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AERöPE, I. daughter of Catreus, king of Crete, and granddaughter, on the father's side, of Minos. She and her sister Clymene, having been guilty of incontinence, were delivered over, by their father, into the hands of Nauplius of Euboea, to be conveyed by him to foreign lands, and there sold into slavery. Nauplius, however, married Clymene, and sold merely Aerope. She was purchased by Plisthenes, son of Atreus, and became by him the mother of Agamemnon and Menelaus. Plisthenes, however, dying young, Atreus, his father, took Aérope to wife, and brought up Agamemnon and Menelaus as his own sons. Aérope subsequently was seduced by Thyestes, brother of Atreus, an act which was punished so horridly by the injured husband. (Vid. Atreus and Thyestes.) According to some authorities, Aérope was cast into the sea by Atreus. (Apollod., 3, 2, 3–Heyne ad Apollod., l. c.—Schol. in Eurip., Orest., 812.-Brunck ad Soph., Aj., 1255.)—II. Daughter of Cepheus, became the mother of Aeropus by the god Mars. She died in giving birth to her offspring. (Pausan., 8, 44.) AERöpus, I. son of Mars and Aérope. (Vid. Aérope II.)—II. Son of Temenus, who, with his two brothers, left Argos, and settled in Macedonia. Perdiccas, the youngest of the three, was the founder of the Macedonian royal line. (Herod., 8, 137—Compare Thucyd., 2, 99, and consult the article Macedonia) — III. A king of Macedonia, who succeeded, while yet an infant, his father Philip the First. The Illyrians havin made an inroad into Macedonia, and havin . successful at first, were afterward defeated by the Macedonians, the infant king being placed in his cradle in the rear of their line. o: 7, 2.)—IV. A regent of Macedonia during the minority of Orestes, son of Archelaus. He usurped the supreme power, and held it six years, from 409 B.C. to 394 B.C.— W. A mountain of Epirus, now Mount Trebeeshna, near the defile anciently called Stena Aoi, or “Gorge of the Aous.” On one of the precipices of this mountain stands the fortress of Clissura. (Consult Hughes' Travels, vol. 2, p. 272.) AEskcus, according to Ovid (Met, 11, 762, seqq.), a son of Priam and Alexirrhoe, who at an early age quitted his father's court and retired to rural scenes. He became enamoured of the nymph Hesperia; but she treated his suit with disdain, and, in endeavouring on one occasion to escape from him, lost her life by the bite of a serpent. Æsacus, in despair, threw himself headlong from a rock into the sea; but Tethys, pitying his fate, suspended his fall, and changed him into a cormorant.—A different account is given by Apollodorus. According to this writer, Æsacus was the son of Priam, by his first wife Arisba, and married Asterope, who did not long survive her union with him. His grief for her loss induced him to put an end to his existence. Alsacus was endued by his grandmother Merope with the gift of Prophecy; and he transmitted this art to his brother and sister, Helenus and Cassandra. Priam, having divorced Arisba that he might espouse Hecuba, and the latter having dreamed that she had brought forth a blazing torch, which wrapped in flames the whole city, AEsacus predicted that the offspring of this marriage would occasion the destruction of his family and country. On this account, the infant Paris, immediately after his birth, was exposed on Mount Ida. (Apollod., 3, 12, 5, seqq., and Heyne, ad loc.) AEs AR, an Etrurian word, equivalent to the Latin Deus, (Sueton., Wit. Aug., 97.) The lightning, having struck a statue of Augustus at Rome, effaced the letter C from the name of C.ESAR on the pedestal. The augurs declared that, as C was the mark of a hundred, and ESAR the came as Deus, the emperor had only a hundred days to spend on earth, after which he would be taken to the gods. The death of Augustus, soon after, was thought to have verified this prediction.

