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tants that he appeared to have the direction of the
whole island. He had projected the foundation of a made use of an exordium and peroration.
new city, but the work was never executed. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 49, seq.) Cephalion, a Greek writer, whose native country is unknown. Suidas, it is true, makes him to have been born at Gergitha in Troas, but the lexicographer evidently confounds him with another writer named Cephalon. (Voss., Hist. Gr., 2, 12.) Cephalion is said to have lived during the reign of Hadrian, and to have been exiled to Sicily for some offence given to the emperor. He wrote an Abridgment of Universal History (Xivrouoc 'Ioroplkóc) from Ninus to the death of Alexander. It was in the Ionic dialect, like the work of Herodotus, and, like this also, was divided into nine books, each named after one of the Muses.
He composed also rhetorical declamations. His works |
are lost. (Photius, Cod, 68—vol. 1, p. 34, ed. Bekker.—Kuster, ad Suid., s. v.) Ceph Klon, a native of Gergitha in Troas, not to be confounded with the preceding. Cephalon wrote an historical work, entitled Trojan Events (Tpoirá). He appears to have been anterior to Alexander the Great, and is considered by Dionysius of Halicarnassus worthy of reliance as an historical writer. His work is lost. (Dion. Hal., Ant. Rom., 1,49, et 72.) Ceph Klus, I. the son of Deion, and a grandson of AEolus, was married to Procris, the eldest daughter of Erechtheus. They dwelt at Thoricos in Attica, and lived happily together, till curiosity to try the fidelity of his wife entered the mind of Cephalus. Feigning a journey of eight years, he disguised himself and came to Procris with a splendid jewel, which he offered to her on dishonourable terms. After much hesitation she yielded, when her husband discovered himself and reproached her with her conduct. She fled from him in shame, but they were soon after reconciled. Cephalus went constantly to the chase; and Procris growing suspicious, as she had failed herself, fancied that he was attracted by the charms of some other fair one. She questioned the slave who used to accompany him; and he told her, that his master used frequently to ascend the summit of a hill, and cry out, “Come, Nephela, come !” Procris went to the designated hill, and concealed herself in a thicket; and on her husband's crying, “Come, Nephela, come !” (which was nothing more than an invocation for some
das makes Cephalus to have been the first orlor that (Sutd., s. v. Kéðažoc.)—III. The father of Lysias the orator.
Ceph Eis, a name given to Andromeda as daughter
of Cepheus. (Ovid., A. A., 1, 193.) CEphènes, I. an ancient name of the Persians. (Vid. Persia.—Herodot., 7, 61.)—II. A name of the AEthiopians, from Cepheus, one of their kings. (Ovid, Met., 4, 764.—Gierig, ad loc.) |, Cepheus, a king of Æthiopia, father of Andromeda, by Cassiope. He was one of the Argonauts, and was | changed into a constellation after his death. (Ovid, Met., 4, 669.--Id., 5, 12.-Pausan., 4, 35.) CEPHIsia, a borough of Attica, at the foot of Mount Brilessus, and near the source of the Cephissus. It was the favourite residence of Herodes Atticus, who had a beautiful villa here. The modern name is said to be Kissia. Cramer, however, gives Cephissia. | (Aul. Gell., 18, 10. – Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 400.) CEphisopätus, I. a statuary of Athens, flourished about B.C. 372. Two works of his are spoken of by the ancients, a Mercury nourishing Bacchus when an infant, and one of a public speaker in the act of delivering an oration. (Plin., 34, 8, 19. — Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) — II. Another statuary, who flourished about Olym. 120. (Plin., 34, 8, 19. — Sillig, Dict. Art., s. v.) Cephisus and Cephissus, I. a celebrated river of Greece, that rises at the foot of Parnassus, close to Lilaca, and, after traversing the plains of Phocis and part of the Boeotian territory, empties into the Copa| ic Lake in the latter country. Hesiod compared it to a serpent, from the many sinuosities of its course. (Ap. Strab, 424.) The modern name is Mauro Potamo. According to the poets, the son of the rivergod Cephissus introduced the worship of the Graces | into Boeotia (vid. Orchomenus), and hence the peculiar attachment which they were said to have for the waters of this stream. (Vid. Gratiae.) — II. A river of Attica, generally distinguished by the name of At|ticus, to prevent its being confounded with the Cephissus which flowed near Eleusis. Strabo (400) affirms, that it took its source near the demus of Trine
