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rus Dei praedatoris,” and thinks that the latter part of the compound, anim, may be traded in the name of the od Anammelech (2 Kings, 17, 31). Gesenius (Gesch. 5. Hebr. Sprache und Schrift, 228) makes Abdalonimus, as an appellation, the same with Abd-alonim, “Servant of the gods.” AbbāRA. I. a city of Thrace, at the mouth of the Nestus: Ephorus (Steph. B.) wrote in sing. 'A6émpov, but the plural is more usual, ‘Abómpa. The Clazomenian Timesius commenced founding this place, but, in consequence of the Thracian inroads, was unable to complete it; soon after, it was recolonized by a large body of Teians from Ionia, who abandoned their city, when besieged by Harpagus, general of Cyrus (Herod. 1, 168). Many Teians subsequently returned home; yet Abdera remained no inconsiderable city. There are several other accounts of the origin of this place, but the one which we have given is most entitled to credit. The city of Abdera was the birthplace of many distinj men, as Anaxarchus, Democritus, Hecataeus, and Protagoras; the third, however, must not be con... founded with the native of Miletus. (Creuser, Hist. Antiq. Gr. Fragm. 9, 28.) But, notwithstanding the celebrity of some of their fellow-citizens, the people of Abdera, as a body, were reputed to be stupid. In the Chiliads of Erasmus, and the Adagia Veterum, many sayings record this failing; Cicero styles Rome, from the stupidity of the senators, an Abdera (Ep. ad Att. 4, 16); Juvenal calls Abdera itself, “the native land of blockheads” (percecum patriam, 10, 50: compare Martial, 10, 25; “Abderitanæ pectora plebis"). Much of this is exaggeration. Abdera was the limit of the Odrysian empire to the west (Thuc. 2, 29). It afterward fell under the power of Philip ; and, at a later period, was delivered up by one of its citizens to Eumenes, king of Pergamus (Duod. S. Fragm. 30, 9, 413, Bp.). Ünder the Romans it became a free city (Abdera libera), and continued so even as late as the time of Pliny (4, 11). It was famous for mullets, and other fish (Dorto, ap. Athen. 3, 37.—Archestr. ap. eund. 7, 124). In the middle ages Abdera degenerated into a very small town, named Polystylus, according to the Byzantine historian, Curopalate (Wasse, ad Thuc. 2, 97). Its ruins exist near Cape Baloustra. (French Strabo, 3, 180, § 3.)—II. A town of Hispania Baetica, east of Malaca, in the territory of the Bastuli Poeni, lying on the coast; Strabo calls the place Atómpa (157). Ptolemy 'A6óapa, Steph. B. "A6ómpa, a coin of Tiberius Abdera (Vaillant, col. 1, p. 63.—Rasche's Ler Rei Num. 1, 23). It was founded by a Phoenician colony, and is thought to correspond to the modern Adra. (Ukert's Geogr. 2, 351.) ABDER Us, a Locrian, armour-bearer of Hercules; torn to pieces by the mares of Diomedes, which the hero, warring against the Bistones, had intrusted to his care. According to Philostratus (Icon. 2, 35), Hercules built the city of Abdera in memory of him. Abdias. Wid. Supplement. Abella, a town of Campania, northeast of Nola, founded by a colony from Chalcis, in Euboea, according to Justin (20, 1). i. ruins still exist in Arella Vecchua. Small as was Abella, it possessed a republican government, retaining it until subdued by the Romans; the inabitants Abellani, are frequently mentioned by ancient writers; the only fact worthy of record is, that their territory produced a species of nut, nuz Abellana or Arellana, apparently the same with what the Greek writers call kūpwov IIovrtków, 'Hoakaetoruków or AerTöv (Duoscor. 1, 179.-Athen. 2, 42). The tree itself is the kapúa IIovruko, and corresponds to the eorylus of Virgil, and the corylus Avellana of Linnaeus, class 21, (Fée, Flore de Virgile, 223.) Abellinum, I now Abellino, a city of the Hirpini, in Samnium; the inhabitants of which were called, for distinction' sake, Abellinates Protropi (Plin. 3, 2–