(Sueton., l. c.—Dio Cass., 56, 29.) Casaubon derives the Etrurian term just referred to from the Greek Aiga, “fate;” and Dickinson (Delph. Phaniciz., c. 11) from the Hebrew, comparing it also with the Arabic asara, “to create.” Lanzi (Saggio di Ling. Etrusc., vol. 3, p. 708), after quoting Casaubon's etymology, suggests the Greek form avoi, the same with Geoí, as the root. The Asi (or, more correctly, AEsir) of Scandinavian mythology will furnish, however, a more obvious and satisfactory ground of comparison. The term. As is equivalent to “Deus” or “God,” and the plural form is AEsir, “Gods.” Hence Asgard, or Asa-gard, the old northern term for “heapen.” It is curious to observe that Os in Coptic likewise signifies “God” or “Lord,” with which we may compare the Greek 6a-toc, “holy.” So, also, the earlier term for “altar” in the Latin language was asa. (Terent. Scaur., p. 2252, 2258.) In Berosus, moreover, the gods are termed Isi; and good deities or geniuses were called by the ancient Persians Ized. (Muller, Etrusker, vol. 2, p. 81.—Kanne, System der Indischen Mythen, p. 228.) AEskRA. Wid. Supplement. AEs&Rus, a river of Bruttium, on which Crotona was situate. It formed a haven, which, however incommodious compared with those of Tarentum and Brundisium, was long a source of great wealth to this city. as we are assured by Polybius (Frag., 10, 1). The modern name is the Esaro. (Compare Theocritus, Id., 4, 17.) AEschines, I. an Athenian philosopher, of mean birth and indigent circumstances, styled the Socratic (6 ×oxpartkóc) for distinction' sake from the orator of the same name mentioned below. He flourished during the fourth century B.C., and obtained instruction from Socrates, who honoured his ardent zeal for knowledge, and held him in high estimation. (Diog. Laert., 2, 60. — Senec., de Benef, 1, 8.) When Æschines addressed himself to the sage for the purpose of becoming his disciple, it was in the following words: “I am poor, but I give myself up entirely to you, which is all I have to give.” The reply of Socrates was characteristic: “You know not the value of your present.” After the death of his master, he jo to better his worldly condition, and, having borrowed a sum of money, became a perfumer. It appears, however, that he did not succeed in this new vocation; and, not paying the interest of the sum he had borrowed, he was sued for the debt. Athenaeus (13, p. 611, d) has preserved for us part of a speech delivered by Lysias on this occasion, in which he handles. Eschines with considerable severity, and charges him with never paying his debts, with defrauding a certain individual of his property, corrupting his wife, &c. Not being able to live any longer at Athens, he betook himself to Sicily, and sought to win the favour of the tyrant Dionysius. According to Lucian (de Parasit. --ed. Bup., vol. 7, p. 127), he accomplished his object by reading one of his dialogues, entitled Miltiades, to the tyrant, who liberally rewarded him. Plutarch (de Discr. amic. et adulat. —ed. Reiske, vol. 6, p. 248) informs us, that he had been strongly recommended to Dionysius by Plato, in a conversation which they had together subsequent to the arrival of AEschines, in which Plato complained to the tyrant of his neglecting a man who had come to him with the most friendly intention, that of improving him by philosophy. The statement of Diogenes Laertius, however, is directly opposite to this, for he informs us that Æschines was slighted by Plato, and introduced to the prince by Aristippus. #. remained in Sicily till the expulsion of Dionysius, and then returned to Athens. Here, not daring to become a public rival of Plato or Aristippus, he taught philosophy in private, and received payment for his instructions. He also composed orations and pleadings for others. Besides orations and epistles, Eschines wrote seven SoAESCHINES.