cloud to interpose itself between him and the scorching meis, and, after flowing through the Attic plains and beams of the sun), she rushed forward towards her passing under the long walls, discharged itself into the husband, who, in his astonishment, threw his dart and sea near Phalerum : he adds, that in summer it was
unwittingly killed her. (Pherecydes, ap. Schol, ad Od., 11,321.) This legend is já with great variations, which it is not worth while here to enumerate. (Consult Hygin., Fab., 189. — Ovid, Met., 7, 661, seqq.—Pausan., 9, 19, 1.—Apollod., 3, 15, 1.—Anton. Lib., c. 41.) Cephalus, for his involuntary crime, was banished. He went to Thebes, which was at that time ravaged by a fox, which nothing could overtake, and he joined Amphitryon in the chase of it. His dog Laelaps ran it down; but, just as he was catching it, Jupiter turned them both to stone. (Apollod., 2, 4, 7.) Cephalus then aided Amphitryon against the Teleboans, and on their conquest he settled in the island named from him Cephallenia. This lastmentioned circumstance, however, is a mere coincidence of name. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 381, seqq.)—II. An Athenian orator, who flourished towards the end of the Peloponnesian war, and was one of those that contributed most to overthrow the rule of the thirty tyrants. Although he lived during a
nearly dry. In the CEdipus Coloneus it is described, however, as a perennial stream (v. 685, seqq.—Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 357.)—III. A river running near Eleusis. According to Sir W. Gell (Itinerary, p. 34), it is divided at present into many small branches, and often inundates the plain in its vicinity. | The modern name is said to be the Podhonista. — IV. A river of Argolis, flowing into the Inachus—V. A river in the island of Salamis. (Strabo, 424.)
CERAMIcus, I. now Keramo, a bay of Caria, north of the peninsula of Doris, receiving its name from the city of Ceramus in its vicinity. (Plin., 5, 29.)—II. One of the most considerable and important parts of the city of Athens. Its name was derived from the hero Ceramus (Pausan, 1,3), or perhaps from some potteries which were formerly situated there. (Herodotus, 5, 88. — Sundas, s. v. Kepautic.) It included probably the Agora, the Stoa Basileios, and the Poecile, as well as various other temples and public buildings. Antiquaries are not decided as to the genmust have been limited by the city walls, which, as we know, came close to the fountain Callirhoe or Enneacrounos. (Thucyd., 2, 15.) The breadth of the Ceramicus, according to Mr. Hawkins, being thus confined on one side by the walls of the city, and on the other by the buildings immediately under the acropolis, could not have exceeded one half of its length. It was divided into the outer and inner Ceramicus. The former was without the walls, and contained the tombs of those who had fallen in battle, and were buried at the public expense. (Schol., Aristoph. Equit., 772–plut., Vit. Syll.—Hesych., s. v. Kepauetkóc.) From Plutarch it appears, that the communication from the one Ceramicus to the other was by the gate Dipylum. (Hawkins's Topogr. of Athens, in Walp. Coll., p. 485.—Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 2, p. 315, seqq.) CERKMus, a small town and fortress of Caria, on the northern side of the Sinus Ceramicus, and a short distance to the east of Halicarnassus. The village of Keramo, at the present day, indicates the ancient site. (Strab., 611–Ptol., p. 119.) CERAsus (untis), a city of Pontus, on the seacoast, southwest of Trapezus. It was founded by a colony from Sinope in Paphlagonia, to which it paid a yearly tribute. It must not be confounded with Pharnacia. (Wid. Pharnacia.) Xenophon and the Greeks rested here for ten days on their retreat from Asia. (Anab., 5, 3, 5.) From this place, according to Pliny, Lucullus first brought cherries into Italy, A.U.C. 680, which were introduced 120 years after into Britain. Hence the Latin cerasus, “a cherry-tree,” and cerasum, “a cherry.” According to Tournefort, the country is hilly and the hills covered with forests, in which cherry-trees grow naturally. It is now Kerasoun. (Amm. Marcell., 22, 13–Plin., 15, 25.-Mela, 1, 19.) CERAUNII (or Acrocer AUNii) Montes, a chain of mountains stretching along the coast of northern Epirus, and forming part of the boundary between it and Illyricum. That portion of the chain which extended beyond Oricum, formed a bold promontory, and was termed Acroceraunia ('Akpokepainta), from its summits (ākpa) being often struck by lightning (kepavvóc). The modern name for the Ceraunian range is Monte Chimarra, and that of the Acroceraunian promontory is Cape Linguetta. The Greek and Latin poets are full of allusions to this dangerous shore. (Apollon., Arg., 4, 1216–Lycophr., 1016–Virg., AEm., 3, 506.