the Aciris; called Abellinum Marsicum. It is thought by Cluver (Ital. Antiq. 2, 1280) and D'Anville (Geogr. Anc. 57) to accord with Marsico Vetere. Abellio. Vid. Supplement. Abgårus, I. a name common to many kings of Edessa, in Mesopotamia; otherwise written Abagarus, Agbarus, Augarus, &c. The first monarch of this name (Euseb. H. E. 1, 13) wrote a letter to our Saviour, and received a reply from him (rid. Edessa). The genuineness of these letters has been much disputed among the learned. (Cave's Lit. Hist. 1, 2–Lardner's Cred. 7, 22.)—II. The name, according to some authorities, of the Arabian prince or chieftain who perfidiously drew Crassus into a snare, which proved his ruin; called "Akbapoc by Appian (B. P. 34), 'Apuduvno (Plut. Crass. 21), Aiyapoc (Dio Cass. 40, 20). Abia, I. the southernmost city of Messenia, on the eastern shore of the Messenian Gulf Pausanias (4, 30) identifies it with Ire, ‘Ipm, one of the places offer. ed by Agamemnon to Achilles (Il. 9, 292). Abia, together with the adjacent cities of Thuria and Pherae, separated from Messenia, and became part of the Achaean confederacy; afterward they again attached themselves to the Messenian government. At a later period, Augustus, to punish the Messenians for having favoured the party of Antony, annexed these three cities to Laconia. But this arrangement continued only for a short time, since Ptolemy and Pausanias include them again among the cities of Messenia.II. Nurse of Hyllus, in honour of whom Cresphontes changed the name of Ire to Abia. (Paus. 4, 30, 1.) Abir, a Scythian nation, supposed by the earlier Greeks to inhabit the banks of the Tanais. Homer is thought to allude to them, Il. 13, 6, where for dyavāv, some read 'Afftov re. By others they are supposed to be identical with the Macrobii. The name "A6tot is thought by Heyne (ad Il. l.c.) to allude to their living on lands common to the whole nation, or to their having a community of goods, or perhaps to their poverty, and their living in wagons. Curtius (7, 6) states, that these Abii sent ambassadors to Alexander with professions of obedience. But the Macedonians encountered no Abii; they only believed that they had found them. The name they probably had learned from Homer, and knew that they were a people to the north, forming part of the great Scythian race. Supposing themselves, therefore, on the banks of the Tanais, they gave the name Abri to the people, who had sent ambassadors, merely because they had heard tho’ the Abii dwelt on that river. Abila, or ABYLA, I. a mountain of Africa, opposite Calpe (Gibraltar), supposed to coincide with Cape Serra. It is an elevated point of land, forming a peninsula, of which a place named Ceuta closes the isthmus. Of the two forms given to the name of this mountain by ancient writers, that of Abyla is the more common. The name is written by Dionysius (Perieg. 336), 'A256m. According to Avienus (Ora Mart. 345), Abila is a Carthaginian or Punic appellative for “any lofty mountain.” This name appears to have passed over into Europe, and to have been applied, with slight alteration of form, to the opposite mountain, the rock of Gibraltar. Eustathius (ad Duomys. P. 64) informs us that in his time the latter mountain was named Calpe by the Barbarians, but Aliba by the Greeks; and that the true Abila, on the African side, was calied Abenna by the natives, by the Greeks Kvvnymruki At what time the present Gibraltar began to be called Calpe, is difficult to determine; probably long antecedent to the age of Eustathius. Calpe itself is only Aliba shortened, and pronounced with a strong Oriental aspirate. In the word Aliba we likewise detect the root of Alp, or, rather, the term itself, which may be traced directly to the Celtic radical Ali. The

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conspicuous place in the Greek mythology. (Wid. Herculis Columnae, and Mediterraneum Mare.)—II. A city of Palestine, 12 miles east of Gadara (Euseb. v. 'Abez. 'Autréâcov). Ptolemy is supposed to refer to it under the name Abida, an error probably of copyists. (Mannert, 6, 1,323.)—III. A city of Caelesyria, now Bellimas, in a mountainous country, about 18 miles northwest of Damascus. Ptolemy gives it the common name 'A617.a. Josephus calls it’Abeza, and also 'A6ežuaxéa, the latter coming from the Hebrew name Abel Beth Maacha, or Malacha (Reland, Palest., 520). AbileNE, a district of Coelesyria. (Vid. Abila III.)

ABIs AREs. Wid. Supplement. Abiti's Nus. Vid. Supplement. Abi, Kbius. Wid. Supplement.

ABNóba, according to Ptolemy (2, 11), a chain of mountains in Germany, which commenced on the banks of the Moenus, now Mayne, and, running between what are now Hesse and Westphalia, terminated in the present Duchy of Paderborn. Out of the northeastern part of this range, springs, according to the same authority, the Amisus, now Ems. Subsequent writers, however, seem to have limited the name Abnoba to that portion of the Black Forest where the Danube commences its course, and in this sense the term is used by Tacitus. A stone altar, with ABNOBA inscribed, was liscovered in the Black Forest in 1778; and in 1784, a pedestal of white marble was found in the Duchy of Baden, bearing the words DIANAE ABNOBAE. These remains of antiquity, besides tending to designate more precisely the situation of “he ancient Mons Abnoba, settle also the orthography of the name, which some commentators incorrectly write Arnoba. (Compare La Germanic de Tacute, par Panckouke, p. 4, and the Atlas, Planche deuxième.)