cratic dialogues in the true spirit of his master, on temperance, moderation, humanity, integrity, and other virtues. Their titles were, Mtz Tuijng, Kazz taç, AšíoYor, Aaraasa, AZRubussyc, Tm2av) isg, and ‘Pivov. Of these none remain. We have, indeed, three dialogues extant, which go under the name of Æschines, but the first and second are not his, and very probably the third also was never composed by him. (Meiners, Judicium de quibusdam Socraticorum reliquis.-Comtent. Soc. Goett., vol. 5, p. 45, 1782–Eischer, ad AEsch. Dial, p. 23, 49, 107, ed. 1786.) Their titles. are: I, IIept 'Aperjo, el Čačaktov. “Concerning virtue, and whether it can be communicated by instruction.” 2. Epw:íag, à Trept Tzoátov. “Eryxias, or concerning riches.” 3. "Aşioroc, ; Tept Javotov. “Axiochus, or concerning death.” This last is attributed by some to Xenocrates of Chalcedon, and, what Inakes it extremely probable that Xenocrates was the author of the piece, is the circumstance of its containing the word &zektpuovorpooc, for which Pollux cites the Axiochus of this very philosopher. Diogenes Laertius, moreover, informs us, that Xenocrates wrote a work on death, but the manner in which he speaks of this production does not seem to indicate that it had the form of a dialogue. A letter, ascribed to Æschines, is, in like manner, supposed to be the production of another writer. Æschines pretended to have received his dialogues from Xanthippe, the wife of Socrates; and Diogenes Laertius states that Aristippus, when reading them, called out, Tóflew aoi, Amara, Taira; “ where did you get these from, you thief!" Little reliance, however, can be placed on either of these accounts. The three dialogues ascribed to AEschines are found in the old editions of Plato, since that of Aldus, 1513. The Axiochus is given by Wolf, in the collection entitled Doctrina recte vipendi ac monendi, Basil., 1577 and 1586, 8vo. Le Clerc first published these dialogues separately, at Amsterdam, 1711, in 8vo. Horracus gave a new edition and a new Latin version at Leuwarde, 1718, in 8vo. Fischer published four oditions successively at Leipsic, in 1758, 1766, 1786, and 1788, 8vo. The last contains merely the text with an Index, so that the third is the most useful to the student. Fischer's editions are decidedly the best. The letter mentioned above was published by Sammet, in his edition of the letters of AEschines the orator.—II. An Athenian orator, born 397 B.C., sixteen years before Demosthenes. According to the account which AEschines gives of his own parentage, his father was of a family that had a community of altars with the race of the Eteobutada. Having lost his property by the calamities of war, he turned his attention, as the son tells us, to gymnastic exercises; but, being subsequently driven out by the thirty tyrants, he retired to Asia, where he served in a military capacity, and greatly distinguished himself. He contributed afterward to the restoration of the popular power in Athens. One of the orator's brothers served under Iphicrates, and held a command for three years, while another, the youngest, was sent as ambassador from the republic to the king of Persia. Such is the account of . Eschines himself (de male gesta leg., p. 47 and 48, ed. Steph.). That given by Demosthenes, however, in his oration for the crown, is widely different. According to the latter, the father of Æschines was originally a slave to a schoolmaster, and his first name was Tromes, which, upon gaining his freedom, he changed to Atrometus, in accordance with Athenian usage. His mother was at first named Empusa, an appellation which Demosthenes informs us was given to her on account of her habits of life, she being a common courtesan. This name was afterward changed to Glaucothea. (Demosth., de Coroma, p. 270, ed. Renske.) The statement of Demosthenes, coming as it does from the lips of a rival, might well be suspected of exaggeration; and as Eschines did not reply to the speech of his opponent, we

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know not how he might have met these disgracefu. charges. If, however, any inference is to be drawn from the feeble manner in which he replies to similar charges, made by the same orator on a difierent occasion, we should be led to suspect that they were, in some degree, based upon the truth. Nor, indeed, is it probable, that, with all the license allowed the ancient orators, Demosthenes would have ventured to make such assertions in the presence of the Athenian people if unsupported by facts. Suidas calls the mother of AEschines Tezeorpia, a metainer to the female priesthood in initiations. Photius (Biblioth., vol. 1, p. 20, ed. Bekker) says, that she was iépcia, “a priestess;" while another authority (Lucian, in Somn.—vol. 1, ed. Bip., p. 13) makes her to have been Tvustavuarpía, a kind of minstrel who beat the tabour in the feasts of Cybele. From all that we can learn of the early life of Æschines, it would appear, that, after having aided his father in the management of a school, he became clerk to one of the lower class of magistrates. Tired of this station, he attached himself to a company of tragedians, but was intrusted merely with third-rate characters. It is said that, on one occasion, when personating CEnomaus, he chanced to fall upon the stage, a circumstance which occasioned his disgraceful dismission from the troop. Hence the name of OEnomaus, which Demosthenes, in ridicule, applies to him. (Demosth., de Corona, 307, ed. Reiske.) On the other hand, AEschines himself states, that from early life he followed the profession of arms, served on many occasions with distinction, and had a crown decreed i. by the people for his meritorious exertions. It is more than probable that Eschines here selects the fairest parts of his career, and Demosthenes, on the contrary, whatever was calculated to bring him into contempt. Some ancient writers make him to have been a disciple of Isocrates and Plato, but others, with far more probability, assign him Nature alone for an instructress, and affirm that the public tribunals and the theatre were his only places of initiation into the precepts of the oratorical art. AEschines must have possessed strong natural talents to become as eminent as he did, and to be able to contest the prize of eloquence with so powerful a competitor as Demosthenes. It was a long time, however, before he became much known as a public speaker, and he was already advanced in life when he commenced taking part in the politics of the day. (Recherches sur la tie et sur les ouvrages d'Eschine, par l'Abbé Vatry. Mem. Acad. des Inscr., &c., vol. 14, p. 87.) When Æschines began his public career, the Athenians were engaged in a war with Philip of Macedon. The orator showed himself at first one of the most violent opposers of this monarch, and proposed sending ambassadors throughout Greece, in order to raise up enemies against him. He himself went in this capacity to Megalopolis, to confer with the general council of Arcadia. When the Athenians sent ten ambassadors to negotiate a peace with Philip, who had been at war with them on account of Amphipolis, AEschines, who was thought to be devoted to the public good, was one of the number. Demosthenes was a colleague of his on that occasion, and we have the express testimony of the latter in favour of the correctness and integrity which on this occasion marked the conduct of his rival. A change, however, soon took place. AEschines, on his return, after having at first strenuously opposed the projected eace, on the morrow as earnestly advised it. The gold of Macedon had, without doubt, been instrumental in producing this revolution in his sentiments, and we find him ever afterward a warm partisan of Philip's, and blindly seconding all his ambitious designs. From this period AEschines and Demosthenes became open antagonists. The latter, in concert with Timarchus, having meditated an impeachment of his rival for his conduct on another embassy, when he and four colleagues purposey wasted time in Macedonia, while Philip was prosecuting his conquests in Thrace, Æschines anticipated their attack by an accusation of Timarchus himself, and spoke with so much energy, that the latter either hung himself in despair, or, according to another authority, was condemned, and deprived of his rights as a citizen. Demosthenes, however, not intimidated by the blow, preferred his original charge against AEschines, and, according to Photius (Biblioth., vol. 1, p. 20, ed. Bekker), came so near accomplishing the object he had in view, that his rival was only saved by the active interference of a wealthy citizen named Eubulus, an open enemy of Demosthenes, and by the judges rising from their seats before the accusation was brought to a close. After many subsequent collisions, AEschines was compelled to yield to the patriotism and eloquence of his adversary. Their most famous controversy was that which related to the crown. A little after the battle of Cheronaea, Demosthenes was commissioned to repair the fortifications of Athens. He expended, in the