—Hor., Od., 1, 3, 19.) It was much dreaded by the mariners of antiquity, from the belief that the mountains attracted storms. Augustus narrowly escaped shipwreck here when returning from Actium. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 94.) CERAUNus, a surname of one of the Ptolemies. (Vid. Ptolemaeus XV.) CERBERus, the famous dog of Hades, the fruit of Echidna's union with Typhon. He was stationed at the entrance of hell, as a watchful keeper, to prevent the living from entering the infernal regions, and the dead from escaping from their confinement. Orpheus lulled him to sleep with his lyre ; and Hercules dragged him from hell in the performance of his twelfth and last labour. (Wid. Hercules.) The poets differ in their descriptions of this fabled animal. Heiod (Theog., 312) assigns him fifty heads, calling him kiva Tevrmkovrakapmov. Sophocles (Trach., 1114) styles him "Auðov Tpíkpavov asížaka (“the three-headed dog of Pluto"), and in this last account the Latin poets generally coincide. Horace, however, calls him bellua centiceps (Od., 2, 13, 14), either by poetic amplification, or else in accordance with some Greek authority. (Compare the remarks of Tzetzes in his scholium on Lycophron, v. 678. § Küov Toi "Auðov, 3c oxel Åkarðv kepazóc.) Champollion traces a curious analogy between the Egyptian and Grecian mythology as regards the dog of Hades. “Le voisi
very stormy period, and although no one ever propo- eral extent and direction of this part of the ancient
sed or caused to be passed more laws than he did, yet city, since scarcely any trace remains of its monu
he never had any accusation brought against him, a ments and edifices; but we may certainly conclude,
remarkable fact in the history of Athens. We must from their researches and observations, that it lay en
not confound him with Cephalus, the father of Lysias, tirely on the south side of the acropolis. ... (Leake's
who came from Syracuse and settled at Athens. Sui- Topography of Athens, p. 101.) In this direction it
nage du séjour du suprême juge de l'Amenthi est annoncé par un piédestal, sur lequel se repose un animal monstrueux, mais dont les formes sont si déterminées qu'on ne peut y méconnaitre un hippopotame, amphibie redoubtable, dont les cavernes du Nil renfermaient un grand nombre. Ici c'est l'hippopotame femelle, qui, dans les tableaux astronomiques de Thebes et d'Esnéh, occupe dans le ciel même la place que les Grecs ont donnée à la grand ourse. Cette constellation était nommée le Chien de Typhon par les Egyptiens, et sa présence dans l'Amenthi (l'enfer) ne laisse pas douter que cet animal ne soit le type du chien Cerbère, qui, selon les mythes Grecs gardait l'entrée du palais d'Adès.” (Champollion le jeune, “Explication de la principale scene peinte dans des Papyrus funeraires Egyptiens.”—Bulletin des Sciences Historiques, &c., vol. 4, p. 351.) CercasóRUM, a city of Egypt, in the Memphitic nome, on the western bank of the Nile. It lay to the north of Memphis, and a short distance south of the spot where the Nile branched off into the Pelusiac and Canopic mouths. (Herod., 2, 15–1d., 17, 97.) The ancient Cercasorum is thought to answer to the modern Eksas, or Al Achsas. (Compare D'Anville, Mem. sur l'Egypte, p. 73.−Edrisii Africa, p. 426.) CERciNA (CERCINNA, Mela, 2, 7.-Strab., 574), a small island off the coast of Byzacium, in Africa, at the mouth of the Syrtis Minor, towards the northwest. It is now Kerkine. (Liv., 33, 48.--Tacit., Ann., 1, 53.−Plin., 5, 7.) CERciNIUM, a town of Macedonia, west of Amphipolis. It was situate at the mouth of the river Pontus, on a lake called Cercinitis palus. (Lit., 31, 41.) CERcöpes, a predatory race infesting Lydia during the reign of Omphale. They were overcome by Hercules. (Diod. Sic., 4, 31.) The legend connected with their name will be given, with some remarks upon it, under the article Melampyges, Cercyon and CercyöNes, a king of Eleusis, son of Neptune, or, according to others, of Vulcan. He obliged all strangers to wrestle with him ; and, as he was a dexterous wrestler, they were easily conquered and put to death. After many cruel victories of this kind, he challenged Theseus in wrestling, and was conquered and put to death by his antagonist. (Plut., Wit. Thes—Diod. Suc., 4, 59.