Abonitichos, a small town and harbour of Paphlagonia southeast of the promontory Carambis. It was the birthplace of an impostor who assumed the character of AEsculapius. Lucian (Pseud. 58) states, that he petitioned the Roman emperor to change the name of his native city to Ionopolis, and that the request of the impostor was actually granted. The modern name Ineboli is only a corruption of Ionopolis. (Marcian, Peripl., p. 72–Steph. B.)

AborigiNEs, a name given by the Roman writers to the primitive race, who, blending with the Siculi, founded subsequently the nation of the Latins. The name is equivalent to the Greek airóxfloves, as indicating an indigenous race. According to the most credible traditions, they dwelt originally around Mount Velino, and the Lake Fucinus, now Celano, extending as far as Carseoli, and towards Reate. This was Cato's account (Dionys. H. 2, 49); and if Varro, who enumerated the towns they had possessed in those parts (Id. 1, 14), was not imposed on, not only were the sites of these towns distinctly preserved, as well as their names, but also other information, such as writings alone can transmit through centuries. Their capital, Lista, was lost by surprise; and exertions of many years to recover it, by expeditions from Reate, proved fruitless. Withdrawing from that district, they came down the Anio, and even at Tibur, Antemnae, Ficulea, Tellena, and farther on at Crustumerium and Aricia, they found Siculi, whom they subdued or expelled. The Aborigines are depicted by Sallust and Virgil as savages living in hordes, without manners, law, or agriculture, on the produce of the chase, and on wild fruits. This, however, does not agree with the traces of their towns in the Apennines; but the whole account was, perhaps, little else than an ancient speculation on the progress of mankind from rudeness to civilization. The Aborigines are said to have revered Janus and Saturn. The latter taught them husbandry, and induced them to choose settled habitations, as the founders of a better way of life. Fo this ancient race, as has already been re

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marked, blending with a remnant of the Siculi, sprang the nation of the Latins; and between Saturn and the time assigned for the Trojan settlement, only three kings of the Aborigines are enumerated, Picus, Faunus, and Latinus. (Nicbuhr, Rom. Hist. 1,62, Cambr.) As to the name of this early race, the old and genuine one seems to have been Casci or Cassei (Saufcius in Serp. ad AEn. 1, 10); and the appellation of Aborigines was only given them by the later Roman writers. (Heyne, Ercurs. 4, ad AEn. 7.) Cluver, and others, have maintained the identity of the Aborigines and Pelasgi, a position first assumed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Mannert (9, 436) thinks, that the Pelasgi were a distinct race, who, on their arrival in Italy, united with the people in question, and that both became gradually blended into one race, the Etrurian. Some are in favour of writing Aberrigines, and refer to the authority of Festus, who so styles them as having been wanderers (ab, crro), when they took possession of that part of the country where they subsequently dwelt. In this Festus is supported by the author of the Origin of the Romans, but the opinion is an incorrect one. Abor RAs. Wid. Chaboras. Abraditas, a king of Susa, who submitted, with his army, to Cyrus, when he learned that his wife Panthea, who had been made prisoner by the latter, was treated by him with great kindness and humanity. He was subsequently slain in fighting for Cyrus. His wife, unable to survive his loss, slew herself upon his corpse. Cyrus erected a monument to their memory. (Xen. Cyrop. 5, 6, &c.) ABRINcatü1, a nation of Gaul, situate, according to the common opinion, on the western coast, north of the Liger, or Loire, and whose capital, Ingena, is supposed to coincide with Avranches (D'An. Geogr. Anc.— Cellar. Geogr. Ant. 1, 161, Schw.). If we follow Ptolemy, this people rather seem to have occupied what would now correspond to a part of Eastern Normandy, in the district of Ouche, and stretching from the vicinity of the Rule to the banks of the Seine (Mannert, 2, 167). Abro, I. an Athenian, who wrote on the festivals and sacrifices of the Greeks. His work is lost. (Steph. B. s. v. Bárm.)—II. A grammarian of Rhodes, who taught rhetoric at Rome in the reign of Augustus. He was a pupil of Tryphon. ...'", v.)—III. A grammarian, who wrote a treatise on Theocritus, now lost—IV. An Athenian, son of the orator Lycurgus. (Plut. Wit. X. Orat)—V. An Argive of most luxurious and dissolute life, who gave rise to the proverb, 'A6povoc Biog (Abrons vita). (Erasm. Chil. p. 487.) AbrocóMAs, I. a son of Darius, by Phrataguna, daughter of Otanes. He accompanied Xerxes in his Grecian expedition, and was slain at Thermopylae. (Herod. 7, 224.)—II. A satrap. (Wid. Supplement.) AbroN or HAbroN. Vid. Supplement. AbroNius, Silo, a Latin poet of the Augustan age, and the pupil of Porcius Latro. He wrote some fables, now lost." (Senec. Suasor. 2, 23.) Vossius says there were two of this name, father and son. ABRoNYchus. Vid. Supplement. Abrostól.A, a town of Galatia, on the frontiers of Phrygia, and, according to the Itinerary, twenty-four miles from Pessinus. It is recognised by Ptolemy (p. 120), who assigns it to Phrygia Magna. ABRöts, the wife of Nisus, king of Megaris. As a memorial of her private virtues, Nisus, after her death, ordered the garments which she wore to become models of female attire in his kingdom. Hence, according to Plutarch, the name of the Megarian robe dø46poua. (Quest. Graec. p. 294.) AbrotöNuM, a town of Africa, near the Syrtis Minor, and identical with Sabrata. (Vid. Sabrata.) Absinthii. Wid. Apsynthii.