erformance of this task, thirteen talents, ten of which {. received from the public treasury, while the remaining three were generously given from his own private

urse. As a mark of public gratitude for this act of liberality, Ctesiphon proposed to the people to decree a crown of gold to the orator. AEschines immediately preferred an impeachment against Ctesiphon, alleging that such a decree was an infringement of the established laws of the republic, since Demosthenes still held some public offices, and his accounts had not therefore been settled, and besides, since he was not such a friend to the state as Ctesiphon had represented him to be, who had, therefore, put upon record documents of a false and erroneous character. Demosthenes, on whom the attack was virtually made, appeared in defence of the accused. This celebrated cause, after having been delayed for some time in consequence of the troubles attendant on the death of Philip, was at last brought to a hearing. Ability and eloquence was displayed on both sides, but the palm was won by Demosthenes; and his rival, being found guilty of having brought an unjust accusation, was obliged to undergo the punishment he had intended for Ctesiphon, and was banished from his country. It is stated by Photius (Biblioth, vol. 2, p. 493, ed. Bekker), that AEschines, when he left Athens, was followed and assisted by Demosthenes, and that, upon the latter's offering him consolation, he replied, “How shall I be able to bear my exile from a city, in which I leave behind me enemies more #. than it is possible to find friends in any other!"

lutarch, however, ascribes this very answer to Demosthenes, when his opponents made a similar offer to him as he was departing from Athens into exile. Æschines retired to Asia with the intention of presenting himself before Alexander; but the death of that monarch compelled him to change his views, and take up his residence at Rhodes. Here he opened a school of eloquence, and commenced his lectures by reading the two orations which had been the occasion of his banishment. His hearers loudly applauded his own speech; but when he came to that of Demosthenes, they were thrown into transports of admiration. “What would you have said,” exclaimed Eschines, according to the common account, “had you heard Demosthenes himself pronounce this oration " The statement of Photius, however, is different from this, and certainly more probable. The auditors of Æschines at Rhodes expressed, as he informs us, their surprise that a man of so much ability should have been overcome by Demosthenes; “Had you heard that wild beast (roi onpíov čkesvov),” exclaimed AEschines, “you would have ceased to be at a loss on this head” (el hkosaare roi, 3mptov čkesvov okk &v Đuiv roñro #irópmro. Phot, Biblioth., vol. 1, p. 20, ed. Bekker). He subsequently transferred his school from Rhodes to Samos, where