—Hygin., 38.) Cercy RA (Képkvpa), the Greek form of the name Corcyra Latinized. (Wid. Corcyra.) CEREALIA, festivals in honour of Ceres; first instituted at Rome by Memmius the aedile, and celebrated on the 9th of April. Persons in mournin were not permitted to appear at the celebration; an therefore they were not observed in the year after the battle of Cannae. They were analogous to the Grecian Thesmophoria. (Wid. Thesmophoria.) CEREs (in Greek DEMETER, Amujrmp), daughter of Saturn and Rhea, was the goddess of grain and harvests. She is in fact, however, the same as the goddess of the earth, Mother-Earth (yń Pormp), whence some ancient system married her to Jupiter, the god of the heavens, and hence in Hesiod (Theog., 454, 912) she is said to have become by this deity the mother of Proserpina (Persephone). In Homer she is but slightly mentioned (Ill., 5,500–0d., 5, 125), and she does not appear among the gods on Olympus. She seems to have been early distinguished from the goddess called Earth, and to have been thenceforth regarded as the protectress of the growing corn and of agriculture in general. The most celebrated, event in the history of Ceres is the carrying off of her daugh: ter Proserpina by Hades or Pluto, and the search of the goddess after her throughout the whole world. It is noticed by Hesiod (Theog., 914); but the Homeric hymn in her honour contains perhaps the earliest narrative of this event, which, though apparently unknown to Homer himself, became a favourite theme with succeeding poets, after whom Ovid has related it (Met, 5, 341–1d., Fast., 4, 417, seq.). Claudian also has sung it in a poem, of which, unfortunately, a portion is lost.—Proserpina, according to the author of the Homeric hymn, was in the Nysian plain with the oceannymphs gathering flowers. According to some accounts, Venus, Minerva, and Diana were the companions of their sister on this occasion. (Hygun., Fab., 146.—Claudian, Rapt. Pros., 2, 11, seqq.—Stat., Achill., 2, 150.) Others gave her the sirens as her attendants. (Apoll. Rh., 4, 896.) She plucked the rose, the violet, the crocus, the hyacinth, when she beheld a narcissus of surprising size and beauty, having a hundred flowers growing from a single root. Unconscious of danger, the maiden stretched forth her hand to seize the wondrous flower, when suddenly the wide earth gaped, Pluto arose in his golden chariot, and, seizing the terrified goddess, carried her off shrieking for aid, but unheard and unseen by gods or mortals save by Hecate, the daughter of Perses, who heard her as she sat in her cave, and by King Helius (the sun), whose eye nothing on earth escapes. So long as the goddess beheld the earth and starry heavens, the fishy sea, and the beams of the sun, so long she hoped to see her mother and the tribes of the gods; . the tops of the mountains and the depths of the sea resounded with her divine voice. At length her mother heard, and, frantic with grief, inquired for tidings of her lost daughter; but neither gods, nor men, nor birds, could give her intelligence. Nine days she wandered over the earth, with flaming torches in her hands; on the tenth Hecate met her, but could not tell who it was that had carried off Proserpina. Together they proceeded to Helius, and the Sun-god tells Ceres that the ravisher is Pluto, who, by the permission of her sire, had carried her away to be his
ueen. Incensed at the conduct of Jupiter, Ceres thereupon abandoned the society of the gods and came down among men. But now she was heedless of her person, and no one recognised her. Under the guise of an aged female, she came to Eleusis, and was employed, as a nurse for her infant son Demophoön, by Metanira the wife of Celeus, monarch of the place. Beneath the care of the goddess the child “throve like a god.” He ate no food, but Ceres breathed on him as he lay in her bosom, and anointed him with ambrosia, and every night hid him beneath the fire, unknown to his parents, who marvelled at his
rowth. It was the design of Ceres to make him immortal, but the curiosity and folly of Metanira deprived him of the intended gift. She watched one night, and, seeing what the nurse was doing to her child, shrieked with affright and horror. The goddess threw the infant on the ground, declaring what he had lost by the inconsiderateness of his mother, but announcing that he would still become a great and honoured man. She then disclosed her real character, and directed the people of Eleusis to raise an altar and temple to her without the city, on the hill Callichorus. The temple was speedily raised, and the mourning goddess took up her abode in it, but a dismal year came upon mankind; the earth yielded no produce; in vain the oxen drew the plough in the field; in vain the seed was cast into the ground, for Ceres would allow of no increase. Jove at length sent Iris to Eleusis to invite Ceres back to Olympus, but she would not comply with the call. All the other gods were sent on the same errand, but with as little success. Finding that there was no other remedy, and that the goddess would not allow the earth to bring forth until she had seen her daughter, Jupiter sent Mercury to Erebus to endeavour to prevail on Pluto to suffer Proserpina to return to the light. The monarch of the lower world yielded compliance, and, kindly addressing Proserpina, granted her permission to return to her mother. The goddess instantly sprang