Absyntines, islands at the head of the Adriatic, in the Sinus Flanaticus, Gulf of Quarnero; named, as tradition reported, from Absyrtus the brother of Medea, who, according to one account was killed here. (Hygin. 23.—Strabo,315.—Mela, 2, 7–Pliny, 3, 26.) Apollonius Rhodius (4, 330) calls them Brygeides, and states (p. 470) that there was in one of the group a temple erected to the Brygian Diana. Probably the name given to these islands was a corruption of some real apellation, which, though unconnected with the fable, still, from similarity of sound, induced the poets to connect it with the name of Medea's brother. '-o'-e principal island is Absorus, with a town of the same name. (Ptol. 63.) These four islands are, in modern geography, Cherso, Oscro (the ancient Absorus), Ferosina, Chao. (Cramer's Anc. Italy, 1, 137.) Absyntos, a river falling into the Adriatic Sea, near which Absyrtus was murdered. The more correct form of the name, however, would seem to have been Absyrtis, or, following the Greek, Apsyrtis ('Aovpric). Consult Grotius and Corte, ad Luc. Pharsal. 3, 190. Absyrtus ("Apuproo), a son of Æetes, and brother of Medea. According to the Orphic Argonautica (r. 1027), Absyrtus was despatched by his father with a large force in pursuit of Jason and Medea, when their flight was discovered. Medea, on the point of falling into the hands of the young prince, deceived him by a stratagem, and the Argonauts, having slain him, cast his body into the sea. The corpse, floating about for some time, was at last thrown up on one of the islands, thence called Absyrtides. According to Apollonius Rhodius (4,207), Absyrtus, having reached the Adriatic before the Argonauts, waited there to give them battle. Mutual fear, however, brought about a treaty, by which the Argonauts were to retain the fleece, but Medea was to be placed in one of the neighbouring islands, until some monarch should decide whether she ought to accompany Jason, or return with her brother. Medea, accordingly, was placed on an island sacred to Diana, and the young prince, by treacherous promises, was induced to meet his sister by night in order to persuade her to return. In the midst of their conference he was attacked and slain by Jason, who lay concealed near the spot, and had concerted this scheme in accordance with the wishes of Medea. The body was interred in the island. Both these accounts differ from the common one, which makes Medea to have taken her brother with her in her flight, and to have torn him in pieces to stop her father's pursuit, scattering the limbs of the }. prince on the probable route of her parent. his last account makes the murder of Absyrtus to have taken place near Tomi, on the Euxine, and hence the name given to that city from the Greek Touis, sectio; just as Absyrtus, or Apsyrtus, is said to have been so called from diró and qipao. (Hygin. 23.−Apollod. 1, 9, 24.—Cic. N. D. 3, 19.—Orid, Trist. 3, 9, 11.Heyne, ad Apollod. l. c.) According to the Orphic Poem, Absyrtus was killed on the banks of the Phasis, in Colchis. Abulites. Wid. Supplement. Aburia GENs. Wid. Supplement. Abu RNus Valens. Vid. Supplement. Abus, a river of Britain, now the Humber. Camden (Brit., p. 634) derives the ancient name from the old British word Aber, denoting the mouth of a river, or an estuary. The appellation will suit the Humber extremely well, as it is rendered a broad estuary by the waters of the Ouse. AbvdāNus, I. a pupil of Berosus, flourished 268 B.C. He wrote in Greek an historical account of the Chaldeans, Babylonians, and Assyrians, some fragments of which have been preserved to us by Eusebius, Cyrill, and Syncellus. An important fragment,