orations of Eschines, and it would seem that these were his sole remaining productions, even at an early period, since Photius states that it was customary to designate these speeches by the name of “the Graces of AEschines.” The most celebrated of these harangues is the one ostensibly directed against Ctesiphon, but in reality against Demosthenes. It is re. markable for order, clearness, and precision, and was selected by Cicero to be translated into Latin.—The Abbé Barthelemy makes the eloquence of Æschines to be distinguished by a happy flow of words, by an abundance and clearness of ideas, and by an air of great ease, which arose less from art than nature. The ancient writers appear to agree in this, that the manner of AEschines is softer, more insinuating, and more delicate than that of Demosthenes, but that the latter is more grave, forcible, and convincing. The one has more of address, and the other more of strength and energy. The one endeavours to steal, the other to force, the assent of his auditors. In the harmony and elegance, the strength and beauty of their language, both are deserving of high commendation, but the figures of the one are finer, of the other bolder. In Demosthenes we see a more sustained effort, in AEschines vivid, though momentary, flashes of oratory.—Besides the speeches above mentioned, twelve epistles are attributed to AEschines, which he is supposed to have written from Rhodes. Photius makes the number only nine, and states that they were called, from this circumstance, the Muses of AEschines. One of the best editions of AEschines is that of Wolf, containing also the orations of Demosthenes. It was first printed at Basle by Oporinus, afterward at the same lace in 1549 and 1572, at Venice in 1550, and at rankfort in 1604. The orations of Æschines are also contained in Reiske's excellent edition of the Greek Orators, Lips., 1770, &c., 12 vols. 8vo, and in the valuable London edition, recently published, of the works of Demosthenes and AEschines, 10 vols. 8vo, 1827. To these may be added the edition of Foulkes and Friend, Oron., 1696, 8vo, and that of Stock, Dublin, 1769, 2 vols. 8vo. These last two editions, however, contain merely the orations of AEschines and Demosthenes respecting the crown. The epistles were published separately by Sammet, Lips., 1771, 8vo. — III. The author of a harangue entitled Deliaca, which some have attributed to the orator Æschines. (Diog. Laert.)— IV. An Arcadian, a disciple of Isocrates. (Id.)—V. A Mytilenean, surnamed the scourge of orators, 6m ropoustarts. (Id.)—VI. A native of Neapolis, and member of the Academic sect, about B.C. 109. — VII. A native of Miletus, and orator, whose style of speaking is represented by Cicero as of the florid and Asiatic kind. (Cie., Brut, c. 95.)—VIII. An Athenian physician who cured the quinsy, affections of the palate, cancers, &c., by employing the cinders of excrements. (Plin., 28, 4.) —IX. A distinguished individual among the Eretrians, who disclosed to the Athenians the treacherous designs of some of his countrymen, when the former had marched to their aid against the Persians. (Herod., 6, 100.) AEschrion, I a Mytilenean poet, intimate with Aristotle. He accompanied Alexander in his Asiatic expedition. Consult Vossius, de Poet. Graec.—II. An Iambic poet of Samos. He is mentioned by Athenaeus (7,296, c, and 8, 335, c), and also by Tzetzes, in his scholia on Lycophron (r. 688–9). Some of his verses are preserved by Athenaeus and in the Anthology. (Compare Jacobs, ad Anthol., vol. 1, part 1, p. 385.) —III. A physician, preceptor to Galen. (Wid. Supplement.)—IV. A Greek writer, who composed a work on husbandry, &c., which is cited by Pliny, and also by Varro, R. R., 1, 1. AFschylus, I. a celebrated tragic writer, son of Euhorion, born of a noble family at Eleusis in Attica, in the fourth year of the sixty-third Olympiad, B.C.

AESCHYLUS.

and the Arundel Marbles.) Pausanias (1, 14) records a story of his boyhood, professedly on the authority of the poet himself, that, having fallen asleep while watching the clusters of grapes in a vineyard, Bacchus appeared to him, and bade him turn his attention to tragic composition. This account, if true, shows that his mind was, at a very early |. enthusiastically struck with the exhibitions of the infant drama. An impression like this, acting upon his servid imagination, would naturally produce such a dream as is described. To this same origin must, no doubt, be traced the common account relative to AEschylus, that he was accustomed to write under the influence of wine; and in confirmation of which Lucian (Demosth. Encom.— ed. Bip.—vol. 9, p. 144) cites the authority of Callisthenes, and Athenaeus (10, 33) that of Čo. The inspiration of Bacchus, in such a case, can mean nothing more than the true inspiration of poetry. (Mohnike, Litt. der Gr, und Röm., vol. 1, p. 359.) At the age of twenty-five, Eschylus made his first ublic attempt as a tragic author, in the 70th Olympiad,