up with joy, and heedlessly swallowed a grain of pomegranate which he presented to her. Mercury conducted his fair charge safe to Eleusis, and delivered her into the hands of Ceres. When their joy had a little subsided, Ceres anxiously inquired of her daughter if she had tasted anything while below ; for if she had not she would be free to spend her whole time with her father and mother; whereas, if but one morsel had passed her lips, nothing could save her from passing one third of the year with her husband, she should, i. pass the other two with her and the gods. Proserpinaingenuously confessed the swallowing of the grain of pomegranate, and then relates unto i. mother the whole story of her abduction. They pass the day in delightful converse. Hecate arrives to congratulate Proserpina, and henceforward becomes her attendant. Jove sends Rhea to invite them back to heaven. Ceres now complies, and fertility once more prevailed over the earth. Ceres thereupon taught “Triptolemus, horse-lashing Diocles, the mighty Eumolpus, and Celeus, leader of the people,” the mode of performing her sacred rites; and the goddess, after this, returned to Olympus.-Such is, in all robability, the oldest account of this celebrated event. n progress of time it underwent various alterations; the scene was, as usual, changed, and circumstances also were added or modified. In the beautiful versions of it given by the Latin poets, the scene is transferred to the grove and lake in the neighbourhood of Enna in Sicily, the nymph Arethusa gives intelligence of the ravisher, the torches of Ceres are lighted from AEtna, and Ascalaphus tells of Proserpina's .# plucked a pomegranate in the garden of Pluto, and having put seven of the seeds in her mouth. In this as in other legends, the fancy of poets, and vanity of the inhabitants of different places, have taken abundance of liberties with the ancient tale.—The meaning of the whole fable is evident enough. Proserpina signifies the seed-corn, which, when cast into the ground, lies there concealed; that is, she is carried off by the god of the lower world; it reappears; that is, Proserpina is restored to her mother, and she abides with her two thirds of the year. As, however, the seed-corn is not a third part of the year in the ground, it is probable that by the space of time which Proserpina was to spend with the god in the invisible state, was intended to be expressed the period between the sowing of the seed and the appearance of the ear, during which the corn is away; and which space of time in some species of grain, barley for instance, is about four months. The vanity of the people of the hungry soil of Attica made them pretend, that corn was first known, and agriculture first practised, in their country. They fabled, that the goddess gave to Triptolemus (Thrice-plougher), who occupies the place of Demophoön in the foregoing legend, her chariot drawn by dragons, in which he flew through the air, distributing corn to the different regions of the earth. (Callim., H. in Cer., 22.—Pausanias, 1, 14, 2.—Ovid, Met., 5,654.—Hygin., Fab., 147.)—Ceres, though of a gentle disposition in general, partook of the usual revengeful character of the gods, as may be seen by the legends of Stellio and Erysichthon. (Wid. Stellio and Erysichthon.)—The chief seats of the worship of Ceres and Proserpina were Attica, Arcadia (vid. Oncaeum), and the fertile isle of Sicily, which was given by Jupiter to his daughter on her day of unveiling, that is, on her marriage; as was also Thebes, according to the poet Euphorion. (Schol. ad Eurip., Phaen, 693–Müller, Orchom., p. 217.) The form of Ceres is copied from that of Juno. She has the same majestic stature and matronly air, but of a milder character. Her usual symbol are poppies, which sometimes compose a garland for her head, sometimes are held in her hand. She is frequently represented holding a torch, significant of her
wrote EPA, EPE, or HPH, would naturally be writ