has been discovered in the Armenian translation of the Chronicon of Eusebius–II. A surname of Palaephatus. (Wud Palaephatus, IV) Abydos, I. a celebrated city of Upper Egypt, northwest of Diospolis Parva. Strabo (813) describes it as once next to Thebes in size, though reduced in his tlays to a small place. The same writer mentions the palace of Memnon in this city, built on the plan of the labyrinth, though less intricate. Osiris had here a splendid temple, in which neither vocal nor instrumental music was allowed at the commencement of sacrifices. Plutarch (de Is. et Os. 359, 471, Wytt.)

'makes this the true burial-place of Osiris, an honour

to which so many cities of Egypt aspired; he also informs us that the more distinguished Egyptians frequently selected Abydos for a place of sepulture. (Zoega, de Obel. 284.—Creuzer's Comment. Herod 1, 97.) All this proves the high antiquity of this city, and accounts for the consideration in which it was held. Ammianus Marcellinus states (19, 12) that there was a very ancient oracle of the god Besa in this place, to which applications were wont to be made orally and in writing. (Compare Euseb. H. E. 6, 41.) Abydos is now "ico of ruins, as its modern name, Madfuné, implics. The ancient appellation has been made to signify, by the aid of the Coptic, “abode, or habitation, common to many.” (Creuzer, l.c., 1, 100.)—II. An ancient city in Mysia, in Asia Minor, founded by the Thracians, and still inhabited by them after the Trojan war. Homer (Il. 2, 837) represents it as under the sway of prince Asius, a name associated with many of the earliest religious traditions of the ancient world (vid. Asia). At a later period the Milesians sent a strong colony to this place to aid their commerce with the shores of the Propontis and Euxine. (Strabo, 591–Thuc 8, 62.) Abydos was directly on the Hellespont, in nearly the narrowest part of the strait. This, together with its strong walls and safe harbour, soon made it a place of importance. It is re markable for its resistance against Philip the Younger of Macedon, who finally took it, partly by force, partly by stratagem. (Polyb. 16, 31.) In this quarter, too, was laid the scene of the fable of Hero and Leander. Over against Abydos was the European town Sestos; not directly opposite, however, as the latter was somewhat to the north. The ruins of Abydos are still to be seen on a promontory of low land, called Nagara-Bornou, or Pesquies Point. (Hobhouse's Jour. 2, 217, Am. ed.) Wheeler has rectified in this particular the mistake of Sandys (Voyage, 1,74), who supposed the modern castle of Natolia to be on the site of the ancient Abydos. The castles Chanāk-Kalessi, or SultanicKalessi, on the Asiatic side, and Chelit-Bawri, or Kelidir-Bahar, on the European shore, are called by the Turks Bogaz-Hessarleri, and by the Franks the old castles of Natolia and Roumelia. The town of Chanak-Kalessi, properly called Dardanelles, has extended its name to the strait itself (Hobhouse, 215). Over the strait between Abydos and Sestos, Xerxes caused two bridges to be erected when marching against Greece, and it was here that, seated on an eminence, where a throne had been erected for him, he surveyed his fleet, which covered the Hellespont, while the neighbouring plains swarmed with his innumerable troops. (Herod. 7,44.) The intelligent traveller above quoted remarks: “The Thracian side of the strait, immediately opposite to Nagara, is a strip of stony shore, projecting from behind two cliffs; and to this spot, it seems, the European extremities of Xerxes' bridges must have been applied, for the height of the o: cliffs would have prevented the Persian monarch from adjusting them to any other position. There is certainly some ground to believe, that this was the exact point of shore called from that circumstance Apobathra (Strabo, 591), since there is, within