.C. 499. (Suid. in Alaa.—Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, p. 21, 2d ed.) The next notice which we have of him is in the third year of the 72d Olympiad, B.C. 490, when, along with his two celebrated brothers Cynaegirus and Aminias, he was graced at Marathon with the praises due to pre-eminent bravery, being then in his 35th year. (Marm. Arund, No. 49-Wit. Anonym.) Six years after that memorable battle, he gained his first tragic victory. Four years after this was fought the battle of Salamis, in which Æschylus took part with his brother Aminias, to whose extraordinary valour the dpuateia were decreed. (Herod., 8, 93.−AElian, War. Hist., 5, 19.) In the following year he served in the Athenian troops at Plataea. Eight years afterward (Argument. ad Pers.; he gained the prize with a tetralogy, composed of the Persa, the Phineus, the Glaucus Potniensis, and the Prometheus Ignifer, a satyric drama (or, to give their Greek titles, the II*paat, queig, TŽaikos IIorweig, and IIpounted rupo 6poc). The latter part of the h; life is involved in much obscurity. (Compare Blomfield, ad Pers. Praef, p. xxii.-Id. ad Arg. in "..." p. xix. etxx.—Böckh, de Grac. Trag. Princip., c. 4, seqq.) That he quitted Athens and died in Sicily, is agreed on all hands, but the time and cause of his departure are points of doubt and conjecture. It seems that Æschylus had laid himself open to a charge of profanation, by too boldly introducing on the stage something connected with the mysteries. According to Clemens Alexandrinus, he was tried and acquitted of the charge (&v 'Apeio Túyo Kpuffeiç, oùTwo dopetothy, Tudetšac, aitov pus, usuviuévov.–Clem. Aler, Strom., 2.) The more romantic narrative of AElian (War. Hist., 5, 19) informs us, that the Athenians stood ready to stone him to death, when his brother Aminias, who interceded for him, dexterously dropped his robe and showed the stump of his own arm lost at the battle of Salamis. This act of fraternal affection and presence of mind had the desired effect on the quick and impulsive temper of the Athenians, and AEschylus was pardoned. But the peril which he had encountered, the dread of a multitude ever merciless in their superstitions, indignation at the treatment which he had received, joined, in all likelihood, to feelings of vexation and jealousy at witnessing the preference occasionally given to young and aspiring rivals, were motives sufficiently powerful to induce the proud-spirited poet to abandon his native city, and seek a retreat in the court of the munificent and literary Hiero, prince of Syracuse. (Wit. Anonym.— Pausan., 1, 2–Plut, de Eril., Op., vol. 8, p. 385, ed. Reiske.) This must have been before the second year of the 78th Olympiad, B.C. 467, for in that year Hiero died. The author of the anonymous life of Æschylus, which has come down to us, mentions, among other reasons for his voluntary banishment, a victory obtained

AESCHYLUS.

over him by Simonides, in an elegiac contest; and what is more probable, the success of Sophocles, who carried off from him the tragic prize, according to the common account, in the 78th Olympiad, B.C. 468. Plutarch, in his life of Cimon, confirms the latter statement. If so, AEschylus could not have been more than a year in Sicily before Hiero's death. The common account, relative to the cause which drove the poet from his country, is grounded upon an obscure allusion in Aristotle's Ethics, explained by Clemens Alexandrinus and Ælian. In §. ABschylus composed a drama, entitled Ætna, to gratify his royal host, who had recently founded a city of that name. During the remainder of his life, it is doubtful whether he ever returned to Athens. If he did not, those pieces of his, which were composed in the interval, o be exhibited on the Athenian stage under the care of some friend or relation, as was not unfrequently the case. Among these dramas was the Orestean tetralogy (Argument. ad Agamem.—Schol. ad Aristoph., Ran., 1155), which won the prize in the second year of the 80th Olympiad, B.C. 458, two years before his death. At any rate, his residence in Sicily must have been of considerable length, as it was sufficient to affect the purity of his language. We are told by Athenaeus, that many Sicilian words are to be found in his later plays. AEschylus certainly has some Sicilian forms in his extant dramas: thus Teóapatoc, stećatxuto, Teó4opot, usia