ten TEPEX by the old AEolics; the Greeks always accommodating their orthography to their pronunciation; and not, like the English and French, encumbering their words with a number of useless letters. Ceres, however, was not a personification of the brute matter which composed the earth, but of the passive productive principle supposed to pervade it (Ovid, Fast., 1,673–Virg., Georg., 2,324); which, joined to the active, was held to be the cause of the organization and animation of its substance; from whence arose her other Greek name AHQ, “the inventress.” She is mentioned by Virgil (loc. cit.) as the wife of the omnipotent Father, o: or Jupiter, and therefore the same as Juno ; who is usually honoured with that title, and whose Greek name HPH signifies, as before observed, precisely the same. (Plutarch, ap. Euseb., Praep. Evang., 3, 1.) The Latin name Juno is derived from the Greek AIQNH, the female Zečc or Air; the Etruscan, through which the Latin received much of its orthography, having no D or Q in its alphabet. The ancient Germans worshipped the same goddess under the name of Hertha, the form and meaning of which still remain in our word Earth. The Greek title seems originally to have had a more general signification; for without the aspirate (which was anciently added and omitted almost arbitrarily) it becomes EPE; and by an abbreviation very common in the Greek tongue, PE, or PEE; which, pronounced with the broad termination of some dialects, become PEA ; and with the hissing one of others, PEX or RES; a word retained in the Latin, signifying properly matter, and figuratively every quality and modification that can belong to it. The Greek has no word of such comprehensive meaning; the old general term being in the refinement of their language rendered more specific, and appropriated to that principal mass of matter which forms the terraqueous globe, and which the Latins also expressed by the same word united to the Greek article to Apa-TERR.A. (Knight, Inquiry, &c., § 35, seqq. — Class. Journ., vol. 23, p. 228, and vol. 25, p. 39. — SainteCroir, Mystères du Paganisme, vol. 1, p. 159.)
territory), and the Ceretani Juliani, who possessed the Jus Latii. Their country answers to the district of Cerdagne in Catalonia. (Plin., 3, 3. — Petr. de | Marca, 1, 12.) CEstriNE, a district of Epirus, separated from Thesprotia by the river Thyamis. It was said to have taken its name from Cestrinus, the son of Helenus, having previously borne the appellation of Cammania. It is now called Philates. (Pausan, 1, 11– | Steph. Byz., s. v. Kaunavía.-Thucyd. 1, 46.) Ceth Egus, I. a Roman consul, A.U.C. 421. Ho was obliged to lay down his office on account of some informality in his election.—II. M. Cornelius, a distinguished Roman orator. Being sent as prietor to Sicily, he quelled a sedition of the soldiers in that island. He was called to the censorship before he had been consul, a thing not in accordance with Roman usage, and obtained this latter office six years subseqently, B.C. 204. He carried on the war against the Carthaginians in Etruria, and defeated Mago, who was coming with succours for Hannibal. (Liv., 27, 11– Id., 30, 18.)—III. C. Cornelius, proconsul in Spain, A.U.C. 552, defeated a numerous army of the Sedetani. Being elected consul A.U.C. 557, he gained a great victory over the Insubres, and on his return to Rome obtained the honours of a triumph. The people having afterward chosen him censor, he assigned distinct places to the senators at the public games. (Liv., 31, 49.-Id., 32, 30.-Id., 35, 9.)—IV. C. Cornelius, a Roman rendered powerful by his influence with Marius. He himself was wholly governed by a female named Praecia, who obtained for Lucullus the É." of Cilicia. (Plut., Wit. Lucull.)—W. C. ornelius, a Roman of the most corrupt and aban. doned character, and one of the accomplices of Catiline. He was strangled in prison by order of the sen. ate. (Sall., Bell. Cat.) CEto, a daughter of Pontus and Terra, who married Phorcys, by whom she had the three Gorgons, the Graeae, Echidna, and the serpent that watched the golden apples. (Hesiod., Theog., 270.) (Wid.
C.Eus, an incorrect form for Coeus or Coios. Coeus.)
CEyx, a king of Trachinia, and husband of Alcyone. He was drowned as he went to consult the oracle of Claros; and his wife, having been apprized of his fate in a dream, found his corpse on the shore. They were both changed into Halcyons. (Vid. Alcyone.)
CHABöRAs, a river of Mesopotamia, springing, according to Ptolemy, from Mount Masius, a little to the west of Nisibis, but, according to other authorities, a little east of Charro. These last are followed by D'Anville. It fell into the Euphrates near the town
of Circesium. Its modern name is the Khabour. In
CERINThus, a town of Euboea, in the vicinity of the Anabasis of Xenophon (1, 4, 19–Compare Ind.