clan side, except at the bottom of deep bays, the choice of which would have doubled the width of the passage. Sestos was not opposite to the Asiatic town, nor was the Hellespont in this case called the Straits of Sestos and Abydos, but the Straits of Abydos. Sestos was so much nearer the Propontis than the other town, that the ports of the two places were 30 stadia, or more than 3 1-2 miles from each other. The bridges were on the Propontic side of Abydos, but on the opposite quarter of Sestos; that is to say, they were on the coasts between the two cities, but nearer to the first than to the last.” (Hobhouse, l.c.) The ancient accounts make the strait in this quarter seven stadia, or 875 paces, broad, but to modern travellers it appears to be nowhere less than a mile across. AcAcAllis. Wid. Supplement. AcAcesium, a town of Arcadia, situate on a hill called Acacesius, and lying near Lycosura, in the southwestern angle of the country. Mercury Acacesius was worshipped here (Paus. 8, 36). Some make the epithet equivalent to undevog kakoú Trapatrioc, nullius mali auctor, ranking Mercury among the dei arerrunci (Spanh. ad Callim. H. in D. 143.−Heyne, ad Il. 16, 185). Acacius, I. a disciple of Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, whom he succeeded in 338 or 340. e was surnamed Mová99a2uoc (Luscus), and wrote a Life of Eusebius, not extant; 17 volumes of Commentaries on Ecclesiastes; and 6 volumes of Miscellanies. Acacius was the leader of the sect called Acacians, who denied the Son to be of the same substance as the Father. (Socr. Hist, 2, 4.—Epiph. Har. 72–Fabr. Bibl. Gr. 5, 19.-Care's Lit. Hist. 1, 206.)—II. A patriarch of Constantinople in 471, who established the superiority of his see over the eastern bishops. He was a favourite with the Emperor Zeno, who protected him against the pope. Two letters of his are extant, to Petrus Trullo, and Pope Simplicius. (Theodor. 5,32.—Care, 1,417.)—III. A bishop of Beroea, assisted at the Council of Constantinople in 381. (Theodor. 5, 32.)—IV. A bishop of Melitene, in Armenia Minor, present at the Council of Ephesus in 431, and has left in the Councils (vol. 3) a Homily against Nestorius (Nicephor. 16, 17.—Cave 1, 417).-W. A bishop of Amida, distinguished for piety and charity in having sold church-plate, &c., to redeem 7000 Persian prisoners on the Tigris, in Mesopotamia. His death is commemorated in the Latin Church on April 9th. (Socr. 7, 21– Fahr. Bibl. Gr. 5, 19.3 AcAcus. Wid. Supplement. AcADEMIA, I. a public garden or grove in the suburbs of Athens, about 6 stadia from the city, named from Academus or Hecademus, who left it to the citizens for gymnastics (Paus. 1, 29). It was surrounded with a wall by Hipparchus (Suid.); adorned with statues, temples, and sepulchres of illustrious men; planted with olive and plane trees; and watered by the Cephissus. The olive-trees, according to Athenian fables, were reared from layers taken from the sacred olive in the Erechtheum (Schol. QEd. Col. 730.-Paus. 1. 30), and afforded the oil given as a prize to victors at the Panathenaean festival (Schol. l. c.—Suid. v. Mopia). The Academy suffered severly during the siege of Athens by Sylla; many trees being cut down to supply timber for machines of war (Appian, B. M. 30). Few retreats could be more favourable to philosophy and the Muses. Within this enclosure Plato possessed, as part of his humble patrimony, a small garden, in which he opened a school for the reception of those inclined to attend his instructions (Diog. L. Wit. Plat.). Hence arose the Academic sect, and hence the term Academy has descended, though shorn of many early honours, even to our own times. The appellation Academia is frequently used in philosophical writings, especially in Cicero, as indicative of the Academic sect. In this