dow, Ald, &c., for petapatoc, uttatapitol, fueréopol, pleioov, ui/tep, &c. (Comp. Blomficlil, Prom. Vinct., 277, Gloss., and Böckh, de Trag. Gratc., c. 5.) The poet died at Gela, in the 69th year of his age, in the 81st Olympiad, B. C. 456. His death, if the common accounts be true, was of a most singular nature. Sitting motionless, in silence and meditation, in the fields, his head, now bald, was mistaken for a stone by an eagle, which happened to be flying over him with a tortoise in her claws. The bird dropped the tortoise to break the shell; and the poet was killed by the blow. It is more than probable, however, that this statement is purely fabulous, and that it was invented in order to meet a supposed so that he would receive his death from on high. The Geloans, to show their respect for so illustrious a sojourner, interred him with much pomp in the public cemetery.—AEschylus is said to have composed seventy dramas, of which five were satyric, and to have been thirteen times victor. The account of Pausanias, however, would almost imply a larger proportion of satyric dramas. In fact, considerable discrepance exists respecting the number of plays ascribed to Æschylus. Only seven of his trage. dies remain, together with fragments of others preserved in the citations of the grammarians, and two epigrams in the Anthology. The titles of the dramas. which have reached us are as follows: 1. Ilpountsic dequorno (Prometheus Vinctus). 2. ‘Extra Śri 676aç (Septem contra Thebas). 3. IIápaat (Persa). 4. 'Ayapuśuvøy (Agamemnon). 5. Xompápot (Choēphora). 6. Eislövtdeg (Eumenides). 7. 'Ikétudec (Supplices). A short account of each of these will be given towards the close of the present article. This great dramatist was the author of the fifth form of tragedy. (Vid. Theatrum.) He added a second actor to the locutor of Thespis and Phrynichus, and thus introduced the dialogue. He abridged the immoderate length of the choral odes, making them more subservient to the main interest of the plot, and expanded the short episodes into scenes of competent extent. To these improvements in the economy of the drama, he added the decorations of art in its exhibition. . . A regular stage (Vitrur., Praef, lib. 7), with appropriate scenery, was erected; the actors were furnished with becoming dresses, and raised to the stature of the heroes represented by the thick-soled cothurnus (Horat., Ep. ad Pis., 280); while the face was brought to the heroic cast by a mask of proportionate size and stronglymarked character, which was also so contrived as to give power aud distinctness to the voice. He paid great attention to the choral dances, and invented several figure-dances himself. Among his other improvements is mentioned the introduction of a practice, which subsequently became established as a fixed and essential rule, the removal of all deeds of bloodshed and murder from the public view (Philostr., Wit. Apollon., 6, 11), a rule only violated on one occasion, namely, by Sophocles in his play of the Ajax. In short, so many and so important were the alterations and additions of AEschylus, that he was considered by the Athenians as the Father of Tragedy (Philostr., l. c.), and, as a mark of distinguished honour paid to his merits, they passed a decree, after his death, that a chorus should be allowed to any poet who chose to re-exhibit the dramas of AEschylus. (Philostr., l.c.)

Aristophanes alludes to this custom of re-exhibiting

the plays of AEschylus in the opening of the Acharnians (p. 9, seqq.). Quintilian, however (10, 1), assigns a very different reason for this practice, and makes it to have been adopted for the purpose of presenting these dramas in a more correct form than that in which they were left by the author himself. What authority he had for such an assertion, does not now appear. In philosophical sentiments, AEschylus is said to have been a Pythagorean. (Cic., Tusc. Disp., 2, 9.) In his extant dramas the tenets of this sect may occasionally be traced; as, deep veneration in what concerns the gods (Agamem., 371), high regard for the sanctity of an oath and the nuptial bond (Eumen., 217), the immortality of the soul (Choēph., 321), the origin of names from imposition and not from nature (Agamem., 682.-Prom. Vinct., 84, 742), the importance of numbers (Prom. Vinct., 468), the science of physiognomy (Agamem., 797), the sacred character of suppliants (Suppl., 351. Eumen., 233), &c. AEschylus, observes Schlegel (Dram. Lit., p. 135, seqq.), must be considered as the creator of tragedy; it sprang forth from his head in complete armour, like Minerva from the brain of Jove. He clothed it as became its dignity, and not

