empire. Dion Cassius (54, 29, &c.), Welleius Paterculus (2, 79), Seneca (Ep., 94), and Horace (Od., 1,6) speak with equal admiration of his merits.

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two daughters, Julia, married to L.AF milius Paullur, and Agrippina, married to Germanicus, and three sons, Caius (vid. Caesar, C.), Lucius (vid. Caesar, L.), and Agrippa Postumus. (Dion Cass., lib. 45–54.—Liv., Epit., 117–136.-Appian, Bell. Civ., lib. 5. – Suet., Octav.–Frandsen, M. Vipsanius Agrippa, eine historische Untersuchung, uber dessen Leben und Wirken, Altona, 1836.) There are several medals of Agrippa, on one of which he is represented with a naval crown; on the reverse is Neptune indicating his success by sea. AGRIPPINA, I. the youngest daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and of Julia, the daughter of Augustus, was born some time before B.C. 12. She married Caesar Germanicus, the son of Drusus Nero Germanicus, by whom she had nine children. Agrippina was gifted with great powers of mind, a noble character, and all the moral and physical qualities that constituted the model of a Roman matron: her love for her husband was sincere and lasting, her chastity was spotless, her fertility was a virtue in the eyes of the Romans, and her attachment to her children was an eminent feature of her character. She yielded to one dangerous passion, ambition. Augustus showed her particular attention and attachment. (Sueton., Calig., 8.) At the death of Augustus in A.D. 14, she was on the Lower Rhine with Germanicus, who commanded the legions there. Her husband was the idol of the army, and the legions on the Rhine, dissatisfied with the accession of Tiberius, manifested their intention of proclaiming Germanicus master of the state. Tiberius hated and dreaded Germanicus, and he showed as much antipathy to Agrippina as he had love to her elder sister, his first wife. In this perilous situation, Germanicus and Agrippina saved themselves by their prompt energy; he quelled the outbreak, and pursued the war against the Germans. In the ensuing year his lieutenant, Caecina, after having made an invasion into Germany, returned to the Rhine. The campaign was not inglorious for the Romans, but they were worn out by #. and, perhaps, harassed on their march by some bands of Germans. Thus the rumour was spread that the main body of the Germans was approaching to invade Gaul. Germanicus was absent, and it was proposed to destroy the bridge over the Rhine. (Compare Strab., 4, p. 194.) If this had been dome, the retreat of Caecina's army would have been cut off, but it was saved by the firm opposition of Agrippina to such a cowardly measure. When the troops approached, she went to the bridge, acting as a general, and receiving the soldiers as they crossed it; the wounded among them were presented by her with clothes, and they received from her own hands everything necessary for the cure of their wounds. (Tac., Ann., 1, 69.) Germanicus having been recalled by Tiberius, she accompanied her husband to Asia (A.D. 17), and after his death, or, rather, murder (vid. Germanicus), she returned to Italy. She stayed some days at the island of Corcyra to recover from her grief, and then landed at Brundisium, accompanied by two of her children, and holding in her arms the urn with the ashes of her husband. At the news of her arrival, the port, the walls, and even the roofs of the houses were occupied by crowds of people who were anxious to see and salute her. She was solemnly received by the officers of two praetorian cohorts, which Tiberius had sent to Brundisium for the purpose of accompanying her to Rome; the urn containing the ashes of Germanicus was borne by tribunes and centurions, and the funeral procession was received on its march by the magistrates of Calabria, Apulia, and Campania; by Drusus, the son of Tiberius; Claudius, the brother of Germanicus; by the other children of Germanicus; and, at last, in the environs of Rome, by the consuls, the senate, and crowds of the Roman people. (Tac,

not mentioned; and by his third wife, Julia, he had Ann., 3, 1, &c.)