sense, Diogenes Laertius makes a threefold division of the Academy, into the Old, the Muddle, and the New. At the head of the Old he puts Plato, at the head of the Middle Academy, Arcesilaus, and of the New, La. cydes. Sextus Empiricus enumerates five divisions of the followers of Plato. He makes Plato founder of the 1st Academy; Arcesilaus of the 2d ; Carneades of the 3d ; Philo and Charmides of the 4th; Antiochus of the 5th. Cicero recognises only two Academies, the Old and New, and makes the latter commence as above with Arcesilaus. In enumerating those of the Old Academy, he begins, not with Plato, but Democritus, and gives them in the following order: Democritus, Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Parmenides, Xenophanes, Socrates, Plato, Speusippus, Xenocrates, Polemo, Crates, and Crantor. In the New, or Younger, he mentions Arcesilaus, Lacydes, Evander, Hegesinus, Carneades, Clitomachus, and Philo. (Acad. Quast. 4, 5.) If we follow the distinction laid down by Diogenes, and alluded to above, the Old Academy will consist of those followers of Plato who taught the doctrine of their master without mixture or corruption; the Middle will embrace those who, by certain innovations in the manner of philosophizing, in some measure receded from the Platonic system without entirely deserting it; while the New will begin with those who relinquished the more obnoxious tenets of Arcesilaus, and restored, in some measure, the declining reputation of the Platonic school. — II. A villa of Cicero near Puteoli (Pliny, 31, 2). As to the quantity of the penult in Academa, Forcellini (Ler. Tot. Lat.) makes it common. Bailey cites Dr. Parr in favour of its being always long in the best writers. Maltby (in Morell's Thes.) gives 'Akadmuta, and 'Akaðueta. Hermann (ad Aristoph. Nub. 1001) makes the penult of 'Akaðmuta short by nature, but lengthened by the force of the ac, cent, as the term was in common and frequent use. (Compare the remarks of the same scholar, in his work de Metris, p. 36, Glasg.) AcADEMUs, an ancient hero, whom some identify with Cadmus. According to others (Plut. Thes. 32), he was an Athenian, who disclosed to Castor and Pollux the place where Theseus had secreted their sister Helen, after having carried her off from Sparta; and is said to have been highly honoured, on this account, by the Lacedaemonians. From him the garden of the Academia, presented to the people of Athens, is thought to have been named (vid. Academia). AcAlANDRus, or AcALYNDRus, a river of Magna Græcia, falling into the Bay of Tarentum. Pliny (3, 2) places it to the north of Heraclea, but incorrectly, since, according to Strabo (283), it flowed in the vicinity of Thurii. The modern name, according to D'Anville, is the Salandrella; but, according to Mannert (9, 2, 231), the Roccanello. AcAMANTIs, I. a name given to the island of Cyprus, from the promontory Acamas. (Steph. B.)—II. An Athenian tribe. AcKMAs, I. a promontory of Cyprus, to the northwest of Paphos. It is surmounted by two sugarloaf summits, and the remarkable appearance which it thus presents to navigators as they approach the island on this side, caused them, according to Pliny (5, 31), to give the name of Acamantis to the whole island.—II. A son of Theseus and Phaedra. He was deputed to accompany Diomede, when the latter was sent to Troy to demand Helen. During his stay at Troy he became the father of Munitus by Laodicea, one of the daugh. |ters of Priam. He afterward went to the Trojan war, and was one of the warriors enclosed in the wooden

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kaupur, inflectio. This name more particularly applied to its mouth ; the true appellation in the interior was Boas. (Arrian, Per. M. Euz. 119, Blanc.) AcANThus, I. a city near Mt. Athos, founded by a colony of Andrians, on a small neck of land connecting the promontory of Athos with the continent. Strabo (Epit. l. 7,330) places it on the Singiticus Sinus, as does Ptolomy (p. 82), but Herodotus distinctly fixes

it on the Strymonicus Sinus (6, 44; 7, 22), as well as .

Scymnus (p. 646) and Mela (2, 3), and their opinions must prevail against the two authors above mentioned. Mannert (7,451) supposes the city to have been placed on the Singiticus Sinus, the harbour on the Sinus Strymonicus. On the other hand, Gail (Geogr. d’Horod. 2, 280. — Atlas, Ind. 2. — Anal. des Cartes, p. 21) makes two places of this name to have existed, one on the Strymonicus, the other on the Singiticus Sinus. Probably Erissos is the site of Ancient Acanthus. Ptolemy speaks of a harbour named Panormus, probably its haven (p. 82–Cramer's Anc. Greece, 1, 262—Walpole's Collect. 1, 225). The Persian fleet despatched under Mardonius, suffered severely in doubling the promontory of Athos; and Xerxes, to guard against a similar accident, caused a canal to be dug through the neck of land on which Acanthus was situated; through this his fleet was conducted. (Herod, 7, 22.) From the language of Juvenal (10, 173), and the general sarcasm of Pliny (5, 1, “portentosa Gracia, mendacua”), many regard this account of the canal as a fable, invented by the Greeks to magnify the expedition of Xerxes, and thus increase their own renown. But vestiges of the canal were visible in the time of Æiian (H. A. 13, 20); modern travellers also discover traces of it (Choiseul-Gouffier, Voy. Pittoresque 2, 2, 148. — Walpole, l. c.). — II. A city of Egypt, the southernmost in the Memphitic Nome. Ptolemy gives it a plural form, probably from the thorny thickets in its vicinity, àkavtat: Strabo (809) adopts the singular form, as does also Diodorus Siculus (1,97). Ptolemy places this city 15 mihutes distant from Memphis. It is the modern Dashur. AcARNAN Vid. Supplement. AcARNANIA, a country of Greece Proper, along the western coast, having Ætolia on the east. The natural boundary on the AEtolian side was the Achelous, but it was not definitely regarded as the dividing limit until the period of the Roman dominion. (Strab. 450.) Acarnania was for the most part a productive country, with good harbours (Scylar 13). The inhabitants, however, were but little inclined to commercial intercourse with their neighbours; they were almost constantly engaged in war against the AEtolians, and consequently remained far behind the rest of the Greeks in culture. Hence, too, we find scarcely any city of importance within their territories; for Anactorium and Leucas were founded by Corinthian colonies, and formed no part of the nation, though they engrossed nearly all its traffic. Not only Leucadia, indeed, but also Cephalenia, Ithaca, and other adjacent islands, were commonly regarded as a geographical portion of Acarnania, though, politically considered, they did not belong to it, being inhabited by a different race. (Manmert, 8, 33.) The Acarnanians and ...Etolians were descended from the same parent-stock of the Leleges or Curetes, though almost constantly at variance. The most important event for the Acarnanians was the arrival among them of Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus, who came with a band of Argive settlers a short time previous to the Trojan war, and united the inhabitants of the land and his own followers into one nation. His new territories were called Acarnania, and the people Acarnanians. The origin of the name Acarnania, however, is uncertain. It was apparently not used in the age of Homer, who is silent about it, though he mentions by name the AEtolians, Curetes,