seems to be proudly penetrated. He had lived to bo an eyewitness of the greatest and most glorious event of which Greece could boast, the defeat and destruction of the enormous hosts of the Persians under Darius and Xerxes, and had fought with distinguished valour in the combats of Marathon and Salamis. In the Persa, and the Seven against Thebes, he pours forth a warlike strain; the personal inclination of the poet for the life of a hero beams forth in a manner which cannot be mistaken. The tragedies of AEschylus are, on the whole, one proof among many, that in art, as in nature, gigantic proportions precede those of the ordinary standard, which then grow less and less, till they reach meanness and insignificance; and also that poetry, on its first appearance, is always next to religion in estimation, whatever form the latter may take among the race of men then existing. The tragic style of AEschylus is far from perfect (compare j. Praelect. in Eurip., p. 6), and frequently deviates into the Epic and the Lyric, elements not qualified to harmonize with the drama. He is often abrupt, disproportioned, and harsh. It was very possible that more skilful tragic writers might compose after him, but he must always remain unsurpassed in his almost superhuman vastness, since even Sophocles, his more fortunate and more youthful rival, could not equal him in this. The latter uttered a sentiment concerning him by which he showed himself to have reflected on the art in which he excelled., “Aeschylus does what is right, but without knowing it.” Simple words, which, however, exhaust all that we understand by a genius which produces its effects unconsciously. (Theatre of the Greeks, p. 114, scqq., 2d ed.)— It only remains to give a brief account of the tragedies of Æschylus which have renched us entire. 1. IIpoundevic dequé|rn, (“Prometheus in chains”). All the personages of this tragedy are divinities, and yet the piece, notwithstanding, carries with it an air of general interest, for it involves the well-being of the human race. The subject is Prometheus, punished for having been the

benefactor of men in stealing for them the fire from

only instructed the chorus in the song and the dance, the skies; or, to express the same idea in a moral but came forward himself as an actor. (Athenæus, 1, point of view, it is strength and decision of character 22.) He sketches characters with a few bold and |olio against injustice and adversity. In this fo. strokes. His plots are extremely simple. drama, which stands alone of its kind, we recognise,

e had not yet arrived at the art of splitting an action amid strength and sublimity of conception, a wild and into parts numerous and rich, and distributing their untutored daring, which betrays the rudeness of early complication and denouement into well-proportioned tragedy, and the infancy of the art. The scenery is steps. Hence in his writings there often arises a ces- awfully terrific: the lonely rock frowning over the sation of action, which he makes us feel still more by waves, the stern and imperious sons of Pallas and

his unreasonably long choruses. But, on the other hand, all his poetry displays a lofty and grave disposition. No soft emotions, but terror alone remains in him; the head of Medusa is held up before the petrified spectators. His method of considering destiny is extremely harsh; it hovers over mortals in all its gloomy magnificence. The buskin of Æschylus has, as it were, the weight of brass; on it none but gigantic forms stalk before us. It almost seems to cost him an effort to paint mere men; he frequently brings gods on the stage, particularly the Titans, those ancient deities who shadow forth the dark primeval powers of nature, and who had long been driven into Tartarus, beneath a world governed in tranquillity. In conformity with the standard of his dramatis personae, he seeks to swell out the language which they employ to a colossal size; hence there arise rugged compound words, an over-multitude of epithets, and often an extreme intricacy of syntax in the choruses, which is the cause of great obscurity. He is similar to Dante and

Styx holding up Prometheus to its rifted side while Vulcan fixes his chains, Oceanus on his hippogriff, the fury of the whirlwind, the pealing thunder, and Prometheus himself undismayed amid the warfare of the elements, and bidding defiance even to the monarch of the skies, present a picture pregnant with fearful interest, and worthy the genius of Æschylus. This drama was translated into Latin by the poet Attius, some fragments of whose version are preserved for us by Cicero (Tusc. Quaest., 2, 10). The question rela|tive to the remaining pieces of the Tetralogy, of which this play formed a part, may be seen discussed in Schütz's edition of AEschylus (vol. 5, p. 120, seqq.). –2. "Erra or 676ao (“The Seven Chiefs against Thebes"). The subject of the piece is the siege of Thebes, by the seven confederated chieftains, who had espoused the cause of Polymices against his brother Eteocles. It is said that AEschylus particularly valued himself on this tragedy, and certainly not without reason, both as regards the animation of the scenes that

Shakspeare in the peculiar strangeness of his imagina- are portrayed, the sublimity of the dialogue, and the tions and expressions, yet these images are not deficient strong delineations of character which it contains. in that terrible grace which the ancients particularly This drama has the additional merit of having given praise in AEschylus. The poet flourished exactly when birth to the Antigone of Sophocles, the Phoenissae of the freedom of Greece, rescued from its enemies, was Euripides, and the Thebaid of Statius. Besides the

in its first strength, with a consciousness of which he Siege of Thebes, AEschylus wrote three tragedies also

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