Histiaea, and near a small river called Budorus. The name of Geronda, attached to a hamlet on the western coast, seems to recall that of Cerinthus. Ch., 574. — Plut., Quast. Gr. — Op., ed. Reiske, 7, p. 187.)
(Scymn., applied to many other rivers in antiquity. The Chavol.
Nom. to the edition of Zeune), it is called the Araxes, which appears to be an appellative term, as we find it
boras is called by Strabo (747) the Abborras; by Zosimus (3, 13) the Abóras. (Compare Amm. Marcell.,
CERNE, an island without the Pillars of Hercules, 14, 1, and 23, 5. — Mannert, Geogr., vol. 5, p. 268, on the African coast, mentioned by Hanno in his seqq.)
Periplus, as it is usually though incorrectly termed. Here he established a colony, and it was always the depôt of the Carthaginians on the Atlantic coast of Africa. Hanno says that it was the same distance from the Columns of Hercules that Carthage was. According to Rennell, the island of Cerne is the modern Arguin. Gossellin, however, makes this island to be the modern Fedala. (Vid. the account of Hanno's voyage under the article Africa.) CERETRNI, a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, at
Chabrias, a celebrated Athenian general, at first a disciple of Plato's, who distinguished himself in the military movements of Athens during the fourth century before our era, after the termination of the Pelo| ponnesian war. One of his first exploits was the aiding of Evagoras, king of Salamis, in the island of Cyprus, against the Persian arms. He was after this sent to the aid of the Boeotians, who had been attacked by Agesilaus, and he disconcerted the Spartan general by a manoeuvre hitherto unknown to the Greeks. His and rest their spears firmly on the other, covering their persons at the same time with their shields. Agesilaus, not daring to attack them in this position, drew back his forces into camp. A statue was erected to Chabrias in honour of this exploit, and he was represented in the posture just described. Some of the learned of modern times think that they recognise this statue in that of the “ Gladiator.” Chabrias afterward defeated near Naxos the fleet of the Lacedæmonians, and thus restored to Athens the control of the sea, which she had lost since the battle of AEgos Potamos. Subsequently to this he was accused of treason for having allowed Oropus to be surprised by the Theban exiles, but was acquitted notwithstanding the powerful efforts of his foes, and particularly of Callistratus. Finding a stay at Athens rather unsafe, he accepted the offer of Tachus, king of Egypt, who already had Agesilaus in his service, and accepted the command of his naval forces. Tachus, however, having been abandoned by Agesilaus, who sided with his son Nectanebis, Chabrias returned to Athens, and he was then sent into Thrace to take charge of the war against Chersobleptes. His operations, however, were not very successful in this quarter, owing to the disorganized state of the Grecian forces, in consequence of the failure of their pay. Not long after this, the social war, as it has been termed, broke out between the Athenians on the one side, and the Byzantines, together with the inhabitants of Chios, Rhodes, and Cos, on the other. The Athenians gave the command of their forces to Chares, and Chabrias went with him as second in authority, having charge of the fleet according to Diodorus Siculus, but, as Nepos informs us, in the character of a simple volunteer. They proceeded to attack Chios; and Chares, wishing to make an onset both by sea and land, gave the command of his ships to Chabrias. The latter succeeded in forcing an entrance into the harbour, but, not being followed by the remainder of the squadron, he was surrounded by the vessels of the cnemy, and fell bravely defending his ship, although he might have escaped had he felt inclined. Great honours were paid to his memory at Athens. Demosthenes says, that he took in the course of his life seventeen cities and seventy vessels; that he made three thousand prisoners, and brought one hundred and ten talents into the public treasury; that he erected also many trophies, but his foes not a single one for any victory over him. He adds, that the Athenians, during the whole time Chabrias was commander, never lost a single city, a single fortress, a single vessel, or even a single soldier. In this, no doubt, there is great exaggeration; still, however, he appears to have been a very able general, and one that would have equalled all who went before him, had he lived in more favourable times. Plutarch says, that Chabrias, though at other times scarcely anything could move him, was in the moment of action impetuously vehement, and exposed his person with a boldness ungoverned by discretion. We have his life by Cornelius Nepos, but it is a very meager one. Xenophon, in his Greek history, might have given us more details respecting him; but the partiality of this writer for Sparta prevented him from saying much in favour of the Athenian commander. (Corn. Nep. in Wit.—Perizon. ad AEl., W. H., 5, 1. – Diod. Sic. 15, 32, seqq.—Xen., Hist. Gr., 5, 1, 10, seqq.—Demosth. adv. Leptin., 17, &c.)