or Taphians. According to some, it was derived from Acarnas, son of Alcmaeon (Strabo, 462.—Apollod. 3, 7, 7–Thuc. 2, 102.—Paus. 8, 24). But the remark just made relative to the silence of Homer about the Acarnanes seems to oppose this. More likely the appellation was grounded on a custom, common to the united race of wearing the hair of the head cut very short, dikapic, a intens., and keipo, in imitation of the Curetes, who cut their hair close in front, and allowed it to grow long behind (bul. Abantes). The AEtolians and Acarnanians were in almost constant hostility against each other, a circumstance adverse to the idea of a common origin. It is curious, however, that the AEtolians appear to have had no other object in view, in warring on their neighbours, than to compel them to form with them one common league; which they would scarcely have done towards persons of a different race. (Mannert, 8, 46.) This constant and mutual warfare so weakened the two countries eventually, that they both fell an easy prey to the Macedonians, and afterward to the Romans. The latter people, however, amused the Acarnanians in the outset with a show of independence, declaring the country to be free, but soon annexed it to the province of Epirus. The dominion of the Romans was far from beneficial to Acarnania; the country soon became a mere wilderness; and as a remarkable proof, no Roman road was ever made through Acarnania or AEtolia, but the public route lay along the coast, from Nicopolis on the Ambracian Gulf to the mouth of the Achelous. (Mannert, 8, 60.) The present state of Acarnania (now Carnua) is described by Hobhouse (Journ. 174, Am. ed.) as a wilderness of forests and unpeopled plains. The people of Acarnania were in general of less refined habits than the rest of the Greeks; and from Lucian's words (Dial. Meretr. 8, 227, Bip.), roupiakoç 'Akapwavloc, their morals were generally supposed to be depraved. Independently, however, of the injustice of thus stigmatizing a people on slight grounds, considerable doubt attaches to the correctness of the received reading, and the explanation commonly assigned to it. Guyetus conjectures 'Axapweig, and Erasmus, explaining the adage, favours this correction. (Compare Bayle, Dict. Hist. 1, 40.) The Acarnanians, according to Censorinus (D. N. 19), made the year consist of but six months, in which respect they resembled the Carians; Plutarch (Num. 19) states the same fact. (Compare Fabricu Menol. p. 7.)

AcARNAs and AMPhotéRus, sons of Alcmaeon and Callirhoe. Alcmaeon having been slain by the brothers of Alphesiboea, his former wife, Callirhoe obtained from Jupiter, by her prayers, that her two sons, then in the cradle, might grow up to manhood, and avenge their father. On reaching man's estate, they slew Pronous and Agenor, brothers of Alphesiboea, and, soon after, Phegeus her father. Acarnas, according to some, gave name to Acarnania; but vul. Acarnania. (Paus. 8, 24.)

AcAstus, son of Pelias, king of Iolcos in Thessaly. Peleus, while in exile at his court, was falsely accused by Astydamia, or, as Horace calls her, Hippolyte, the wife of Acastus, of improper conduct. The monarch, believing the charge, led Peleus out, under the pretence of a hunt, to a lonely part of Mount Pelion, and there, having deprived him of every means of defence, left him exposed to the Centaurs. Chiron came to his aid, having received for this purpose a sword from Vulcan, which he gave to Peleus as a means of defence. According to another account, his deliverer was Mercury. Peleus returned to Iolcos, and slew the monarch and his wife. There is some doubt, however, whether Acastus suffered with his queen on this occasion. He is thought by some to have been merely driven into exile. (Op. Met. 8,306.—Heroid, 13, 25.-Apollod. 1, 9, &c.—Schol. ad Apoll. Rh. 1, 224.)

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