During some years Tiberius disguised his hatred of Agrippina, but she soon became exposed to secret accusations and intrigues. She asked the emperor's permission to choose another husband, but Tiberius neither refused nor consented to the proposition. Sejanus, who exercised an unbounded influence over Tiberius, then a prey to mental disorders, persuaded Agrippina that the emperor intended to poison her. Alarmed at such a report, she refused to eat an apple which the emperor offered her from his table, and Tiberius, in his turn, complained of Agrippina regarding him as a poisoner. According to Suetonius, all this was an intrigue preconcerted between the emperor and Sejanus, who, as it seems, had formed the plan of leading Agrippina into false steps. Tiberius was extremely suspicious of Agrippina, and showed his hostile feelings by allusive words or neglectful silence. There were no evidences of ambitious plans formed by Agrippina, but the rumour having been spread that she would fly to the army, he banished her to the island of Pandataria (A.D. 30), where her mother, Julia, had died in exile. banished, and both died an unnatural death. She lived three years on that barren island; at last she refused to take any food, and died, most probably, by voluntary starvation. Her death took place precisely two years after, and on the same date, as the murder of Sejanus, that is, in A.D. 33. Tacitus and Suetonius tell us that Tiberius boasted that he had not strangled her. (Sueton., Tib., 53.-Tac., Ann., 6, 25.) The ashes of Agrippina, and those of her son Nero, were afterward brought to Rome by order of her son, the Emperor Caligula, who struck various medals in honour of his mother. In one of these the head of Caligula is on one side, and that of his mother on the other. The words on each side are respectively, c. cAesar. Avg. GER. P.M. tr. Pot., and AgrippinA. MAT. c. cAes. Avg. GERM. (Tac., Ann., 1–6.-Sueton., Octav., 64; Tib., l.c.; Calig., l. c. Dion Cass., 57, 5, 6 ; 58, 22.)—II. The daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina the elder, daughter of M.Vipsanius Agrippa. She was born between A.D. 13 and 17, at the Oppidum. Ubiorum, afterward called, in honour of her, Colonia AgripF. now Cologne, and then the headquarters of the egions commanded by her father. In A.D. 28, she married Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, a man not unlike her, and whom she lost in A.D. 40. After his death she married Crispus Passienus, who died some years afterward; and she was accused of having poisoned him, either for the purpose of obtaining his great fortune, or for some secret motive of much higher importance. She was already known for her scandalous conduct, for her most perfidious intrigues, and for an unbounded ambition. She was accused of having committed incest with her own brother, the Emperor Caius Caligula, who, under the pretext of having discovered that she had lived in an adulterous intercourse with M. ABmilius Lepidus, the husband of her sister Drusilla, banished her to the island of Pontia, which was situated in the Sinus Syrticus Major, on the coast of Libya. Her sister Drusilla was likewise banished to Pontia, and it seems that their exile was connected with the punishment of Lepidus, who was put to death for having conspired against the emperor. Previously to her exile, Agrippina was compelled by her brother to carry to Rome the ashes of Lepidus. This happened in A.D. 39. Agrippina and her sister were released in A.D. 41, by their uncle, Claudius, immediately af. ter his accession, although his wife, Messalina, was the mortal enemy of Agrippina. Messalina was put to death by order of Claudius in A.D. 48; and in the following year, A.D. 49, Agrippina succeeded in marrying the emperor. Claudius was her uncle, but her marriage was legalized by a senatus consultum, by which the marriage of a man with his brother's daughter was declared valid; this senatus consultum was afterward

Her sons, Nero and Drusus, were likewise em

happy escape.


abrogated by the Emperors Constantine and Constans. In this intrigue Agrippina displayed the qualities of an accomplished courtesan, and such was the influence of her charms and superior talents over the old emperor, that, in prejudice of his own son, Britannicus, he adopted Domitius, the son of Agrippina by her first husband, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus (A.D. 51). Agrippina was assisted in her secret plans by Pallas, the perfidious confidant of Claudius. By her intrigues, L. Junius Silanus, the husband of Octavia, the daughter of Claudius, was put to death, and in A.D. 53 Octavia was married to young Nero. Lollia Paullina, once the rival of Agrippina for the hand of the emperor, was accused of high treason and condemned to death, but she put an end to her own life. Domitia Lepida, the sister of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, met with a similar fate. After having thus removed those whose rivalship she dreaded, or whose virtues she envied, Agrippina resolved to get rid of her husband, and to govern the empire through her ascendency over her son Nero, his successor. A vague rumour of this reached the ror; in a state of drunkenness, he forgot prudence, and talked about punishing his ambitious wife. Having no time to lose, Agrippina, assisted by Locusta and Xenophon, a Greek physician, poisoned the old emperor, in A.D. 54, at Sinuessa, a watering-place to which he had retired for the sake of his health. Nero was proclaimed emperor, and presented to the troops by Burrus,whom Agrippina had appointed praefectus praetorio. Narcissus, the rich freedman of Claudius, M. Junius Silanus, proconsul of Asia, the brother of Lucius Junius Silanus, and a great-grandson of Augustus, lost their lives at the instigation of Agrippina, who would have augmented the number of her victims but for the opposition of Burrus and Seneca, recalled by Agrippina from his exile to conduct the education of Nero. Meanwhile the young emperor took some steps to shake off the insupportable ascendency of his mother. The jealousy of Agrippina rose from her son's passion for Acte, and, after her, for Poppaea Sabina, the wife of M. Salvius Otho. To reconquer his affection, Agrippina employed, but in vain, most daring and most revolting means. She threatened to oppose Britannicus as a rival to the emperor; but Britannicus was poisoned by Nero; and she even solicited her son to an incestuous intercourse. At last her death was resolved upon by Nero, who wished to repudiate Octavia and marry Poppaea, but whose plan was thwarted by his mother. Thus petty feminine intrigues became the cause of Agrippina's ruin. Nero invited her, under the pretext of a reconciliation, to visit him at Baiae, on the coast of Campania. She went thither by sea. In their conversation hypocrisy was displayed on both sides. She left Baiae by the same way; but the vessel was so contrived that it was to break to pieces wnen out at sea. It only partly broke, and Agrippina saved herself by swimming to the shore; her attendant, Acerronia, was killed. Agrippina fled to her villa near the Lucrine Lake, and informed her son of her Now Nero charged Burrus to murder his mother; but Burrus declining it, Anicetus, the commander of the fleet, who had invented the stratagem of the ship, was compelled by Nero and Burrus to undertake the task. Anicetus went to her villa with a chosen band, and his men surprised her in her bedroom. “Wentrem feri,” she cried out, after she was but slightly wounded, and immediately afterward expired under the blows of a centurion (A.D. 60). (Tac., Ann., 14, 8.) It was told that Nero went to the villa, and that he admired the beauty of the dead body of his mother: this was believed by some, doubted by others (14, 9). Agrippina left commentaries concerning her history and that of her family, which Tacitus consult. ed, according to his own statement. (Ib., 4, 54.— Compare Plin., Hist. Nat., 7, 6, s. 8; Elenchus, 7


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