the foot of the Pyrenees, and to the east of the Vas- army, on this occasion, being hardly pressed by the foe,
cones. Pliny divides them into the Ceretani Augus- who had already become sure of victory, Chabrias or
tani (so named from Augustus having enlarged their dered his soldiers to plant one knee on the ground,
CHAEREMon, I. a tragic poet of Athens, who flourished about 338 B.C. The earliest testimony, perhaps, in relation to this poet, is the mention made of him by the comic writer Eubulus. (Athenaeus, 2, p. 43, c. — Compare Aristot., Poet., 2, 25. – Id., Rhet., 2, 23, et 29. – Theophrast., Hist. Plant., 5, 9, 5. — Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, 2d ed., p. xxxii.) — II. A philosopher and historian of Alexandrea. He accom
panied Ælius Gallus in his journey through *g: and was subsequently appointed librarian to the Serapeum. Being afterward called to Rome to preside over the education of Nero, he shared this office with Alexander of Ægae the peripatetic. His historical labours embraced the antiquities of Egypt, both sacred and profane. He wrote also a work on Hieroglyphics, which has unfortunately perished. He is the author, also, of one of the two systems relating to the Egyptian religion, which divided the opinions of the ancient world. According to him, this religion was nothing more than a species of sacred physics, in which the visible worlds (épéuevot kóquot) played a principal part. Iamblichus, on the other hand, maintained, that the Egyptians acknowledged one supreme and absolute intelligence. Perhaps both these philosophers were right: they may have spoken of different epochs— (Schöll, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 5, p. 177, seqq. — Creuzer, Symboluk, vol. 1, p. 383.) CHAERoNEA, a city of Boeotia, to the northeast of Lebadasa. It was about sixteen English miles from Elatea, twenty-seven from Thebes, and sixty-two from Athens (Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, 2d ed., p. 295, in notis), and was remarkable for the important military events which occurred in its territory, and also as being the birthplace of Plutarch. Pausanias is inclined to look upon this city as the Boeotian Arne mentioned by Homer (Il., 2,507–Pausan., 9, 40). According to some traditions, however, Arne and Midea had both been swallowed up by the waters of the Copaic Lake; but others considered the town of Acraephium as the Arne of the poet. (Strabo, 413.) Pausanias reports, on the authority of Hesiod, that the name of Chaeronea was derived from Chaeron, the son of Apollo. It was memorable for the defeat of the Athenians by the Boeotians, B.C. 447, and much more for their irretrievable defeat by Philip, B.C. 338. (Plut., Wit. Demosth., c. 24. — Strabo, 414.)— Pausanias observes, that no trophy was erected by Philip after this signal victory, as it was not the practice of the Macedonian kings. Several years after this place witnessed another bloody engagement, between the Romans, under the conduct of Sylla, and the troops of Mithradates, commanded by Taxiles and Archelaus, B.C. 86. Chaeronea is now called Kaprena, and is still a populous village, with many vestiges of the ancient town. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 2, p. 241, seqq.—Dodwell's Tour, vol. 1. p. 220–Gell, Itin., p. 221.) Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia, situate at the southern extremity of the Thracian Bosporus, nearly opposite to Byzantium or Constantinople. It was founded by a colony from Megara, about seventeen years prior to the settling of Byzantium. Chalcedon was called by the Persian satrap Megabyzus, in derision, the city of the blind, because the inhabitants had overlooked the superior position on the opposite side of the straits, where Byzantium was subsequently founded. (Herodot., 4, 144.) Strabo, however, ascribes this remark to an oracle of Apollo, which was received by the founders of Byzantium, and by which they were directed to select a spot for a city “opposite the blind” (ärevavtsov rán rvø2&v.—Strab., 320). But, whichever be the true account, one thing is very certain, that the imputation attempted to be cast upon the Chalcedonians was any other than just. When Chalcedon was founded, the commerce of Megara had not extended to the Euxine, and it would have been idle, therefore, to found a city, at that period, on the European side of the Bosporus, along which a steady current sets down from the Euxine Sea. It was only when traffic had spread to the shores of the Euxine that the site occupied at present by Constantinople became an important one, since the vessels from that sea would then be carried down directly by the current into the harbour of the last-mentioned city